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  1. The Epistemology of Scientific Evidence.Douglas Walton & Nanning Zhang - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (2):173-219.
    In place of the traditional epistemological view of knowledge as justified true belief we argue that artificial intelligence and law needs an evidence-based epistemology according to which scientific knowledge is based on critical analysis of evidence using argumentation. This new epistemology of scientific evidence (ESE) models scientific knowledge as achieved through a process of marshaling evidence in a scientific inquiry that results in a convergence of scientific theories and research results. We show how a dialogue interface of argument from expert (...)
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  • Notes on the Cultural Significance of the Sciences.Wallis A. Suchting - 1994 - Science & Education 3 (1):1-56.
  • Going Public: Good Scientific Conduct.Gitte Meyer & Peter Sandøe - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):173-197.
    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, (...)
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  • Reviews. [REVIEW]Michael Redhead - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (3):309-311.
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  • Emotions Beyond Regulation: Backgrounded Emotions in Science and Trust.Jack Barbalet - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (1):36-43.
    Emotions are understood sociologically as experiences of involvement. Emotion regulation influences the type, incidence, and expression of emotions. Regulation occurs through physical processes prior to an emotions episode, through social interaction in which a person’s emotions are modified due to the reactions of others to them, and by a person’s self-modification or management of emotions which they are consciously aware of. This article goes on to show that there are emotions which the emoting subject is not consciously aware of. Therefore, (...)
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  • Experts Within Democracy: The Turner Version.Joseph Agassi - 2015 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 45 (3):370-384.
    Stephen Turner defends the sociopolitical role that experts—mainly but not only of the scientific kind—play in modern democratic society and explores means for increasing the rationality of their employment. Laudable though this is, at times Turner goes into more detail than democratic principles require; in his enthusiasm for rationality, he aims at levels of adequacy that are not always within the grasp of democracy.
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  • Normal Accidents of Expertise.Stephen P. Turner - 2010 - Minerva 48 (3):239-258.
    Charles Perrow used the term normal accidents to characterize a type of catastrophic failure that resulted when complex, tightly coupled production systems encountered a certain kind of anomalous event. These were events in which systems failures interacted with one another in a way that could not be anticipated, and could not be easily understood and corrected. Systems of the production of expert knowledge are increasingly becoming tightly coupled. Unlike classical science, which operated with a long time horizon, many current forms (...)
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  • On the Organism-Environment Distinction in Psychology.Daniel K. Palmer - 2004 - Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):317 - 347.
    Most psychology begins with a distinction between organism and environment, where the two are implicitly (and sometimes explicitly) conceptualized as flipsides of a skin-severed space. This paper examines that conceptualization. Dewey and Bentley's (1949) account of firm naming is used to show that psychologists have, in general, (1) employed the skin as a morphological criterion for distinguishing organisms from backgrounds, and (2) equated background with environment. This two-step procedure, which in this article is named the morphological conception of organism, is (...)
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  • Intentional Behaviorism Revisited.Gordon R. Foxall - 2008 - Behavior and Philosophy 36:113 - 155.
    The central fact in the delineation of radical behaviorism is its conceptual avoidance of propositional content. This eschewal of the intentional stance sets it apart not only from cognitivism but from other non-behaviorisms. Indeed, the defining characteristic of radical behaviorism is not that it avoids mediating processes per se but that it sets out to account for behavior without recourse to propositional attitudes. Based, rather, on the contextual stance, it provides definitions of contingency-shaped, rule-governed verbal and private behaviors which are (...)
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  • Computers and Knowledge: A Dialogical Approach. [REVIEW]Christian Brassac - 2006 - AI and Society 20 (3):249-270.
    Artificial intelligence researchers interested in knowledge and in designing and implementing digitized artifacts for representing or sharing knowledge play a crucial role in the development of a knowledge-based economy. They help answer the question of how the computer devices they develop can be appropriated by the collectives that manage the flow of knowledge and the know-how underlying human organizations. A dialogical, constructivist view of interaction processes permits theorizing the role of digital tools, seen as sociotechnical devices that serve both as (...)
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  • The Role of Evidence in Chronic Care Decision-Making.Fabrizio Macagno & Sarah Bigi - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):343-358.
    In the domain of medical science, factual evidence is usually considered as the criterion on which to base decisions and construct hypotheses. Evidence-based medicine is the translation of this approach into the field of patient care, and it means providing only the type of care that is based on evidence that proves its effectiveness and appropriateness. However, while the literature has focused on the types and force of evidence used to establish the recommendation and treatment guidelines, the problem of how (...)
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  • Philosophy of Science and Education.Walter Jung - 2012 - Science & Education 21 (8):1055-1083.
  • Facts, Concepts, and Theories: The Shape of Psychology's Epistemic Triangle.Armando Machado, Orlando Lourenço & Francisco J. Silva - 2000 - Behavior and Philosophy 28 (1/2):1 - 40.
    In this essay we introduce the idea of an epistemic triangle, with factual, theoretical, and conceptual investigations at its vertices, and argue that whereas scientific progress requires a balance among the three types of investigations, psychology's epistemic triangle is stretched disproportionately in the direction of factual investigations. Expressed by a variety of different problems, this unbalance may be created by a main operative theme—the obsession of psychology with a narrow and mechanical view of the scientific method and a misguided aversion (...)
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  • Speaking Power to Truth: Digital Discourse and the Public Intellectual.Michael Keren & Richard Hawkins (eds.) - 2015 - Athabasca University Press‎.
    Online discourse has created a new media environment for contributions to public life, one that challenges the social significance of the role of public intellectuals—intellectuals who, whether by choice or by circumstance, offer commentary on issues of the day. The value of such commentary is rooted in the assumption that, by virtue of their training and experience, intellectuals possess knowledge—that they understand what constitutes knowledge with respect to a particular topic, are able to distinguish it from mere opinion, and are (...)
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  • Toward Preparing Students for Change: A Critical Discussion of the Contribution of the History of Physics in Physics Teaching.Walter Jung - 1994 - Science & Education 3 (2):99-130.
  • Interactions of Economics of Science and Science Education: Investigating the Implications for Science Teaching and Learning.Sibel Erduran & Ebru Z. Mugaloglu - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2405-2425.
  • Reverence and Ethics in Science.Jeffrey Kovac - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):745-756.
    Codes of ethics abound in science, but the question of why such codes should be obeyed is rarely asked. Various reasons for obeying a professional code have been proposed, but all are unsatisfactory in that they do not really motivate behavior. This article suggests that the long forgotten virtue of reverence provides both a reason to obey a professional code and motivation to do so. In addition, it discusses the importance of reverence as a cardinal virtue for scientists drawing on (...)
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  • Knowledge-Based Systems and Issues of Integration: A Commercial Perspective. [REVIEW]Karl M. Wiig - 1988 - AI and Society 2 (3):209-233.
    Commercial applications of knowledge-based systems are changing from an embryonic to a growth business. Knowledge is classified by levels and types to differentiate various knowledge-based systems. Applications are categorized by size, generic types, and degree of intelligence to establish a framework for discussion of progress and implications. A few significant commercial applications are identified and perspectives and implications of these and other systems are discussed. Perspectives relate to development paths, delivery modes, types of integration, and resource requirements. Discussion includes organizational (...)
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  • Computation and Cognition: Issues in the Foundation of Cognitive Science.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):111-32.
    The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they derive from the fact that computers and human organisms are both physical systems whose behavior is correctly described as being governed by rules acting on symbolic representations. Some of the implications of this view are discussed. It is suggested that a fundamental hypothesis of this approach is that there is a natural domain of (...)
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  • Philosophical Roots of Argumentative Writing in Higher Education.Erhan Şimşek - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-17.
  • Introduction: Intellectual Property and Diverse Rights of Ownership in Science.Harriet A. Zuckerman - 1988 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 13 (1-2):7-16.
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  • An Evaluation of the Belief in Science Scale.Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Graham Drinkwater & Andrew Parker - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Beyond the Sociobiology of Sexuality: Predictive Hypotheses.John Alcock - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):181-182.
  • Towards a Curricular Model of the Nature of Science.Keith S. Taber - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (2-3):179-218.
  • Cryptozoology and the Troubles with “Skeptics” and Mainstream Pundits.Henry Bauer - 2014 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 27 (4).
    Abominable Science by Daniel Loxton and Donald R. Prothero. Columbia University Press, 2013. xvi + 411 pp. $29.95. ISBN 978-0231153201. This book is superbly produced by a prominent university press. It is also intellectually shoddy, even dishonest. Science is described in naïve shibboleths that bear no relation to how science is actually done. The chapters about individual cryptids are chock-full of misrepresentation and evasion of the best evidence. Abominable Science is unsatisfactory in ways that are all too common with self-styled (...)
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  • Using a Dialectical Scientific Brief in Peer Review.Arthur E. Stamps - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1):85-98.
    This paper presents a framework that editors, peer reviewers, and authors can use to identify and resolve efficiently disputes that arise during peer review in scientific journals. The framework is called a scientific dialectical brief. In this framework, differences among authors and reviewers are formatted into specific assertions and the support each party provides for its position. A literature review suggests that scientists use five main types of support; empirical data, reasoning, speculation, feelings, and status. It is suggested that the (...)
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  • Some Remarks on the Re-Building of the Category of Essence and the Reflective Modernity.Zhen Han - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):134-141.
    If modernity is manifested as essentialism, postmodernity is manifested as anti-essentialism. Modernity is, in essence, human beings’ discovery of their own power, and is based on rational knowledge that has grasped the essence of things. In fact, in the discourse system of modernity, the various concepts of “essence” connote nothing but people’s imaginative constructions and rational conjectures about objects. In the past, our order, be it internal or external, was in essence guaranteed by God. Afterwards, all “essences”, as essences, must (...)
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  • Sociobiology - Standing on One Leg.H. J. Eysenck - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):186-186.
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  • Précis of The Evolution of Human Sexuality.Donald Symons - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):171-181.
  • Selecting for a Sociobiological Fit.Julia R. Heiman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):189-190.
  • Male and Female Choice in Human Sexuality.Diane McGuinness - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):194-195.
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  • The Clarification of Proximate Mechanisms.Dorothy Tennov - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):200-200.
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  • Evolutionary Causation: How Proximate is Ultimate?Richard E. Whalen - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):202-203.
  • The Evolution of Human Sexuality Revisited.Donald Symons - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):203-214.
  • Female Sexual Adaptability: A Consequence of the Absence of Natural Selection Among Females.J. Richard Udry - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):201-202.
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  • Sex Differences in Sexuality: What is Their Relevance to Sex Roles?Shirley Weitz - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):202-202.
  • Human Sexuality: Hints for an Alternative Explanation.Donald Stone Sade - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):198-199.
  • Problems of Comparative Primate Sexuality.H. D. Steklis - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):199-200.
  • Is Science Sexist?Michael Ruse - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):197-198.
  • Sex Differences and Intent.G. Mitchell - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):195-196.
  • Konrad Lorenz and Humpty Dumpty: Some Ethology for Donald Symons.Mark Ridley - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):196-196.
  • The Proper Study of Sociobiological Mankind is Sex.W. C. McGrew - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):193-194.
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  • The Division of Labor and the Evolution of Human Sexuality.J. B. Lancaster & C. S. Lancaster - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):193-193.
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  • On the Origins and Implications of Sex Differences in Human Sexuality.Michael E. Lamb - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):192-193.
  • An Interactionist Perspective on Human Sexuality.Mark R. Hoffman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):190-191.
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  • Pair Bonding and Proximal Mechanisms.Glenn E. King - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):191-192.
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  • Fitness, Function, Fidelity, Fornication, and Feminine Philandering.Jack P. Hailman - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):189-189.
  • Is Sex Sufficient?Michael T. Ghiselin - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):187-189.
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  • Forcible Rape and Human Sexuality.Ted L. Huston & Gilbert Geis - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):186-187.
  • Methods in the Two Sociobiologies.Donald A. Dewsbury - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):183-184.