Mark Bickhard
Lehigh University
The interactivist approach to development generates a framework of types of constraints on what can be constructed. The four constraint types are based on: (1) what the constructed systems are about; (2) the representational relationship itself; (3) the nature of the systems being constructed; and (4) the process of construction itself. We give illustrations of each constraint type. Any developmental theory needs to acknowledge all four types of constraint; however, some current theories conflate different types of constraint, or rely on a single constraint type to explicate development. Such theories will be inherently unable to explain important aspects of development.
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An Integration of Motivation and Cognition.Mark H. Bickhard - 2003 - In L. Smith, C. Rogers & P. Tomlinson (eds.), Development and Motivation: Joint Perspectives. Leicester: British Psychological Society. pp. 41-56.
Information, Representation, Biology.Mark H. Bickhard - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (2):179-193.

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