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Real Science: What It is, and What It Means

Cambridge University Press (2000)

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  1. Global Climate Change: What has Science Education Got to Do with It?Ajay Sharma - 2012 - Science & Education 21 (1):33-53.
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  • Davidson’s Phenomenological Argument Against the Cognitive Claims of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - 2019 - Axiomathes 30:1-24.
    In this paper, I take a critical look at the Davidsonian argument that metaphorical sentences do not express propositions because of the phenomenological experience—seeing one thing as another thing—involved in understanding them as metaphors. According to Davidson, seeing-as is not seeing-that. This verdict is aimed at dislodging metaphor from the position of being assessed with the semantic notions of propositions, meaning, and truth. I will argue that the phenomenological or perceptual experience associated with metaphors does not determine the propositional contentfulness (...)
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  • The Unbearable Shallow Understanding of Deep Learning.Alessio Plebe & Giorgio Grasso - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (4):515-553.
    This paper analyzes the rapid and unexpected rise of deep learning within Artificial Intelligence and its applications. It tackles the possible reasons for this remarkable success, providing candidate paths towards a satisfactory explanation of why it works so well, at least in some domains. A historical account is given for the ups and downs, which have characterized neural networks research and its evolution from “shallow” to “deep” learning architectures. A precise account of “success” is given, in order to sieve out (...)
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  • Of Communities and Individuals as Regards Scientific Knowledge.Haris Shekeris - unknown
    In this paper I will be implicitly defending the following thesis: An individual X obtains knowledge of scientific claim p in virtue of being a member of a community A that regards claim p as knowledge. The thesis states is that a claim p only becomes scientific knowledge once it's been through a process of validation by a scientific community. This is meant to be contrasted with the claim that individuals first obtain scientific knowledge perception or inference, and then transmit (...)
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  • The End of Pure Science: Science Policy From Bayh-Dole to the NNI.Ann Johnson - 2004 - In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. pp. 217--230.
  • On the Status and Role of Instrumental Images in Contemporary Science: Some Epistemological Issues.Hermínio Martins - 2014 - Scientiae Studia 12 (SPE):11-36.
    The controversy over imageless thought versus picture thinking , with the recent reconsideration of model-based reasoning in the physical sciences is briefly examined. The main focus of the article is on the role of instrumentally elicited images in the sciences, especially in the physical sciences, with special reference to optics, experimental particle physics and observational astronomy, against the background of the civilization of digital images, though to some degree every scientific discipline is implicated. Imaging, today chiefly in the mode of (...)
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  • The Politicization of Science and Technology: Its Implications for Nanotechnology.Fabrice Jotterand - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):658-666.
    The development of nanotechnology intensifies challenges to the traditional understanding of how to pursue scientific and technological knowledge. Science can no longer be construed simply as the ideal of the quest for truth . Science has become the source of economic power and political power. In this paper, I argue that nanotechnology is a cardinal exemplar of “this politicization.” At the same time, I assert that this new scientific ethos offers the possibility of a better integration of ethical and philosophical (...)
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  • What Stimulates Researchers to Make Their Research Usable? Towards an ‘Openness’ Approach.Julia Olmos-Peñuela, Paul Benneworth & Elena Castro-Martínez - 2015 - Minerva 53 (4):381-410.
    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. We argue that what matters for society is research that can be absorbed by users. We define ‘openness’ as a willingness by researchers to make research more usable by external partners by responding to external influences in their own research practices. We ask what kinds of characteristics define those researchers who are more ‘open’ to creating usable knowledge. Our (...)
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  • Bias in Peer Review.Carole J. Lee, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Guo Zhang & Blaise Cronin - 2013 - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64 (1):2-17.
    Research on bias in peer review examines scholarly communication and funding processes to assess the epistemic and social legitimacy of the mechanisms by which knowledge communities vet and self-regulate their work. Despite vocal concerns, a closer look at the empirical and methodological limitations of research on bias raises questions about the existence and extent of many hypothesized forms of bias. In addition, the notion of bias is predicated on an implicit ideal that, once articulated, raises questions about the normative implications (...)
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  • The Maladies of Enlightenment Science.T. Wyatt - 2017 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 17 (1):51-62.
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  • Matters of Interest: The Objects of Research in Science and Technoscience. [REVIEW]Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Sacha Loeve, Alfred Nordmann & Astrid Schwarz - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (2):365-383.
    This discussion paper proposes that a meaningful distinction between science and technoscience can be found at the level of the objects of research. Both notions intermingle in the attitudes, intentions, programs and projects of researchers and research institutions—that is, on the side of the subjects of research. But the difference between science and technoscience becomes more explicit when research results are presented in particular settings and when the objects of research are exhibited for the specific interest they hold. When an (...)
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  • The Journey From Discovery to Scientific Change: Scientific Communities, Shared Models, and Specialised Vocabulary.Sarah M. Roe - 2017 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 31 (1):47-67.
    Scientific communities as social groupings and the role that such communities play in scientific change and the production of scientific knowledge is currently under debate. I examine theory change as a complex social interaction among individual scientists and the scientific community, and argue that individuals will be motivated to adopt a more radical or innovative attitude when confronted with striking similarities between model systems and a more robust understanding of specialised vocabulary. Two case studies from the biological sciences, Barbara McClintock (...)
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  • Science Transformed? Debating Claims of an Epochal Break.Kristin Lofthus Hope - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (2):228-231.
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  • John Ziman and Post-Academic Science: Consensibility, Consensus, and Reliability.Verusca Moss Simões dos Reis & Antonio Augusto Passos Videira - 2013 - Scientiae Studia 11 (3):583-611.
    Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir algumas das teses centrais do físico teórico e epistemólogo John Michael Ziman relativas à dimensão social da ciência. Ziman sustenta que, para um melhor entendimento das mudanças ocorridas na prática científica contemporânea, sobretudo das consequências geradas nas últimas décadas pelo que ele denominou de "ciência pós-acadêmica", é necessária uma abordagem que inclua aspectos não somente filosóficos, mas também sociológicos e históricos. Segundo Ziman, a supervalorização, na ciência pós-acadêmica, de valores ligados a uma cultura gerencial (...)
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  • Handling Anomalous Data in the Lab: Students’ Perspectives on Deleting and Discarding.Mikkel Willum Johansen & Frederik Voetmann Christiansen - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):1107-1128.
    This paper presents and discusses empirical results from a survey about the research practice of Danish chemistry students, with a main focus on the question of anomalous data. It seeks to investigate how such data is handled by students, with special attention to so-called ‘questionable research practices’ where anomalous data are simply deleted or discarded. This question of QRPs is of particular importance as the educational practices students experience may influence how they act in their future professional careers, for instance (...)
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  • We Are Not Witnesses to a New Scientific Revolution.Gregor Schiemann - 2014 - In A. Nordmann & H. Radder (eds.), Science Transformed? Debating Claims of an Epochal Break. Velbrück. pp. 31-42.
    Do the changes that have taken place in the structures and methods of the production of scientific knowledge and in our understanding of science over the past fifty years justify speaking of an epochal break in the development of science? Gregor Schiemann addresses this issues through the notion of a scientific revolution and claims that at present we are not witnessing a new scientific revolution. Instead, Schiemann argues that after the so-called Scientific Revolution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a (...)
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  • New Directions for Nature of Science Research.Gürol Irzik & Robert Nola - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 999-1021.
    The idea of family resemblance, when applied to science, can provide a powerful account of the nature of science (NOS). In this chapter we develop such an account by taking into consideration the consensus on NOS that emerged in the science education literature in the last decade or so. According to the family resemblance approach, the nature of science can be systematically and comprehensively characterised in terms of a number of science categories which exhibit strong similarities and overlaps amongst diverse (...)
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  • Replicability Crisis and Scientific Reforms: Overlooked Issues and Unmet Challenges.Mattia Andreoletti - 2021 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 33 (3):135-151.
    Nowadays, almost everyone seems to agree that science is facing an epistemological crisis – namely the replicability crisis – and that we need to take action. But as to precisely what to do or how...
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  • Teoria Crítica da Tecnologia e cidadania tecnocientífica: resistência, “insistência” e hacking.Yurij Castelfranchi & Victor Fernandes - 2015 - Revista de Filosofia Aurora 27 (40):167.
    Nos últimos anos, a noção de cidadania e suas novas formas e práticas foram criticadas, discutidas e reconceitualizadas por diversos autores. O trabalho de Andrew Feenberg é de grande valor no sentido de aplicar e fomentar tais discussões no campo dos Estudos Sociais da Ciência e da Tecnologia, bem como no da investigação de potencialidades e práticas da cidadania tecnocientífica. Neste trabalho, a partir de estudos de caso e conceitos advindos da área interdisciplinar das Science and Technology Studies e da (...)
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  • Promotion of Cultural Content Knowledge Through the Use of the History and Philosophy of Science.Igal Galili - 2012 - Science & Education 21 (9):1283-1316.
  • Science in a New Mode: Good Old (Theoretical) Science Versus Brave New (Commodified) Knowledge Production?Tarja Knuuttila - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2443-2461.
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  • C. S. Peirce and Intersemiotic Translation.Joao Queiroz & Daniella Aguiar - 2015 - In P. Trifonas (ed.), International Handbook of Semiotics. Berlin: Springer. pp. 201-215.
    Intersemiotic translation (IT) was defined by Roman Jakobson (The Translation Studies Reader, Routledge, London, p. 114, 2000) as “transmutation of signs”—“an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of nonverbal sign systems.” Despite its theoretical relevance, and in spite of the frequency in which it is practiced, the phenomenon remains virtually unexplored in terms of conceptual modeling, especially from a semiotic perspective. Our approach is based on two premises: (i) IT is fundamentally a semiotic operation process (semiosis) and (ii) (...)
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  • Search Regimes and the Industrial Dynamics of Science.Andrea Bonaccorsi - 2008 - Minerva 46 (3):285-315.
    The article addresses the issue of dynamics of science, in particular of new sciences born in twentieth century and developed after the Second World War (information science, materials science, life science). The article develops the notion of search regime as an abstract characterization of dynamic patterns, based on three dimensions: the rate of growth, the degree of internal diversity of science and the associated dynamics (convergent vs. proliferating), and the nature of complementarity. The article offers a conceptual discussion for the (...)
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  • Going Public: Good Scientific Conduct.Gitte Meyer & Peter Sandøe - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):173-197.
    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, (...)
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  • Organized Skepticism, Naïve Methodism, and Other -Isms.Jay A. Labinger - 2006 - Foundations of Chemistry 8 (2):97-110.
    The Science Wars have pitted defenders of science against those accused of attacking it with the weapons of constructivism and relativism. I argue that this defensive stance is in large part a consequence of two other -isms, organized skepticism and naïve methodism, that play a significant, if mostly unconscious, role in how scientists tend to think about science, and suggest that increased awareness of these -isms may help dissipate the perceptions of hostility.
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  • “The Ennobling Unity of Science and Technology”: Materials Sciences and Engineering, the Department of Energy, and the Nanotechnology Enigma. [REVIEW]Matthew N. Eisler - 2013 - Minerva 51 (2):225-251.
    The ambiguous material identity of nanotechnology is a minor mystery of the history of contemporary science. This paper argues that nanotechnology functioned primarily in discourses of social, not physical or biological science, the problematic knowledge at stake concerning the economic value of state-supported basic science. The politics of taxonomy in the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the 1990s reveals how scientists invoked the term as one of several competing and equally valid candidates for reframing (...)
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  • How Peer-Review Constrains Cognition: On the Frontline in the Knowledge Sector.Stephen J. Cowley - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Rumos da Epistemologia V. 11.Luiz Dutra & Alexandre Meyer Luz (eds.) - 2011 - Núcleo de Epistemologia e Lógica.
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  • Strukturwandel der Wissenschaft.Gregor Schiemann, Alfred Nordmann & Hans Radder (eds.) - 2014
    Mit Robotik, Digitalisierung, softwaregesteuerten Präzisionsinstrumenten und hochkomplexen Simulationsverfahren wird heute Technik zur treibenden Kraft der wissenschaftlichen Forschungspraxis. Gleichzeitig sieht sich die universitäre Forschung wachsenden gesellschaftlichen Einflüssen ausgesetzt und nähert sich selbst immer mehr der Industrieforschung an, woraus sich neue Fragen nach den Werten und der Objektivität der Wissenschaft ergeben. Derartig weitreichende Veränderungen haben zahlreiche Spekulationen darüber provoziert, ob sich in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte gegenwärtig ein Epochenbruch vollzieht. Dieser Sammelband setzt sich aus philosophischen, historischen und kulturwissenschaftlichen Perspektiven mit den Epochenbruchthesen auseinander, bestätigt (...)
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  • New Horizons on Robotics: Ethics Challenges.António Moniz - 2019 - In Maria Céu do Patrão Neves (ed.), Ethics, Science and Society: Challenges for BioPolitics. Lisboa, Portugal: pp. 57-67.
    In this chapter, the focus is on robotics development and its ethical implications, especially on some particular applications or interaction principles. In recent years, such developments have happened very quickly, based on the advances achieved in the last few decades in industrial robotics. The technological developments in manufacturing, with the implementation of Industry 4.0 strategies in most industrialized countries, and the dissemination of production strategies into services and health sectors, enabled robotics to develop in a variety of new directions. Policy (...)
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  • Transbiopolitics: Ontology and Metatheory of Managed Evolution.Valentin Cheshko & Kuz Oleh - 2021 - Epistemological studies in Philosophy, Social and Political Sciences 4 (1):1-11.
    Applied technological developments are represented by (1) genetic engineering as management tools of biological evolution and (2) socio-economic engineering as management tools of civilizational and socio-cultural development. This binary structure logically follows from the postulated three-module organization of the sustainable evolutionary strategy of the sentient human being. Naturphilosophy once again acquires the status of the basis of the theory of evolution in an explicit way. There is a system of metaphysical postulates and ontological categories derived from the anthropic principle of (...)
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  • International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching.Michael R. Matthews (ed.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the (...)
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  • Scientific Ethics: A New Approach.Marcello Menapace - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (4):1193-1216.
    Science is an activity of the human intellect and as such has ethical implications that should be reviewed and taken into account. Although science and ethics have conventionally been considered different, it is herewith proposed that they are essentially similar. The proposal set henceforth is to create a new ethics rooted in science: scientific ethics. Science has firm axiological foundations and searches for truth and knowledge. Hence, science cannot be value neutral. Looking at standard scientific principles, it is possible to (...)
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  • Science Education in the Light of COVID-19.Michael J. Reiss - 2020 - Science & Education 29 (4):1079-1092.
    In this position paper, I examine how the history, philosophy and sociology of science can contribute to science education in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. I discuss shortcomings in the ways that history is often used in school science, and examine how knowledge of previous pandemics might help in teaching about COVID-19. I look at the potential of issues to do with measurement in the context of COVID-19 to introduce school students to issues about philosophy of science, and I (...)
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  • Experimental Design: Ethics, Integrity and the Scientific Method.Jonathan Lewis - 2020 - In Ron Iphofen (ed.), Handbook of Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 459-474.
    Experimental design is one aspect of a scientific method. A well-designed, properly conducted experiment aims to control variables in order to isolate and manipulate causal effects and thereby maximize internal validity, support causal inferences, and guarantee reliable results. Traditionally employed in the natural sciences, experimental design has become an important part of research in the social and behavioral sciences. Experimental methods are also endorsed as the most reliable guides to policy effectiveness. Through a discussion of some of the central concepts (...)
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  • Constitutive Pluralism of Chemistry: Thought Planning, Curriculum, Epistemological and Didactic Orientations.Marcos Antonio Pinto Ribeiro & Duarte Costa Pereira - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (7):1809-1837.
  • Autonomy and Authority in Public Research Organisations: Structure and Funding Factors.Laura Cruz-Castro & Luis Sanz-Menéndez - 2018 - Minerva 56 (2):135-160.
    This paper establishes a structural typology of the organisational configurations of public research organisations which vary in their relative internal sharing of authority between researchers and managers; we distinguish between autonomous, heteronomous and managed research organisations. We assume that there are at least two sources of legitimate authority within research organisations, one derived from formal hierarchy and another derived from the research community ; the balance of authority between researchers and managers is essentially structural but is empirically mediated by the (...)
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  • On the Commodification of Science: The Programmatic Dimension.Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2463-2483.
  • Eco-Driven Chemical Research in the Boundary Between Academia and Industry.Jesper Sjöström - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2427-2441.
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  • Relevant Features of Science: Values in Conservation Biology.Esther M. van Dijk - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (9):2141-2156.
  • A Family Resemblance Approach to the Nature of Science for Science Education.Gürol Irzık, Gurol Irzik & Robert Nola - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (7-8):591-607.
    Although there is universal consensus both in the science education literature and in the science standards documents to the effect that students should learn not only the content of science but also its nature, there is little agreement about what that nature is. This led many science educators to adopt what is sometimes called “the consensus view” about the nature of science (NOS), whose goal is to teach students only those characteristics of science on which there is wide consensus. This (...)
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  • Examining the Social Benefits Principle in Research with Human Participants.David B. Resnik - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (1):66-80.
    The idea that research with human participants should benefit society has become firmly entrenched in various regulations, policies, and guidelines, but there has been little in-depth analysis of this ethical principle in the bioethics literature. In this paper, I distinguish between strong and weak versions and the social benefits principle and examine six arguments for it. I argue that while it is always ethically desirable for research with human subjects to offer important benefits to society, the reasonable expectation of substantial (...)
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  • Science, Respect for Nature, and Human Well-Being: Democratic Values and the Responsibilities of Scientists Today.Hugh Lacey - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (1):51-67.
    The central question addressed is: How should scientific research be conducted so as to ensure that nature is respected and the well being of everyone everywhere enhanced? After pointing to the importance of methodological pluralism for an acceptable answer and to obstacles posed by characterizing scientific methodology too narrowly, which are reinforced by the ‘commercial-scientific ethos’, two additional questions are considered: How might research, conducted in this way, have impact on—and depend on—strengthening democratic values and practices? And: What is thereby (...)
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  • Methodological Dilemmas and Emotion in Science.James W. McAllister - 2014 - Synthese 191 (13):3143-3158.
    Inconsistencies in science take several forms. Some occur at the level of substantive claims about the world. Others occur at the level of methodology, and take the form of dilemmas, or cases of conflicting epistemic or cognitive values. In this article, I discuss how methodological dilemmas arise. I then consider how scientists resolve them. There are strong grounds for thinking that emotional judgement plays an important role in resolving methodological dilemmas. Lastly, I discuss whether and under what conditions this reliance (...)
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  • Davidson’s Phenomenological Argument Against the Cognitive Claims of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - 2021 - Axiomathes 31 (3):341-364.
    In this paper, I take a critical look at the Davidsonian argument that metaphorical sentences do not express propositions because of the phenomenological experience—seeing one thing as another thing—involved in understanding them as metaphors. According to Davidson, seeing-as is not seeing-that. This verdict is aimed at dislodging metaphor from the position of being assessed with the semantic notions of propositions, meaning, and truth. I will argue that the phenomenological or perceptual experience associated with metaphors does not determine the propositional contentfulness (...)
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  • Science Education for Democratic Citizenship Through the Use of the History of Science.Stein Dankert Kolstø - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (8-9):977-997.
  • A Web of Controversies: Complexity in the Burgess Shale Debate. [REVIEW]Christian Baron - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (4):745 - 780.
    Using the Burgess Shale controversies as a case-study, this paper argues that controversies within different domains may interact as to create a situation of "complicated intricacies," where the practicing scientist has to navigate through a context of multiple thought collectives. To some extent each of these collectives has its own dynamic complete with fairly negotiated standards for investigation and explanation, theoretical background assumptions and certain peculiarities of practice. But the intellectual development in one of these collectives may "spill over" having (...)
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  • Commodified Science and Social Wellbeing.Angathevar Baskaran & Rebecca Boden - 2007 - AI and Society 21 (3):267-285.
    This paper explores the increasing trend towards the commodification of public research and development (R&D) and the impact of this on social wellbeing. In many developed countries, the changes introduced by governments to funding mechanisms for universities and public research institutions has led to a fundamental shift in the focus of public R&D. The focus has shifted from creating useful public, codifiable knowledge to creating a knowledge commodity driven by commercial imperatives. Although there may be an economic argument to be (...)
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  • Votes and Lab Coats: Democratizing Scientific Research and Science Policy: Wiebe E. Bijker, Roland Bal, and Ruud Hendriks: The Paradox of Scientific Authority: The Role of Scientific Advice in Democracies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009, 223pp, $32 HBMark B. Brown: Science in Democracy: Expertise, Institutions, and Representation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009, 354pp, $29 PBMassimiano Bucchi: Beyond Technocracy: Science, Politics and Citizens. Translated by Adrian Belton. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009, 106pp, €99.95 HBMichel Callon, Pierre Lascoumes, and Yannick Barthe: Acting in an Uncertain World: An Essay on Technical Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009, 287pp, $37 HBPhilip Kitcher. Science in a Democratic Society. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2011, 270pp, $28 HB. [REVIEW]Gürol Irzık & A. Faik Kurtulmuş - 2013 - Metascience 22 (1):45-61.
  • Centre and Periphery of Nano—A Norwegian Context.Kåre Nolde Nielsen, Trond Grønli Åm & Rune Nydal - 2011 - NanoEthics 5 (1):87-98.
    This work describes the nano field in Norway as currently emerging in the dynamics between two forms of nano research activities described along a centre-periphery axis. 1) There are strategic research initiatives committed to redeem the envisioned potential of the field by means of social and material reorganisation of existing research activities. This activity is seen as central as it is one of our premises that the standard circulating nano vision implies such a work of reorganisation. The fact that nano (...)
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