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  1. Which Framework to Use? A Systematic Review of Ethical Frameworks for the Screening or Evaluation of Health Technology Innovations.Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Yvonne Denier, Evelyne Mertens & Chris Gastmans - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-35.
    Innovations permeate healthcare settings on an ever-increasing scale. Health technology innovations impact our perceptions and experiences of health, care, disease, etc. Because of the fast pace these HTIs are being introduced in different healthcare settings, there is a growing societal consensus that these HTIs need to be governed by ethical reflection. This paper reports a systematic review of argument-based literature which focused on articles reporting on ethical frameworks to screen or evaluate HTIs. To do this a four step methodology was (...)
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  • Manufacturing Life, What Life? Ethical Debates Around Biobanks and Social Robots.Núria Vallès-Peris, Violeta Argudo-Portal & Miquel Domènech - 2022 - NanoEthics 16 (1):21-34.
    In this paper, we explore how the definition of life takes on an essential character in the ethical debates around health technologies, with life thus being manufactured in the tensions and conflicts around the use of such artefacts and devices. We introduce concepts from science and technology studies to approach bioethics, overcoming the dualistic conception that separates the natural and the technological and questioning the dominant rationality that divides life into dualities. Drawing on two research projects in which we have (...)
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  • Methods for Practising Ethics in Research and Innovation: A Literature Review, Critical Analysis and Recommendations.Wessel Reijers, David Wright, Philip Brey, Karsten Weber, Rowena Rodrigues, Declan O’Sullivan & Bert Gordijn - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1437-1481.
    This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation. Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and the ubiquitous use of the outcomes of R&I processes in society. For this reason, several methods for practising ethics have been developed in different fields of R&I. The paper first of all presents a systematic search of academic sources that (...)
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  • The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of Ai.Markus Dirk Dubber, Frank Pasquale & Sunit Das (eds.) - 2020 - Oxford Handbooks.
    This 44-chapter volume tackles a quickly-evolving field of inquiry, mapping the existing discourse as part of a general attempt to place current developments in historical context; at the same time, breaking new ground in taking on novel subjects and pursuing fresh approaches. The term "A.I." is used to refer to a broad range of phenomena, from machine learning and data mining to artificial general intelligence. The recent advent of more sophisticated AI systems, which function with partial or full autonomy and (...)
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  • Moving From Value Sensitive Design to Virtuous Practice Design.Wessel Reijers & Bert Gordijn - 2019 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 17 (2):196-209.
    PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to develop a critique of value sensitive design and to propose an alternative approach that does not depart from a heuristic of value, but from virtue ethics, called virtuous practice design.Design/methodology/approachThis paper develops a philosophical argument, draws from a philosophical method and applies this method to a particular case study that draws from a narrative interview.FindingsIn this paper, authors show how an approach that takes virtue instead of value as the central notion for aiming (...)
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  • Eight Grand Challenges for Value Sensitive Design From the 2016 Lorentz Workshop.Batya Friedman, Maaike Harbers, David G. Hendry, Jeroen van den Hoven, Catholijn Jonker & Nick Logler - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (1):5-16.
    In this article, we report on eight grand challenges for value sensitive design, which were developed at a one-week workshop, Value Sensitive Design: Charting the Next Decade, Lorentz Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, November 14–18, 2016. A grand challenge is a substantial problem, opportunity, or question that motives sustained research and design activity. The eight grand challenges are: Accounting for Power, Evaluating Value Sensitive Design, Framing and Prioritizing Values, Professional and Industry Appropriation, Tech policy, Values and Human Emotions, Value Sensitive Design (...)
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  • Intelligent Machines, Care Work and the Nature of Practical Reasoning.Angus Robson - 2019 - Nursing Ethics 26 (7-8):1906-1916.
    Background:The debate over the ethical implications of care robots has raised a range of concerns, including the possibility that such technologies could disrupt caregiving as a core human moral activity. At the same time, academics in information ethics have argued that we should extend our ideas of moral agency and rights to include intelligent machines.Research objectives:This article explores issues of the moral status and limitations of machines in the context of care.Design:A conceptual argument is developed, through a four-part scheme derived (...)
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  • Parity and the Resolution of Value Conflicts in Design.Atay Kozlovski - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-18.
    Recent developments in theories for responsible innovation have focused on the importance of actively accounting for values in our technological designs. Leading among these theories is that of Value Sensitive Design which attempts to guide the design process on the basis of evaluative analysis. However, values often come into conflict and VSD has been criticized for not providing a proper method to resolve such inevitable conflicts. This paper examines three such methods and argues that although each has its merits, they (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence, Values, and Alignment.Iason Gabriel - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (3):411-437.
    This paper looks at philosophical questions that arise in the context of AI alignment. It defends three propositions. First, normative and technical aspects of the AI alignment problem are interrelated, creating space for productive engagement between people working in both domains. Second, it is important to be clear about the goal of alignment. There are significant differences between AI that aligns with instructions, intentions, revealed preferences, ideal preferences, interests and values. A principle-based approach to AI alignment, which combines these elements (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence for Good Health: A Scoping Review of the Ethics Literature.Jennifer Gibson, Vincci Lui, Nakul Malhotra, Jia Ce Cai, Neha Malhotra, Donald J. Willison, Ross Upshur, Erica Di Ruggiero & Kathleen Murphy - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-17.
    BackgroundArtificial intelligence has been described as the “fourth industrial revolution” with transformative and global implications, including in healthcare, public health, and global health. AI approaches hold promise for improving health systems worldwide, as well as individual and population health outcomes. While AI may have potential for advancing health equity within and between countries, we must consider the ethical implications of its deployment in order to mitigate its potential harms, particularly for the most vulnerable. This scoping review addresses the following question: (...)
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  • Human Rights of Users of Humanlike Care Automata.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2020 - Human Rights Review 21 (2):181-205.
    Care is more than dispensing pills or cleaning beds. It is about responding to the entire patient. What is called “bedside manner” in medical personnel is a quality of treating the patient not as a mechanism but as a being—much like the caregiver—with desires, ideas, dreams, aspirations, and the gamut of mental and emotional character. As automata, answering an increasing functional need in care, are designed to enact care, the pressure is on their becoming more humanlike to carry out the (...)
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  • Matching Values to Technology: A Value Sensitive Design Approach to Identify Values and Use Cases of an Assistive System for People with Dementia in Institutional Care.Stefan J. Teipel, Antonia Kowe, Doreen Görß & Stefanie Köhler - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3).
    The number of people with dementia is increasing worldwide. At the same time, family and professional caregivers’ resources are limited. A promising approach to relieve these carers’ burden and assist people with dementia is assistive technology. In order to be useful and accepted, such technologies need to respect the values and needs of their intended users. We applied the value sensitive design approach to identify values and needs of patients with dementia and family and professional caregivers in respect to assistive (...)
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  • Ethical Values and Social Care Robots for Older People: An International Qualitative Study.Heather Draper & Tom Sorell - 2017 - Ethics and Information Technology 19 (1):49-68.
    Values such as respect for autonomy, safety, enablement, independence, privacy and social connectedness should be reflected in the design of social robots. The same values should affect the process by which robots are introduced into the homes of older people to support independent living. These values may, however, be in tension. We explored what potential users thought about these values, and how the tensions between them could be resolved. With the help of partners in the ACCOMPANY project, 21 focus groups (...)
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  • Maximizing Team Synergy in AI-Related Interdisciplinary Groups: An Interdisciplinary-by-Design Iterative Methodology.Piercosma Bisconti, Davide Orsitto, Federica Fedorczyk, Fabio Brau, Marianna Capasso, Lorenzo De Marinis, Hüseyin Eken, Federica Merenda, Mirko Forti, Marco Pacini & Claudia Schettini - 2022 - AI and Society 1 (1):1-10.
    In this paper, we propose a methodology to maximize the benefits of interdisciplinary cooperation in AI research groups. Firstly, we build the case for the importance of interdisciplinarity in research groups as the best means to tackle the social implications brought about by AI systems, against the backdrop of the EU Commission proposal for an Artificial Intelligence Act. As we are an interdisciplinary group, we address the multi-faceted implications of the mass-scale diffusion of AI-driven technologies. The result of our exercise (...)
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  • Service Robots, Care Ethics, and Design.A. van Wynsberghe - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (4):311-321.
    It should not be a surprise in the near future to encounter either a personal or a professional service robot in our homes and/or our work places: according to the International Federation for Robots, there will be approx 35 million service robots at work by 2018. Given that individuals will interact and even cooperate with these service robots, their design and development demand ethical attention. With this in mind I suggest the use of an approach for incorporating ethics into the (...)
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  • The Development of Assistive Dementia Technology That Accounts for the Values of Those Affected by its Use.Oliver K. Burmeister - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (3):185-198.
    Developing technology that accounts for values has been achieved in many areas, including security, gaming, finance, engineering, and many more. The main methodological approach has been that of value sensitive design. But most of the work to date has been on the first of its three stages. The focus of this article is on advances related to its second stage, empirical investigation, and in particular the impact of contextual understanding in that stage. Although lessons can be learnt from other domains, (...)
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  • Exploring Human Values in the Design of a Web-Based QoL-Instrument for People with Mental Health Problems: A Value Sensitive Design Approach.Ivo Maathuis, Maartje Niezen, David Buitenweg, Ilja L. Bongers & Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):871-898.
    Quality of life is an important outcome measure in mental health care. Currently, QoL is mainly measured with paper and pencil questionnaires. To contribute to the evaluation of treatment, and to enhance substantiated policy decisions in the allocation of resources, a web-based, personalized, patient-friendly and easy to administer QoL instrument has been developed: the QoL-ME. While human values play a significant role in shaping future use practices of technologies, it is important to anticipate on them during the design of the (...)
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  • When Should We Use Care Robots? The Nature-of-Activities Approach.Filippo Santoni de Sio & Aimee van Wynsberghe - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (6):1745-1760.
    When should we use care robots? In this paper we endorse the shift from a simple normative approach to care robots ethics to a complex one: we think that one main task of a care robot ethics is that of analysing the different ways in which different care robots may affect the different values at stake in different care practices. We start filling a gap in the literature by showing how the philosophical analysis of the nature of healthcare activities can (...)
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  • Integrating Robot Ethics and Machine Morality: The Study and Design of Moral Competence in Robots.Bertram F. Malle - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (4):243-256.
    Robot ethics encompasses ethical questions about how humans should design, deploy, and treat robots; machine morality encompasses questions about what moral capacities a robot should have and how these capacities could be computationally implemented. Publications on both of these topics have doubled twice in the past 10 years but have often remained separate from one another. In an attempt to better integrate the two, I offer a framework for what a morally competent robot would look like and discuss a number (...)
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  • Service Robots for Affective Labor: A Sociology of Labor Perspective.Anna Dobrosovestnova, Glenda Hannibal & Tim Reinboth - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):487-499.
    Profit-oriented service sectors such as tourism, hospitality, and entertainment are increasingly looking at how professional service robots can be integrated into the workplace to perform socio-cognitive tasks that were previously reserved for humans. This is a work in which social and labor sciences recognize the principle role of emotions. However, the models and narratives of emotions that drive research, design, and deployment of service robots in human–robot interaction differ considerably from how emotions are framed in the sociology of labor and (...)
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  • Social Robots and the Risks to Reciprocity.Aimee van Wynsberghe - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):479-485.
    A growing body of research can be found in which roboticists are designing for reciprocity as a key construct for successful human–robot interaction. Given the centrality of reciprocity as a component for our moral lives, this paper confronts the possibility of what things would look like if the benchmark to achieve perceived reciprocity were accomplished. Through an analysis of the value of reciprocity from the care ethics tradition the richness of reciprocity as an inherent value is revealed: on the micro-level, (...)
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  • The Role of Engineers in Harmonising Human Values for AI Systems Design.Steven Umbrello - 2022 - Journal of Responsible Technology 10 (July):100031.
    Most engineers Fwork within social structures governing and governed by a set of values that primarily emphasise economic concerns. The majority of innovations derive from these loci. Given the effects of these innovations on various communities, it is imperative that the values they embody are aligned with those societies. Like other transformative technologies, artificial intelligence systems can be designed by a single organisation but be diffused globally, demonstrating impacts over time. This paper argues that in order to design for this (...)
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  • The Moral Consideration of Artificial Entities: A Literature Review.Jamie Harris & Jacy Reese Anthis - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-95.
    Ethicists, policy-makers, and the general public have questioned whether artificial entities such as robots warrant rights or other forms of moral consideration. There is little synthesis of the research on this topic so far. We identify 294 relevant research or discussion items in our literature review of this topic. There is widespread agreement among scholars that some artificial entities could warrant moral consideration in the future, if not also the present. The reasoning varies, such as concern for the effects on (...)
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  • Applying Value Sensitive Design (VSD) to Wind Turbines and Wind Parks: An Exploration.Ilse Oosterlaken - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):359-379.
    Community acceptance still remains a challenge for wind energy projects. The most popular explanation for local opposition, the Not in My Backyard effect, has received fierce criticism in the past decade. Critics argue that opposition is not merely a matter of selfishness or ignorance, but that moral, ecological and aesthetic values play an important role. In order to better take such values into account, a more bottom-up, participatory decision process is usually proposed. Research on this topic focusses on either stakeholder (...)
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  • Ethicist as Designer: A Pragmatic Approach to Ethics in the Lab.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Scott Robbins - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):947-961.
    Contemporary literature investigating the significant impact of technology on our lives leads many to conclude that ethics must be a part of the discussion at an earlier stage in the design process i.e., before a commercial product is developed and introduced. The problem, however, is the question regarding how ethics can be incorporated into an earlier stage of technological development and it is this question that we argue has not yet been answered adequately. There is no consensus amongst scholars as (...)
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  • Value Sensitive Design to Achieve the UN SDGs with AI: A Case of Elderly Care Robots.Steven Umbrello, Marianna Capasso, Maurizio Balistreri, Alberto Pirni & Federica Merenda - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (3):395-419.
    Healthcare is becoming increasingly automated with the development and deployment of care robots. There are many benefits to care robots but they also pose many challenging ethical issues. This paper takes care robots for the elderly as the subject of analysis, building on previous literature in the domain of the ethics and design of care robots. Using the value sensitive design approach to technology design, this paper extends its application to care robots by integrating the values of care, values that (...)
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  • Robots in Aged Care: A Dystopian Future.Robert Sparrow - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (4):1-10.
    In this paper I describe a future in which persons in advanced old age are cared for entirely by robots and suggest that this would be a dystopia, which we would be well advised to avoid if we can. Paying attention to the objective elements of welfare rather than to people’s happiness reveals the central importance of respect and recognition, which robots cannot provide, to the practice of aged care. A realistic appreciation of the current economics of the aged care (...)
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  • Robots Responding to Care Needs? A Multitasking Care Robot Pursued for 25 Years, Available Products Offer Simple Entertainment and Instrumental Assistance.Lina Van Aerschot & Jaana Parviainen - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):247-256.
    Twenty-five years ago, robotics guru Joseph Engelberger had a mission to motivate research teams all over the world to design the ‘Elderly Care Giver’, a multitasking personal robot assistant for everyday care needs in old age. In this article, we discuss how this vision of omnipotent care robots has influenced the design strategies of care robotics, the development of R&D initiatives and ethics research on use of care robots. Despite the expectations of robots revolutionizing care of older people, the role (...)
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  • A Tale of Two Deficits: Causality and Care in Medical AI.Melvin Chen - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):245-267.
    In this paper, two central questions will be addressed: ought we to implement medical AI technology in the medical domain? If yes, how ought we to implement this technology? I will critically engage with three options that exist with respect to these central questions: the Neo-Luddite option, the Assistive option, and the Substitutive option. I will first address key objections on behalf of the Neo-Luddite option: the Objection from Bias, the Objection from Artificial Autonomy, the Objection from Status Quo, and (...)
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  • A Value-Sensitive Design Approach to Intelligent Agents.Steven Umbrello & Angelo Frank De Bellis - 2018 - In Roman Yampolskiy (ed.), Artificial Intelligence Safety and Security. New York, NY, USA: CRC Press. pp. 395-410.
    This chapter proposed a novel design methodology called Value-Sensitive Design and its potential application to the field of artificial intelligence research and design. It discusses the imperatives in adopting a design philosophy that embeds values into the design of artificial agents at the early stages of AI development. Because of the high risk stakes in the unmitigated design of artificial agents, this chapter proposes that even though VSD may turn out to be a less-than-optimal design methodology, it currently provides a (...)
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  • How to Feel About Emotionalized Artificial Intelligence? When Robot Pets, Holograms, and Chatbots Become Affective Partners.Eva Weber-Guskar - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):601-610.
    Interactions between humans and machines that include artificial intelligence are increasingly common in nearly all areas of life. Meanwhile, AI-products are increasingly endowed with emotional characteristics. That is, they are designed and trained to elicit emotions in humans, to recognize human emotions and, sometimes, to simulate emotions. The introduction of such systems in our lives is met with some criticism. There is a rather strong intuition that there is something wrong about getting attached to a machine, about having certain emotions (...)
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  • Should We Welcome Robot Teachers?Amanda J. C. Sharkey - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (4):283-297.
    Current uses of robots in classrooms are reviewed and used to characterise four scenarios: Robot as Classroom Teacher; Robot as Companion and Peer; Robot as Care-eliciting Companion; and Telepresence Robot Teacher. The main ethical concerns associated with robot teachers are identified as: privacy; attachment, deception, and loss of human contact; and control and accountability. These are discussed in terms of the four identified scenarios. It is argued that classroom robots are likely to impact children’s’ privacy, especially when they masquerade as (...)
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  • Could Robots Strengthen the Sense of Autonomy of Older People Residing in Assisted Living Facilities?—A Future-Oriented Study.Jari Pirhonen, Helinä Melkas, Arto Laitinen & Satu Pekkarinen - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):151-162.
    There is an urge to introduce high technology and robotics in care settings. Assisted living is the fastest growing form of older adults’ long-term care. Resident autonomy has become the watchword for good care. This article sheds light on the potential effects of care robotics on the sense of autonomy of older people in AL. Three aspects of the residents’ sense of autonomy are of particular interest: interaction-based sense of autonomy, coping-based sense of autonomy, and potential-based sense of autonomy. Ethnographical (...)
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  • Capability Sensitive Design for Health and Wellbeing Technologies.Naomi Jacobs - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):3363-3391.
    This article presents the framework Capability Sensitive Design, which consists of merging the design methodology Value Sensitive Design with Martha Nussbaum's capability theory. CSD aims to normatively assess technology design in general, and technology design for health and wellbeing in particular. Unique to CSD is its ability to account for human diversity and to counter injustices that manifest in technology design. The basic framework of CSD is demonstrated by applying it to the hypothetical design case of a therapy chatbot for (...)
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  • Towards Transparency by Design for Artificial Intelligence.Heike Felzmann, Eduard Fosch-Villaronga, Christoph Lutz & Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):3333-3361.
    In this article, we develop the concept of Transparency by Design that serves as practical guidance in helping promote the beneficial functions of transparency while mitigating its challenges in automated-decision making environments. With the rise of artificial intelligence and the ability of AI systems to make automated and self-learned decisions, a call for transparency of how such systems reach decisions has echoed within academic and policy circles. The term transparency, however, relates to multiple concepts, fulfills many functions, and holds different (...)
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  • An Ethical Framework for the Design, Development, Implementation, and Assessment of Drones Used in Public Healthcare.Dylan Cawthorne & Aimee Robbins-van Wynsberghe - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2867-2891.
    The use of drones in public healthcare is suggested as a means to improve efficiency under constrained resources and personnel. This paper begins by framing drones in healthcare as a social experiment where ethical guidelines are needed to protect those impacted while fully realizing the benefits the technology offers. Then we propose an ethical framework to facilitate the design, development, implementation, and assessment of drones used in public healthcare. Given the healthcare context, we structure the framework according to the four (...)
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  • Critiquing the Reasons for Making Artificial Moral Agents.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Scott Robbins - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    Many industry leaders and academics from the field of machine ethics would have us believe that the inevitability of robots coming to have a larger role in our lives demands that robots be endowed with moral reasoning capabilities. Robots endowed in this way may be referred to as artificial moral agents. Reasons often given for developing AMAs are: the prevention of harm, the necessity for public trust, the prevention of immoral use, such machines are better moral reasoners than humans, and (...)
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  • Engineers’ Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens.Ryan C. Campbell & Denise Wilson - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):591-622.
    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student’s writing on the human health and environmental impacts of “backyard” electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers (...)
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  • Socially Assistive Robots in Aged Care: Ethical Orientations Beyond the Care-Romantic and Technology-Deterministic Gaze.Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé & Chris Gastmans - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-20.
    Socially Assistive Robots are increasingly conceived as applicable tools to be used in aged care. However, the use carries many negative and positive connotations. Negative connotations come forth out of romanticized views of care practices, disregarding their already established technological nature. Positive connotations are formulated out of techno-deterministic views on SAR use, presenting it as an inevitable and necessary next step in technological development to guarantee aged care. Ethical guidance of SAR use inspired by negative connotations tends to be over-restrictive (...)
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  • Digital Platforms and Responsible Innovation: Expanding Value Sensitive Design to Overcome Ontological Uncertainty.Mark de Reuver, Aimee van Wynsberghe, Marijn Janssen & Ibo van de Poel - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):257-267.
    In this paper, we argue that the characteristics of digital platforms challenge the fundamental assumptions of value sensitive design. Traditionally, VSD methods assume that we can identify relevant values during the design phase of new technologies. The underlying assumption is that there is only epistemic uncertainty about which values will be impacted by a technology. VSD methods suggest that one can predict which values will be affected by new technologies by increasing knowledge about how values are interpreted or understood in (...)
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  • Integrating Value Considerations in the Decision Making for the Design of Biorefineries.Mar Palmeros Parada, Lotte Asveld, Patricia Osseweijer & John Alexander Posada - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):2927-2955.
    Biobased production has been promoted as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources. However, controversies over its impact on sustainability highlight societal concerns, value tensions and uncertainties that have not been taken into account during its development. In this work, the consideration of stakeholders’ values in a biorefinery design project is investigated. Value sensitive design is a promising approach to the design of technologies with consideration of stakeholders’ values, however, it is not directly applicable for complex systems like biorefineries. Therefore, some (...)
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  • Towards a New Scale for Assessing Attitudes Towards Social Robots.Malene Flensborg Damholdt, Christina Vestergaard, Marco Nørskov, Raul Hakli, Stefan Larsen & Johanna Seibt - 2020 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 21 (1):24-56.
    Background: The surge in the development of social robots gives rise to an increased need for systematic methods of assessing attitudes towards robots. Aim: This study presents the development of a questionnaire for assessing attitudinal stance towards social robots: the ASOR. Methods: The 37-item ASOR questionnaire was developed by a task-force with members from different disciplines. It was founded on theoretical considerations of how social robots could influence five different aspects of relatedness. Results: Three hundred thirty-nine people responded to the (...)
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  • Robots Like Me: Challenges and Ethical Issues in Aged Care.Ipke Wachsmuth - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9 (432).
    This paper addresses the issue of whether robots could substitute for human care, given the challenges in aged care induced by the demographic change. The use of robots to provide emotional care has raised ethical concerns, e.g., that people may be deceived and deprived of dignity. In this paper it is argued that these concerns might be mitigated and that it may be sufficient for robots to take part in caring when they behave *as if* they care.
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  • HRI Ethics and Type-Token Ambiguity: What Kind of Robotic Identity is Most Responsible?Thomas Arnold & Matthias Scheutz - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):357-366.
    This paper addresses ethical challenges posed by a robot acting as both a general type of system and a discrete, particular machine. Using the philosophical distinction between “type” and “token,” we locate type-token ambiguity within a larger field of indefinite robotic identity, which can include networked systems or multiple bodies under a single control system. The paper explores three specific areas where the type-token tension might affect human–robot interaction, including how a robot demonstrates the highly personalized recounting of information, how (...)
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  • Urban Robotics and Responsible Urban Innovation.Michael Nagenborg - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):345-355.
    Robots are leaving factories and entering urban spaces. In this paper, I will explore how we can integrate robots of various types into the urban landscape. I will distinguish between two perspectives: the responsible design and use of urban robots and robots as part of responsible urban innovations. The first viewpoint considers issues arising from the use of a robot in an urban environment. To develop a substantive understanding of Responsible Urban Robotics, we need to focus on normative implications of (...)
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  • Integrative Social Robotics Hands-On.Kerstin Fischer, Johanna Seibt, Raffaele Rodogno, Maike Kirkegård Rasmussen, Astrid Weiss, Leon Bodenhagen, William Kristian Juel & Norbert Krüger - 2020 - Interaction Studies 21 (1):145-185.
    In this paper, we discuss the development of robot use cases in an elderly care facility in the context of exploring the method of Integrative Social Robotics when used on top of a user-centered design approach. Integrative Social Robotics is a new proposal for how to generate responsible, i.e. culturally and ethically sustainable, social robotics applications. Starting point for the discussion are the five principles that characterize an ISR approach, which are discussed in application to the three use cases for (...)
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  • Robots and Human Dignity: A Consideration of the Effects of Robot Care on the Dignity of Older People.Amanda Sharkey - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):63-75.
    This paper explores the relationship between dignity and robot care for older people. It highlights the disquiet that is often expressed about failures to maintain the dignity of vulnerable older people, but points out some of the contradictory uses of the word ‘dignity’. Certain authors have resolved these contradictions by identifying different senses of dignity; contrasting the inviolable dignity inherent in human life to other forms of dignity which can be present to varying degrees. The Capability Approach (CA) is introduced (...)
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  • Critiquing the Reasons for Making Artificial Moral Agents.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Scott Robbins - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (3):719-735.
    Many industry leaders and academics from the field of machine ethics would have us believe that the inevitability of robots coming to have a larger role in our lives demands that robots be endowed with moral reasoning capabilities. Robots endowed in this way may be referred to as artificial moral agents. Reasons often given for developing AMAs are: the prevention of harm, the necessity for public trust, the prevention of immoral use, such machines are better moral reasoners than humans, and (...)
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  • Moral Deskilling and Upskilling in a New Machine Age: Reflections on the Ambiguous Future of Character.Shannon Vallor - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):107-124.
    This paper explores the ambiguous impact of new information and communications technologies on the cultivation of moral skills in human beings. Just as twentieth century advances in machine automation resulted in the economic devaluation of practical knowledge and skillsets historically cultivated by machinists, artisans, and other highly trained workers , while also driving the cultivation of new skills in a variety of engineering and white collar occupations, ICTs are also recognized as potential causes of a complex pattern of economic deskilling, (...)
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  • The Ethics of Robotic Caregivers.Amitai Etzioni & Oren Etzioni - 2017 - Interaction Studies 18 (2):174-190.
    As Artificial Intelligence technology seems poised for a major take-off and changing societal dynamics are creating a high demand for caregivers for elders, children and those infirmed-robotic caregivers, may well be used much more often. This article examines the ethical concerns raised by the use of AI caregivers and concludes that many of these concerns are avoided when AI caregivers operate as partners rather than substitutes. Furthermore, most of the remaining concerns are minor and are faced by human caregivers as (...)
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