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  1. The Colonization Thesis: Habermas on Reification.Timo Jütten - 2011 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 19 (5):701 - 727.
    Abstract According to Habermas' colonization thesis, reification is a social pathology that arises when the communicative infrastructure of the lifeworld is 'colonized' by money and power. In this paper I argue that, thirty years after the publication of the Theory of Communicative Action, this thesis remains compelling. However, while Habermas offers a functionalist explanation of reification, his normative criticism of it remains largely implicit: he never explains what is wrong with reification from the perspective of the people whose social relations (...)
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  • Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements.Danielle M. Wenner - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):36-44.
    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both research (...)
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  • Global Labor Justice and the Limits of Economic Analysis.Joshua Preiss - 2014 - Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (1):55-83.
    This article considers the economic case for so-called sweatshop wages and working conditions. My goal is not to defend or reject the economic case for sweatshops. Instead, proceeding from a broadly pluralist understanding of value, I make and defend a number of claims concerning the ethical relevance of economic analysis for values that different agents utilize to evaluate sweatshops. My arguments give special attention to a series of recent articles by Benjamin Powell and Matt Zwolinski, which represent the latest and (...)
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  • Marx and Kant on Capitalist Exploitation.Allen Wood - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (4):641-659.
  • Benefits to Research Subjects in International Trials: Do They Reduce Exploitation or Increase Undue Inducement?Angela Ballantyne - 2008 - Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):178-191.
    There is an alleged tension between undue inducement and exploitation in research trials. This paper considers claims that increasing the benefits to research subjects enrolled in international, externally-sponsored clinical trials should be avoided on the grounds that it may result in the undue inducement of research subjects. This article contributes to the debate about exploitation versus undue inducement by introducing an analysis of the available empirical research into research participants' motivations and the influence of payments on research subjects' behaviour and (...)
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  • Are We All Exploiters?Benjamin Ferguson - 2021 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 103 (3):535-546.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  • Exploitation and Joint Action.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (3):280-300.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  • Can Kant’s Formula of the End in Itself Condemn Capitalism?James Furner - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (1):1-25.
    Kantian socialists at the turn of the twentieth century, as well as contemporary authors seeking a principle with which to condemn capitalism, have turned to Kant’s Formula of the End in Itself. This article assesses the arguments from FEI against capitalism from the perspective of the issues that arise in interpreting and applying Kant’s formula. There are various strategies with which a Kantian might use FEI to condemn conduct that Kant did not use FEI to condemn. The article asks whether (...)
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  • The Exploitation Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Hallie Liberto - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 167 (1):73-88.
    When discussing exploitation, we often say things like this, “sweatshop laborers have terrible working conditions and are paid almost nothing, but they are better off with that labor than with no labor.” Similarly, in describing the Non-Identity Problem, Derek Parfit points out: we cannot say that the individuals born in future generations are worse off because of our destructive environmental policies because the particular people living in those future generations wouldn’t even exist if it were not for these destructive policies. (...)
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  • Exploitation and the Vulnerability Clause.Hallie Liberto - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):619-629.
    What conditions of vulnerability must an individual face in order that we might ever correctly say that she or he has been wrongfully exploited? Mikhail Valdman has recently argued that wrongful exploitation is the extraction of excessive benefits from someone who cannot reasonably refuse one’s offer. So, ‘being unable to reasonably refuse an offer’ is Valdman’s answer to this question. I will argue that this answer is too narrow, but that other competing answers, like Alan Wertheimer’s, are too broad. I (...)
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  • Exploitation: A Primer.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (2):1-14.
    This paper reviews the recent literature on exploitation. It distinguishes between three main species of exploitation theory: teleology-based accounts, respect-based accounts, and freedom-based accounts. It then addresses the implications of each.
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  • Exploitation as Domination: A Response to Arneson.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (4):527-538.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Richard Arneson criticizes the domination account of exploitation and attributes it to me and Allen Wood. In this paper, I defend the domination account against Arneson's criticisms. I begin by showing that the domination view is distinct from the vulnerability-based view defended by Wood. I also show that Alan Wertheimer's influential account of exploitation is congenial to the domination view. I then argue that Arneson's own fairness-based view of exploitation generates false negatives and (...)
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  • Exploitation, Vulnerability, and Market‐Driven Governance.Somogy Varga - 2016 - Journal of Social Philosophy 47 (1):90-113.
  • The Vulnerable and the Susceptible.Michael H. Kottow - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (5-6):460-471.
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  • Exploiting Injustice in Mutually Beneficial Market Exchange: The Case of Sweatshop Labor.András Miklós - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (1):59-69.
    Mutually beneficial exchanges in markets can be exploitative because one party takes advantage of an underlying injustice. For instance, employers of sweatshop workers are often accused of exploiting the desperate conditions of their employees, although the latter accept the terms of their employment voluntarily. A weakness of this account of exploitation is its tendency for over-inclusiveness. Certainly, given the prevalence of global and domestic socioeconomic inequalities, not all exchanges that take place against background injustices should be considered exploitative. This paper (...)
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  • Should Republicans Be Interested in Exploitation?Alexander Bryan & Ioannis Kouris - forthcoming - Res Publica:1-18.
    Recent work in republican political theory has identified various forms of domination in the structures and relations of capitalist societies. A notable absence in much of this work is the concept of exploitation, which is generally treated as a predictable outcome of certain kinds of domination. This paper argues that the concept of exploitation can instead be conceived as a form of structural domination, understood in republican terms, and that adopting this conception has important implications for republican attempts to theorize (...)
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  • Sweatshops, Structural Injustice, and the Wrong of Exploitation: Why Multinational Corporations Have Positive Duties to the Global Poor.Brian Berkey - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 169 (1):43-56.
    It is widely thought that firms that employ workers in “sweatshop” conditions wrongfully exploit those workers. This claim has been challenged by those who argue that because companies are not obligated to hire their workers in the first place, employing them cannot be wrong so long as they voluntarily accept their jobs and genuinely benefit from them. In this article, I argue that we can maintain that at least many sweatshop employees are wrongfully exploited, while accepting the plausible claim at (...)
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  • Exploitation and Outcome.Richard Arneson - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (4):392-412.
    Exploitation is interacting with another in a way that takes unfair advantage of that person. Exploitation is thought to be morally wrong even when it would bring about the best attainable outcome, hence conflicts with the consequentialist morality that holds one ought always to do whatever would bring about the best outcome. This essay aims to reconcile norms against exploitation and act consequentialism. A puzzle about exploitation is raised and resolved.
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  • The Paradox of Exploitation: A New Solution.Benjamin Ferguson - 2013 - Dissertation, London School of Economics and Political Science
    In this thesis I present a rights-based theory of exploitation. I argue that successful conceptions of exploitation should begin with the ordinary language claim that exploitation involves `taking unfair advantage'. Consequently, they must combine an account of what it means to take advantage of another with an account of when transactions are unfair. Existing conceptions of exploitation fail to provide adequate accounts of both aspects of exploitation. -/- Hillel Steiner and John Roemer provide convincing accounts of the unfairness involved in (...)
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  • The Wage Setting Process.Thomas Christiano - 2018 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):57-84.
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  • Equitable Access to Human Biological Resources in Developing Countries: Benefit Sharing Without Undue Inducement.Roger Scarlin Chennells - unknown
    The main research question of this thesis is: How can cross-border access to human genetic resources, such as blood or DNA samples, be governed to achieve equity for developing countries? Access to and benefit sharing for human biological resources is not regulated through an international legal framework such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, which applies only to plants, animals and micro-organisms as well as associated traditional knowledge. This legal vacuum for the governance of human genetic resources can be attributed (...)
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  • G. A. Cohen on Exploitation.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (2):151-164.
    This paper argues that Cohen’s early work on Marxism, and his work in political philosophy, entails commitment to a distributive paradigm, that is, the view that exploitation obtains only if distributive injustice obtains. Cohen’s early espousal of that paradigm is explicitly reaffirmed in his defence of luck egalitarianism. The paper argues that Cohen’s distributive paradigm is neither the only defensible theory of exploitation, nor indeed the most plausible. It also shows that Cohen himself had doubts about the distributive paradigm, and (...)
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  • The Role of Vulnerability in Kantian Ethics.Paul Formosa - 2014 - In Catriona Mackenzie, Wendy Rogers & Susan Dodds (eds.), Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 88-109.
    Does the fact that humans are vulnerable, needy and dependent beings play an important role in Kantian ethics? It is sometimes claimed that it cannot and does not. I argue that it can and does. I distinguish between broad (all persons are vulnerable) and narrow (only some persons are vulnerable) senses of vulnerability, and explain the role of vulnerability in both senses in Kantian ethics. The basis of this argument is to show that the core normative focus of Kantian ethics (...)
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  • Marx with Kant on Exploitation.James Furner - 2015 - Contemporary Political Theory 14 (1):23-44.
  • Editor's Introduction: Exploitation Reconsidered.Somogy Varga - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (S1):5-8.
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  • Exploitation and Consequentialism.Ruth Sample - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (S1):66-91.
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  • Ensuring Risk Awareness of Vulnerable Patients in the Post- Montgomery Era: Treading a Fine Line.Sandip Talukdar - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 28 (3):283-298.
    The 2015 UK Supreme Court judgment in Montgomery v Lanarkshire reinforces the importance of informed consent to medical treatment. This paper suggests that Montgomery recognises the challenge faced by vulnerable individuals in choosing between treatment options and making decisions with appreciation of information about material risks. The judgment endorses a form of weak paternalism to safeguard such persons, which is not disrespectful of the aggregate principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. But ethical practice requires professionals to tread carefully between (...)
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  • Beyond Fair Benefits: Reconsidering Exploitation Arguments Against Organ Markets.Julian J. Koplin - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (1):33-47.
    One common objection to establishing regulated live donor organ markets is that such markets would be exploitative. Perhaps surprisingly, exploitation arguments against organ markets have been widely rejected in the philosophical literature on the subject. It is often argued that concerns about exploitation should be addressed by increasing the price paid to organ sellers, not by banning the trade outright. I argue that this analysis rests on a particular conception of exploitation, and outline two additional ways that the charge of (...)
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  • The Ethical and Economic Case Against Sweatshop Labor: A Critical Assessment. [REVIEW]Benjamin Powell & Matt Zwolinski - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):449-472.
    During the last decade, scholarly criticism of sweatshops has grown increasingly sophisticated. This article reviews the new moral and economic foundations of these criticisms and argues that they are flawed. It seeks to advance the debate over sweatshops by noting the extent to which the case for sweatshops does, and does not, depend on the existence of competitive markets. It attempts to more carefully distinguish between different ways in which various parties might seek to modify sweatshop behavior, and to point (...)
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  • Ethics of the Attention Economy: The Problem of Social Media Addiction.Vikram R. Bhargava & Manuel Velasquez - forthcoming - Business Ethics Quarterly:1-39.
    Social media companies commonly design their platforms in a way that renders them addictive. Some governments have declared internet addiction a major public health concern, and the World Health Organization has characterized excessive internet use as a growing problem. Our article shows why scholars, policy makers, and the managers of social media companies should treat social media addiction as a serious moral problem. While the benefits of social media are not negligible, we argue that social media addiction raises unique ethical (...)
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  • Compensation Ethics and Organizational Commitment.Jeffrey Moriarty - 2014 - Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (1):31-53.
    If an employee is committed to his firm—if he is “attached” or “bound” to it—then his firm may be able to obtain a discount on his labor. This paper asks: Is it wrong for firms to do so? If we understand just or fair pay solely in terms of voluntary agreements between employers and employees, the answer seems to be ‘no.’ Against this, I argue that, in some cases, it is ‘yes.’ In particular, it is wrong for firms to try (...)
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  • Exploitation and Disadvantage.Benjamin Ferguson - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (3):485-509.
  • Serial Participation and the Ethics of Phase 1 Healthy Volunteer Research.Rebecca L. Walker, Marci D. Cottingham & Jill A. Fisher - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (1):83-114.
    Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials—which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects—appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase (...)
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  • A Framework for Assessing Immorally Manipulative Marketing Tactics.Shlomo Sher - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):97-118.
    A longstanding debate exists in both academic literature and popular culture about whether non-informative marketing tactics are manipulative. However, given that we tend to believe that some marketing tactics are manipulative and some are not, the question that marketers, their critics, and consumers need to ask themselves is that of how to actually determine whether any particular marketing tactic is manipulative and whether a given manipulative tactic is, in fact, immoral. This article proposes to operationalize criteria that can be used (...)
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  • Why Bioethics Needs a Concept of Vulnerability.Wendy Rogers, Catriona Mackenzie & Susan Dodds - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):11-38.
  • Vulnerability and Exploitation in a Globalized World.Agomoni Ganguli Mitra & Nikola Biller-Andorno - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):91-102.
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  • Structural Exploitation.Matt Zwolinski - 2012 - Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (1):154-179.
    Research Articles Matt Zwolinski, Social Philosophy and Policy, FirstView Article.
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  • Covert Positive Incentives as an Alternative to War.James Pattison - 2018 - Ethics and International Affairs 32 (3):293-303.
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  • The Dark Side of Buyer Power: Supplier Exploitation and the Role of Ethical Climates.Martin C. Schleper, Constantin Blome & David A. Wuttke - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (1):97-114.
    Media increasingly accuse firms of exploiting suppliers, and these allegations often result in lurid headlines that threaten the reputations and therefore business successes of these firms. Neither has the phenomenon of supplier exploitation been investigated from a rigorous, ethical standpoint, nor have answers been provided regarding why some firms pursue exploitative approaches. By systemically contrasting economic liberalism and just prices as two divergent perspectives on supplier exploitation, we introduce a distinction of common business practice and unethical supplier exploitation. Since supplier (...)
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