Degree complexity for a modified pigeonhole principle

Archive for Mathematical Logic 42 (5):403-414 (2003)
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. We consider a modification of the pigeonhole principle, M P H P, introduced by Goerdt in [7]. M P H P is defined over n pigeons and log n holes, and more than one pigeon can go into a hole. Using a technique of Razborov [9] and simplified by Impagliazzo, Pudlák and Sgall [8], we prove that any Polynomial Calculus refutation of a set of polynomials encoding the M P H P, requires degree Ω. We also prove a simple Lemma giving a simulation of Resolution by Polynomial Calculus. Using this lemma, and a Resolution upper bound by Goerdt [7], we obtain that the degree lower bound is tight. Our lower bound establishes the optimality of the tree-like Resolution simulation by the Polynomial Calculus given in [6].



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