Scientific Expertise: Epistemic and Social Standards—The Example of the German Radiation Protection Commission
Topoi 37 (1):55-66 (2018)
AbstractIn their self-understanding, expert committees solely draw on scientific knowledge to provide policy advice. However, we try to show, first, on the basis of material related to the German Radiation Protection Commission that much of their work consists in active model building. Second, expert advice is judged by criteria that diverge from standards used for judging epistemic research. In particular, the commitment to generality or universality is replaced by the criterion of specificity, and the value of precision gives way to epistemic robustness. Third, non-epistemic considerations are included in the reasoning—albeit hesitantly. Manageability and social robustness, understood as compatibility with widespread value attitudes in society, affect the content of the recommendations.
Similar books and articles
Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Expertise: Epistemic and Social Conditions of Their Trustworthiness.Martin Carrier - 2010 - Analyse & Kritik 32 (2):195-212.
Radiobiology and gray science: Flaws in landmark new radiation protections.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):167-169.
Economics of Radiation Protection: Equity Considerations.Thierry Schneider, Caroline Schieber, Louis Eeckhoudt & Christian Gollier - 1997 - Theory and Decision 43 (3):241-251.
Expertise, Argumentation, and the End of Inquiry.Axel Gelfert - 2011 - Argumentation 25 (3):297-312.
The Dynamics of Scientific Concepts: The Relevance of Epistemic Aims and Values.Ingo Brigandt - 2012 - In Uljana Feest & Friedrich Steinle (eds.), Scientific Concepts and Investigative Practice. Berlin: de Gruyter. pp. 75–103.
History of Epistemic Communities and Collaborative Research.K. Brad Wray - 2015 - In James D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition). Elsevier. pp. 867-872.
Epistemic justification in the context of pursuit: a coherentist approach.Dunja Šešelja & Christian Straßer - 2014 - Synthese 191 (13):3111-3141.
Epistemic Injustice in Research Evaluation: A Cultural Analysis of the Humanities and Physics in Estonia.Endla Lõhkivi, Katrin Velbaum & Jaana Eigi - 2012 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (2):108-132.
Consensus conference on environmental values in radiation protection: A report on building consensus among experts.Matthias Kaiser & Ellen-Marie Forsberg - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (4):593-602.
Think of the Children! Epistemic Justification and Cognitively Unsophisticated Subjects.Gregory Stoutenburg - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.
The Problem of Pluralistic Expertise: A Wittgensteinian Approach to the Rhetorical Basis of Expertise.Zoltan P. Majdik & William M. Keith - 2011 - Social Epistemology 25 (3):275 - 290.
Skepticism, contextualism, and the epistemic "ordinary".Nancy Daukas - 2002 - Philosophical Forum 33 (1):63–79.
Added to PP
Historical graph of downloads
Citations of this work
Facing the Credibility Crisis of Science: On the Ambivalent Role of Pluralism in Establishing Relevance and Reliability.Martin Carrier - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (4):439-464.
Epistemology and the Pandemic: Lessons from an Epistemic Crisis.Petr Špecián - 2022 - Social Epistemology 36 (2):167-179.
On Social Robustness Checks on Science: What Climate Policymakers Can Learn from Population Control.Li-an Yu - 2022 - Social Epistemology 36 (4):436-448.
What Does Good Science-Based Advice to Politics Look Like?Martin Carrier - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (1):5-21.
References found in this work
Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World.Michael Weisberg - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
The Scientist Qua Scientist Makes Value Judgments.Richard Rudner - 1953 - Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-6.
Science in Democracy: Expertise, Institutions, and Representation.Mark B. Brown - 2009 - MIT Press.
Trust, expertise, and the philosophy of science.Kyle Powys Whyte & Robert Crease - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):411-425.
Values and Objectivity in Science: Value-Ladenness, Pluralism and the Epistemic Attitude.Martin Carrier - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2547-2568.