Stefano Canali
Politecnico di Milano
How is scientific data used to represent phenomena and as evidence for claims about phenomena? In this paper, I propose that a specific type of claims – evidential claims – is involved in data practices to define and restrict the representational and evidential content of a dataset. I present an account of data practices in the epidemiology of the exposome based on the notion of evidential claims, which helps unpack the approaches, assumptions and warrants that connect different stages of research. I identify three different strategies to generate different types of evidential claims in this case. The macro strategy, which individuates the dataset that serves as the initial evidential space for research. The micro strategy, which is used to generate evidential claims about the microscopic and individual component of target phenomena. The association strategy, that uses evidence from the other strategies to identify a dataset as representation of the different levels and relations of exposure and disease. Differentiating between these strategies sheds light on the multi-faceted landscape of biomedical research on environment and health; and the roles of data and evidence in the process of inquiry.
Keywords Research practice  Data  Evidence  Exposome  Philosophy of epidemiology  Big Data
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DOI 10.1016/j.shpsc.2019.101248
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Citations of this work BETA

What Is New About the Exposome? Exploring Scientific Change in Contemporary Epidemiology.Stefano Canali - 2020 - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2879 (17).
On Evidence Fiascos and Judgments in COVID-19 Policy.Stefano Canali & Saana Jukola - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-4.
Reframing the Environment in Data-Intensive Health Sciences.Stefano Canali & Sabina Leonelli - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 93:203-214.

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