Abstract
In this article, we discuss the current trend of authoritarianism in the Islamic world, especially as embodied in the institution of taqlid, whereby a lay person blindly follows a religious scholar. We will compare this to the mystical tradition of Ibn 'Arabî as well as the early esoteric Shî'ite tradition, where a much more "rebellious" type of Islam was offered and provided purviews of pluralism and universalism that challenge authoritarian closures of interpretation in relationship with God. By way of further comparison, we will also attend to the writings of some liberal and pluralistic thinkers in the Muslim world
Keywords Islam  Pluralism  Mysticism  Nietzche
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DOI 10.1007/s11153-007-9149-2
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References found in this work BETA

Twilight of the Idols ;.Friedrich Nietzsche - 1976 - Dover Publications.
Fear and Trembling.Søren Kierkegaard - 1941 - Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday.
Fear and Trembling.Søren Kierkegaard - 1986 - Cambridge University Press.
Twilight of the Idols.Friedrich Nietzsche - 1968 - Harmondsworth, Penguin.

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