Exploring the fruitfulness of diagrams in mathematics

Synthese 196 (10):4011-4032 (2019)
  Copy   BIBTEX


The paper asks whether diagrams in mathematics are particularly fruitful compared to other types of representations. In order to respond to this question a number of examples of propositions and their proofs are considered. In addition I use part of Peirce’s semiotics to characterise different types of signs used in mathematical reasoning, distinguishing between symbolic expressions and 2-dimensional diagrams. As a starting point I examine a proposal by Macbeth. Macbeth explains how it can be that objects “pop up”, e.g., as a consequence of the constructions made in the diagrams of Euclid, that is, why they are fruitful. It turns out, however, that diagrams are not exclusively fruitful in this sense. By analysing the proofs given in the paper I introduce the notion of a ‘faithful representation’. A faithful representation represents as either an image or as a metaphor. Secondly it represents certain relevant relations. Thirdly manipulations on the representations respect manipulations on the objects they represent, so that new relations may be found. The examples given in the paper illustrate how such representations can be fruitful. These examples include proofs based on both symbolic expressions as well as diagrams and so it seems diagrams are not special when it comes to fruitfulness. Having said this, I do present two features of diagrams that seem to be unique. One consists of the possibility of exhibiting the type of relation in a diagram—or simply showing that a relation exists—as a contrast to stating in words that it exists. The second is the spatial configurations possible when using diagrams, e.g., allowing to show multiple relations in a single diagram.



    Upload a copy of this work     Papers currently archived: 91,088

External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

Similar books and articles

Diagrams and proofs in analysis.Jessica Carter - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):1 – 14.
Diagrams as sketches.Brice Halimi - 2012 - Synthese 186 (1):387-409.
Diagrams in Geometry.Isabel Palomino Luengo - 1995 - Dissertation, Indiana University
Diagrams in Biology.Laura Perini - 2013 - The Knowledge Engineering Review 28 (3):273-286.
Peirce and the logical status of diagrams.Sun-joo Shin - 1994 - History and Philosophy of Logic 15 (1):45-68.
Metalogical Decorations of Logical Diagrams.Lorenz Demey & Hans Smessaert - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (2-3):233-292.
Visualizations of the square of opposition.Peter Bernhard - 2008 - Logica Universalis 2 (1):31-41.
Reasoning with Sentences and Diagrams.Eric Hammer - 1994 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 35 (1):73-87.
Why feynman diagrams represent.Letitia Meynell - 2008 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (1):39 – 59.


Added to PP

38 (#377,000)

6 months
6 (#252,172)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

References found in this work

The Shaping of Deduction in Greek Mathematics: A Study in Cognitive History.Reviel Netz - 1999 - Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
The Euclidean Diagram.Kenneth Manders - 2008 - In Paolo Mancosu (ed.), The Philosophy of Mathematical Practice. Oxford University Press. pp. 80--133.
Visual Thinking in Mathematics: An Epistemological Study.Marcus Giaquinto - 2007 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Realizing Reason: A Narrative of Truth and Knowing.Danielle Macbeth - 2014 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
An Inquiry into the Practice of Proving in Low-Dimensional Topology.Silvia De Toffoli & Valeria Giardino - 2014 - In Giorgio Venturi, Marco Panza & Gabriele Lolli (eds.), From Logic to Practice: Italian Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 315-336.

View all 14 references / Add more references