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  1. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?Helen Landmann & Ursula Hess - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (1):34-47.
    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory. However, anger, rage, contempt, resentment and fear were not associated to any single moral transgression. Thus, even though the type of moral violation matters for the type of emotion that is elicited, the (...)
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  • Emotion.Charlie Kurth - 2022 - Routledge.
    Emotions have long been of interest to philosophers and have deep historical roots going back to the Ancients. They have also become one of the most exciting areas of current research in philosophy, the cognitive sciences, and beyond. -/- This book explains the philosophy of the emotions, structuring the investigation around seven fundamental questions: What are emotions? Are emotions natural kinds? Do animals have emotions? Are emotions epistemically valuable? Are emotions the foundation for value and morality? Are emotions the basis (...)
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  • The Social Meaning of Common Knowledge Across Development.Gaye Soley & Begüm Köseler - 2021 - Cognition 215:104811.
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  • The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning.Michael Waldmann (ed.) - 2017 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Without our ability to discover and empirically test causal theories, we would not have made progress in various empirical sciences. In the past decades, the important role of causal knowledge has been discovered in many areas of cognitive (...)
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  • The Neuroscience of Moral Judgment: Empirical and Philosophical Developments.Joshua May, Clifford I. Workman, Julia Haas & Hyemin Han - 2022 - In Felipe De Brigard & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.), Neuroscience and Philosophy. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press. pp. 17-47.
    We chart how neuroscience and philosophy have together advanced our understanding of moral judgment with implications for when it goes well or poorly. The field initially focused on brain areas associated with reason versus emotion in the moral evaluations of sacrificial dilemmas. But new threads of research have studied a wider range of moral evaluations and how they relate to models of brain development and learning. By weaving these threads together, we are developing a better understanding of the neurobiology of (...)
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  • Hindering Harm and Preserving Purity: How Can Moral Psychology Save the Planet?Joshua Rottman, Deborah Kelemen & Liane Young - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (2):134-144.
    The issues of climate change and environmental degradation elicit diverse responses. This paper explores how an understanding of human moral psychology might be used to motivate conservation efforts. Moral concerns for the environment can relate to issues of harm or impurity . Aversions to harm are linked to concern for current or future generations, non-human animals, and anthropomorphized aspects of the environment. Concerns for purity are linked to viewing the environment as imbued with sacred value and therefore worthy of being (...)
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  • Punishment in Humans: From Intuitions to Institutions.Fiery Cushman - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 10 (2):117-133.
    Humans have a strong sense of who should be punished, when, and how. Many features of these intuitions are consistent with a simple adaptive model: Punishment evolved as a mechanism to teach social partners how to behave in future interactions. Yet, it is clear that punishment as practiced in modern contexts transcends any biologically evolved mechanism; it also depends on cultural institutions including the criminal justice system and many smaller analogs in churches, corporations, clubs, classrooms, and so on. These institutions (...)
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  • Navigating Between Punishment, Avoidance, and Instruction: The Form and Function of Responses to Moral Violations Varies Across Adult and Child Transgressors.Cindel J. M. White, Mark Schaller, Elizabeth G. Abraham & Joshua Rottman - 2022 - Cognition 223:105048.
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  • Kinds of Norms.Elizabeth O'Neill - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (5):e12416.
    This article provides an overview of recent, empirically supported categorization schemes that have been proposed to distinguish different kinds of norms. Amongst these are the moral–conventional distinction and divisions within moral norms such as those proposed by moral foundations theory. I identify several dimensions along which norms have been and could usefully be categorized. I discuss some of the most prominent norm categorization proposals and the aims of these existing categorization schemes. I propose that we take a pluralistic approach toward (...)
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  • A Theory of Moral Praise.Rajen A. Anderson, Molly J. Crockett & David A. Pizarro - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (9):694-703.
  • The Effect of Cognitive Load on Intent‐Based Moral Judgment.Justin W. Martin, Marine Buon & Fiery Cushman - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12965.
    When making a moral judgment, people largely care about two factors: Who did it (causal responsibility), and did they intend to (intention)? Since Piaget's seminal studies, we have known that as children mature, they gradually place greater emphasis on intention, and less on mere bad outcomes, when making moral judgments. Today, we know that this developmental shift has several signature properties. Recently, it has been shown that when adults make moral judgments under cognitive load, they exhibit a pattern similar to (...)
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  • Moral Judgment and Deontology: Empirical Developments.Joshua May - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (11):745-755.
    A traditional idea is that moral judgment involves more than calculating the consequences of actions; it also requires an assessment of the agent's intentions, the act's nature, and whether the agent uses another person as a means to her ends. I survey experimental developments suggesting that ordinary people often tacitly reason in terms of such deontological rules. It's now unclear whether we should posit a traditional form of the doctrine of double effect. However, further research suggests that a range of (...)
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  • An Actor's Knowledge and Intent Are More Important in Evaluating Moral Transgressions Than Conventional Transgressions.Carly Giffin & Tania Lombrozo - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):105-133.
    An actor's mental states—whether she acted knowingly and with bad intentions—typically play an important role in evaluating the extent to which an action is wrong and in determining appropriate levels of punishment. In four experiments, we find that this role for knowledge and intent is significantly weaker when evaluating transgressions of conventional rules as opposed to moral rules. We also find that this attenuated role for knowledge and intent is partly due to the fact that conventional rules are judged to (...)
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  • Manipulating Morality: Third‐Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.Jonathan Phillips & Alex Shaw - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (8):1320-1347.
    The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third-party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third-party intentions only influence moral (...)
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  • Moral Rationalism on the Brain.Joshua May - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    I draw on neurobiological evidence to defend the rationalist thesis that moral judgments are essentially dependent on reasoning, not emotions (conceived as distinct from inference). The neuroscience reveals that moral cognition arises from domain-general capacities in the brain for inferring, in particular, the consequences of an agent’s action, the agent’s intent, and the rules or norms relevant to the context. Although these capacities entangle inference and affect, blurring the reason/emotion dichotomy doesn’t preferentially support sentimentalism. The argument requires careful consideration of (...)
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  • Small-Scale Societies Exhibit Fundamental Variation in the Role of Intentions in Moral Judgment.H. Clark Barrett, Alexander Bolyanatz, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Simon Fitzpatrick, Michael Gurven, Joseph Henrich, Martin Kanovsky, Geoff Kushnick, Anne Pisor, Brooke A. Scelza, Stephen Stich, Chris von Rueden, Wanying Zhao & Stephen Laurence - 2016 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (17):4688–4693.
    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Al- though these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence (...)
     
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  • Cultivating Disgust: Prospects and Moral Implications.Charlie Kurth - 2021 - Emotion Review 13 (2):101-112.
    Is disgust morally valuable? The answer to that question turns, in large part, on what we can do to shape disgust for the better. But this cultivation question has received surprisingly little attention in philosophical debates. To address this deficiency, this article examines empirical work on disgust and emotion regulation. This research reveals that while we can exert some control over how we experience disgust, there’s little we can do to substantively change it at a more fundamental level. These empirical (...)
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  • Beyond Value in Moral Phenomenology: The Role of Epistemic and Control Experiences.James F. M. Cornwell & E. Tory Higgins - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • A Bayesian Framework for Knowledge Attribution: Evidence From Semantic Integration.Derek Powell, Zachary Horne, Ángel Pinillos & Keith Holyoak - 2015 - Cognition 139:92-104.
    We propose a Bayesian framework for the attribution of knowledge, and apply this framework to generate novel predictions about knowledge attribution for different types of “Gettier cases”, in which an agent is led to a justified true belief yet has made erroneous assumptions. We tested these predictions using a paradigm based on semantic integration. We coded the frequencies with which participants falsely recalled the word “thought” as “knew” (or a near synonym), yielding an implicit measure of conceptual activation. Our experiments (...)
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  • Moral Alchemy: How Love Changes Norms.Rachel W. Magid & Laura E. Schulz - 2017 - Cognition 167:135-150.
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  • How Prescriptive Norms Influence Causal Inferences.Jana Samland & Michael R. Waldmann - 2016 - Cognition 156:164-176.
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  • The Puzzle of Wrongless Harms: Some Potential Concerns for Dyadic Morality and Related Accounts.Edward B. Royzman & Samuel H. Borislow - 2022 - Cognition 220:104980.
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  • I Eat, Therefore I Am: Disgust and the Intersection of Food and Identity.Daniel Kelly & Nicolae Morar - 2018 - In Tyler Doggett, Anne Barnhill & Mark Budolfson (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 637 - 657.
  • Causation, Responsibility, and Typicality.Justin Sytsma - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (4):699-719.
    There is ample evidence that violations of injunctive norms impact ordinary causal attributions. This has struck some as deeply surprising, taking the ordinary concept of causation to be purely descriptive. Our explanation of the findings—the responsibility view—rejects this: we contend that the concept is in fact partly normative, being akin to concepts like responsibility and accountability. Based on this account, we predicted a very different pattern of results for causal attributions when an agent violates a statistical norm. And this pattern (...)
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  • Construal Level and Free Will Beliefs Shape Perceptions of Actors' Proximal and Distal Intent.Jason E. Plaks & Jeffrey S. Robinson - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Moral Judgment as Information Processing: An Integrative Review.Steve Guglielmo - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Manipulating Morality: Third-Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.Jonathan Phillips & Alex Shaw - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1320-1347.
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  • Reason and Emotion, Not Reason or Emotion in Moral Judgment.Leland F. Saunders - 2016 - Philosophical Explorations (3):1-16.
    One of the central questions in both metaethics and empirical moral psychology is whether moral judgments are the products of reason or emotions. This way of putting the question relies on an overly simplified view of reason and emotion as two fully independent cognitive faculties whose causal contributions to moral judgment can be cleanly separated. However, there is a significant body of evidence in the cognitive sciences that seriously undercuts this conception of reason and emotion, and supports the view that (...)
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  • Moralizing Mental States: The Role of Trait Self-Control and Control Perceptions.Alexa Weiss, Matthias Forstmann & Pascal Burgmer - 2021 - Cognition 214:104662.
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  • The Means/Side-Effect Distinction in Moral Cognition: A Meta-Analysis.Adam Feltz & Joshua May - 2017 - Cognition 166:314-327.
    Experimental research suggests that people draw a moral distinction between bad outcomes brought about as a means versus a side effect (or byproduct). Such findings have informed multiple psychological and philosophical debates about moral cognition, including its computational structure, its sensitivity to the famous Doctrine of Double Effect, its reliability, and its status as a universal and innate mental module akin to universal grammar. But some studies have failed to replicate the means/byproduct effect especially in the absence of other factors, (...)
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  • Intentionality, Morality, and the Incest Taboo in Madagascar.Paulo Sousa & Lauren Swiney - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Breaking Down Biocentrism: Two Distinct Forms of Moral Concern for Nature.Joshua Rottman - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Unfounded Dumbfounding: How Harm and Purity Undermine Evidence for Moral Dumbfounding.Steve Guglielmo - 2018 - Cognition 170:334-337.
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  • The Rise of Moral Cognition.Joshua D. Greene - 2015 - Cognition 135:39-42.
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  • Harmful Situations, Impure People: An Attribution Asymmetry Across Moral Domains.Alek Chakroff & Liane Young - 2015 - Cognition 136:30-37.
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  • Consenting to Counter-Normative Sexual Acts: Differential Effects of Consent on Anger and Disgust as a Function of Transgressor or Consenter.Pascale Sophie Russell & Jared Piazza - 2015 - Cognition and Emotion 29 (4):634-653.
  • Folk Beliefs About the Relationships Anger and Disgust Have with Moral Disapproval.Jared Piazza & Justin F. Landy - 2019 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (2):229-241.
    Theories that view emotions as being related in some way to moral judgments suggest that condemning moral emotions should, at a minimum, be understood by laypeople to coincide with judgments of mor...
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  • ¿Cómo estudiar la moral sin ignorar su complejidad?Ciencia Cognitiva - forthcoming - Ciencia Cognitiva.
    Antonio Gaitán y Hugo Viciana Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, España Institut d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences et des … Read More →.
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  • Many Moral Buttons or Just One? Evidence From Emotional Facial Expressions.Laura Franchin, Janet Geipel, Constantinos Hadjichristidis & Luca Surian - 2019 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (5):943-958.
    ABSTRACTWe investigated whether moral violations involving harm selectively elicit anger, whereas purity violations selectively elicit disgust, as predicted by the Moral Foundations Theory. We analysed participants’ spontaneous facial expressions as they listened to scenarios depicting moral violations of harm and purity. As predicted by MFT, anger reactions were elicited more frequently by harmful than by impure actions. However, violations of purity elicited more smiling reactions and expressions of anger than of disgust. This effect was found both in a classic set (...)
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  • Against the Yuck Factor: On the Ideal Role of Disgust in Society.Daniel Kelly & Nicolae Morar - 2014 - Utilitas 26 (2):153-177.
    The view we defend is that in virtue of its nature, disgust is not fit to do any moral or social work whatsoever, and that there are no defensible uses for disgust in legal or political institutions. We first describe our favoured empirical theory of the nature of disgust. Turning from descriptive to normative issues, we address the best arguments in favour of granting disgust the power to justify certain judgements, and to serve as a social tool, respectively. Daniel Kahan (...)
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  • The Morality of Martyrdom and the Stigma of Suicide.Joshua Rottman & Deborah Kelemen - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):375-376.
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  • Tainting the Soul: Purity Concerns Predict Moral Judgments of Suicide.Joshua Rottman, Deborah Kelemen & Liane Young - 2014 - Cognition 130 (2):217-226.
  • How the Mind Matters for Morality.Alek Chakroff & Liane Young - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (3):43-48.
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  • Moral Emotions and the Envisaging of Mitigating Circumstances for Wrongdoing.Jared Piazza, Pascale Sophie Russell & Paulo Sousa - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (4):707-722.