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  1. Three-Dimensional Phylogeny in Two Dimensions: How Darwin and Other Nineteenth-Century Naturalists Created Three-Dimensional Figures of the Natural System by Combining Trees of Life and Maps of Affinity.Kees van Putten - 2021 - Journal of the History of Biology 54 (4):639-687.
    The two great modern naturalists, Linnaeus and Darwin, expressed their intuition about how best to visualize patterns of affinities, that is, morphological similarities and divergences between taxa. Linnaeus suggested that “all plants show affinities on all sides, like a territory on a geographical map,” while Darwin thought that it was virtually impossible to understand the affinities between living and extinct species without a genealogical tree. Genealogical trees follow the diachronic, evolving logic of a timeline, whereas maps depict a synchronous pattern (...)
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