Authors
John Earman
University of Pittsburgh
Gordon Belot
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Laura Ruetsche
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Abstract
Stephen Hawking has argued that universes containing evaporating black holes can evolve from pure initial states to mixed final ones. Such evolution is non-unitary and so contravenes fundamental quantum principles on which Hawking's analysis was based. It disables the retrodiction of the universe's initial state from its final one, and portends the time-asymmetry of quantum gravity. Small wonder that Hawking's paradox has met with considerable resistance. Here we use a simple result for C*-algebras to offer an argument for pure-to-mixed state evolution in black hole evaporation, and review responses to the Hawking paradox with respect to how effectively they rebut this argument.
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DOI 10.1093/bjps/50.2.189
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References found in this work BETA

The Arrow of Time in Quantum Gravity.Chuang Liu - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (4):619-637.

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The Case for Black Hole Thermodynamics Part I: Phenomenological Thermodynamics.David Wallace - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 64:52-67.
Emergence in Holographic Scenarios for Gravity.Dennis Dieks, Jeroen van Dongen & Sebastian de Haro - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):203-216.

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