Philosophy Compass 16 (2021)

Abstract
In this first part of a 2-part survey of Aristotle's epistemology, I present an overview of the features Aristotle attributes to gnōsis (cognition or knowledge), a term Aristotle applies to true cognitive states, whether rational or non-rational. Gnōsis is being in contact with reality. This, for Aristotle, happens when the soul takes on the form of the object known, which is what makes gnōsis factive. I present Aristotle’s account of non‐rational cognitive states, discussing perception and experience (empeiria) and the role they play in acquiring knowledge. I then cover Aristotle's understanding of belief (hupolēpsis) and opinion (doxa) and lay out why he thinks they cannot be excellences. I conclude with an overview of two of the most important and foundational excellences of reason, nous (comprehension or understanding) and epistēmē (scientific knowledge).
Keywords Knowledge  Epistemology  Perception  Understanding  Episteme  Nous  Belief  Opinion  Experience  Cognition
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Reprint years 2021
DOI 10.1111/phc3.12801
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References found in this work BETA

The Birth of Belief.Jessica Moss & Whitney Schwab - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (1):1-32.
Epistemology Idealized.Robert Pasnau - 2013 - Mind 122 (488):987-1021.
Aristotle: The Power of Perception.Tim Maudlin & Deborah K. W. Modrak - 1990 - Philosophical Review 99 (2):305.

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