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  1. The Diagnostic Value of Freedom.Nicolas Côté - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-20.
    This paper aims to draw attention to an important but underappreciated aspect of the instrumental value of freedom: its diagnostic value. This is the value freedom has insofar as it makes it possible for us to discover ourselves and improve ourselves in our capacity to make value judgements. Diagnostic value, I argue, has an important role to play in explaining the value we attach to freedom. Accordingly, this paper is aimed at elucidating this concept, examining its relevance to our lives, (...)
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  • The Logical Development of Pretense Imagination.Aybüke Özgün & Tom Schoonen - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-27.
    We propose a logic of imagination, based on simulated belief revision, that intends to uncover the logical patterns governing the development of imagination in pretense. Our system complements the currently prominent logics of imagination in that ours in particular formalises the algorithm that specifies what goes on in between receiving a certain input for an imaginative episode and what is imagined in the resulting imagination, as well as the goal-orientedness of imagination, by allowing the context to determine, what we call, (...)
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  • Dynamic Hyperintensional Belief Revision.Aybüke Özgün & Francesco Berto - 2021 - Review of Symbolic Logic (3):766-811.
    We propose a dynamic hyperintensional logic of belief revision for non-omniscient agents, reducing the logical omniscience phenomena affecting standard doxastic/epistemic logic as well as AGM belief revision theory. Our agents don’t know all a priori truths; their belief states are not closed under classical logical consequence; and their belief update policies are such that logically or necessarily equivalent contents can lead to different revisions. We model both plain and conditional belief, then focus on dynamic belief revision. The key idea we (...)
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  • Logical Dynamics of Some Speech Acts That Affect Obligations and Preferences.Tomoyuki Yamada - 2008 - Synthese 165 (2):295 - 315.
    In this paper, illocutionary acts of commanding will be differentiated from perlocutionary acts that affect preferences of addressees in a new dynamic logic which combines the preference upgrade introduced in DEUL (dynamic epistemic upgrade logic) by van Benthem and Liu with the deontic update introduced in ECL II (eliminative command logic II) by Yamada. The resulting logic will incorporate J. L. Austin’s distinction between illocutionary acts as acts having mere conventional effects and perlocutionary acts as acts having real effects upon (...)
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  • Logical Dynamics of Social Communication.Tomoyuki Yamada - 2008 - Kagaku Tetsugaku 41 (2):59-73.
  • Everything is Learnable, Once It is Settled.Kevin Xu - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):4795-4817.
    Since Fitch’s proof that not all propositions are knowable, philosophers have analysed the concept of knowability and sought a schema for the knowable propositions. A recent development in dynamic epistemic logic has been to read ‘knowable’ as ‘known after an announcement’. Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic and Sequential Public Announcement Logic are two DELs that have depicted this reading of knowability. We argue that neither APAL nor SPAL provide a satisfactory and principled schema of the knowable propositions. Instead, we claim that (...)
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  • Dynamic Epistemic Logic for Implicit and Explicit Beliefs.Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada - 2014 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (2):107-140.
    Epistemic logic with its possible worlds semantic model is a powerful framework that allows us to represent an agent’s information not only about propositional facts, but also about her own information. Nevertheless, agents represented in this framework are logically omniscient: their information is closed under logical consequence. This property, useful in some applications, is an unrealistic idealisation in some others. Many proposals to solve this problem focus on weakening the properties of the agent’s information, but some authors have argued that (...)
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  • Towards a Theory of Intention Revision.Wiebe van der Hoek, Wojciech Jamroga & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):265-290.
    Although the change of beliefs in the face of new information has been widely studied with some success, the revision of other mental states has received little attention from the theoretical perspective. In particular, intentions are widely recognised as being a key attitude for rational agents, and while several formal theories of intention have been proposed in the literature, the logic of intention revision has been hardly considered. There are several reasons for this: perhaps most importantly, intentions are very closely (...)
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  • Toward a Dynamic Logic of Questions.Johan van Benthem & Ştefan Minică - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):633-669.
    Questions are triggers for explicit events of ‘issue management’. We give a complete logic in dynamic-epistemic style for events of raising, refining, and resolving an issue, all in the presence of information flow through observation or communication. We explore extensions of the framework to multi-agent scenarios and long-term temporal protocols. We sketch a comparison with some alternative accounts.
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  • Priority Structures in Deontic Logic.Johan van Benthem, Davide Grossi & Fenrong Liu - 2014 - Theoria 80 (2):116-152.
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  • Propositional Quantification in Logics of Contingency.Hans van Ditmarsch & Jie Fan - 2016 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 26 (1):81-102.
    In this work we define contingency logic with arbitrary announcement. In contingency logic, the primitive modality contingency formalises that a proposition may be true but also may be false, so that if it is non-contingent then it is necessarily true or necessarily false. To this logic one can add dynamic operators to describe change of contingency. Our logic has operators for public announcement and operators for arbitrary public announcement, as in the dynamic epistemic logic called arbitrary public announcement logic. However, (...)
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  • My Beliefs About Your Beliefs: A Case Study in Theory of Mind and Epistemic Logic.Hans van Ditmarsch & Willem Labuschagne - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):191-209.
    We model three examples of beliefs that agents may have about other agents’ beliefs, and provide motivation for this conceptualization from the theory of mind literature. We assume a modal logical framework for modelling degrees of belief by partially ordered preference relations. In this setting, we describe that agents believe that other agents do not distinguish among their beliefs (‘no preferences’), that agents believe that the beliefs of other agents are in part as their own (‘my preferences’), and the special (...)
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  • Dynamic Logic for Belief Revision.Johan van Benthem - 2007 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (2):129-155.
    We show how belief revision can be treated systematically in the format of dynamicepistemic logic, when operators of conditional belief are added. The core engine consists of definable update rules for changing plausibility relations between worlds, which have been proposed independently in the dynamic-epistemic literature on preference change. Our analysis yields two new types of modal result. First, we obtain complete logics for concrete mechanisms of belief revision, based on compositional reduction axioms. Next, we show how various abstract postulates for (...)
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  • Dynamic Logic of Preference Upgrade.Johan van Benthem & Fenrong Liu - 2007 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (2):157-182.
    Statements not only update our current knowledge, but also have other dynamic effects. In particular, suggestions or commands ?upgrade' our preferences by changing the current order among worlds. We present a complete logic of knowledge update plus preference upgrade that works with dynamic-epistemic-style reduction axioms. This system can model changing obligations, conflicting commands, or ?regret'. We then show how to derive reduction axioms from arbitrary definable relation changes. This style of analysis also has a product update version with preferences between (...)
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  • An Epistemic Separation Logic with Action Models.Hans van Ditmarsch, Didier Galmiche & Marta Gawek - forthcoming - Journal of Logic, Language and Information:1-28.
    In this paper we present an extension of separation logic, Boolean BI, with epistemic and dynamic epistemic modalities. This logic, called action model separation logic, can be seen as a generalization of public announcement separation logic in which we replace public announcements with action models. Then we not only model public information change but also non-public forms of information change, such as private announcements. In this context the semantics for the connectives $$*$$ ∗ and $$\mathrel {-*}$$ - ∗ from separation (...)
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  • Unsettling Preferential Semantics.Audun Stolpe - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (2):371-399.
    This paper is concerned with removing the identity schema from the axiomatic basis of deontic conditionals. This is in order to allow a stipulated ideal to be contrary or opposite in nature to the fact it is predicated upon. It is desirable, or so it is argued, to retain the order-theoretic orientation of preferential semantics towards the analysis of deontic conditionals, more specifically of maximality semantics in the tradition from Bengt Hansson. So understood, the problem involves abstracting away the settledness (...)
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  • A New Psychologism in Logic? Reflections From the Point of View of Belief Revision.Hans Rott - 2008 - Studia Logica 88 (1):113-136.
    This paper addresses the question whether the past couple of decades of formal research in belief revision offers evidence of a new psychologism in logic. In the first part I examine five potential arguments in favour of this thesis and find them all wanting. In the second part of the paper I argue that belief revision research has climbed up a hierarchy of models for the change of doxastic states that appear to be clearly normative at the bottom, but are (...)
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  • Multi-Agent Justification Logic: Communication and Evidence Elimination. [REVIEW]Bryan Renne - 2012 - Synthese 185 (S1):43-82.
    This paper presents a logic combining Dynamic Epistemic Logic, a framework for reasoning about multi-agent communication, with a new multi-agent version of Justification Logic, a framework for reasoning about evidence and justification. This novel combination incorporates a new kind of multi-agent evidence elimination that cleanly meshes with the multi-agent communications from Dynamic Epistemic Logic, resulting in a system for reasoning about multi-agent communication and evidence elimination for groups of interacting rational agents.
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  • Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach.Erich Rast - 2011 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 7 (2):259-279.
    Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach Inclusive nonindexical context-dependence occurs when the preferred interpretation of an utterance implies its lexically-derived meaning. It is argued that the corresponding processes of free or lexically mandated enrichment can be modeled as abductive inference. A form of abduction is implemented in Simple Type Theory on the basis of a notion of plausibility, which is in turn regarded a preference relation over possible worlds. Since a preordering of doxastic alternatives taken for itself only (...)
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  • A DDL Approach to Pluralistic Ignorance and Collective Belief.Carlo Proietti & Erik J. Olsson - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (2-3):499-515.
  • Preference Based on Reasons.Daniel Osherson & Scott Weinstein - 2012 - Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (1):122-147.
    We describe a logic of preference in which modal connectives reflect reasons to desire that a sentence be true. Various conditions on models are introduced and analyzed.
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  • A General Framework for Dynamic Epistemic Logic: Towards Canonical Correspondences.Shota Motoura - 2017 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 27 (1-2):50-89.
    We propose a general framework for dynamic epistemic logics. It consists of a generic language for DELs and a class of structures, called model transition systems, that describe model transformations in a static way. An MTS can be viewed as a two-layered Kripke model and consequently inherits standard concepts such as bisimulation and bounded morphism from the ordinary Kripke models. In the second half of this article we add the global operator to the language, which enables us to define the (...)
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  • From Self-Regarding to Other-Regarding Agents in Strategic Games: A Logical Analysis.Emiliano Lorini - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):443-475.
    I propose a modal logic that enables to reason about self-regarding and otherregarding motivations in strategic games. This logic integrates the concepts of joint action, belief, individual and group payoff. The first part of the article is focused on self-regarding agents. A self-regarding agent decides to perform a certain action only if he believes that this action maximizes his own personal benefit. The second part of the article explores different kinds of other-regarding motivations such as fairness and reciprocity. Differently from (...)
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  • A STIT Logic for Reasoning About Social Influence.Emiliano Lorini & Giovanni Sartor - 2016 - Studia Logica 104 (4):773-812.
    In this paper we propose a method for modeling social influence within the STIT approach to action. Our proposal consists in extending the STIT language with special operators that allow us to represent the consequences of an agent’s choices over the rational choices of another agent.
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  • A Logic for Reasoning About Counterfactual Emotions.Emiliano Lorini & François Schwarzentruber - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence 175 (3-4):814-847.
  • A Dynamic Logic of Agency II: Deterministic Dla {\mathcal{Dla}} , Coalition Logic, and Game Theory.Emiliano Lorini - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (3):327-351.
    We continue the work initiated in Herzig and Lorini (J Logic Lang Inform, in press) whose aim is to provide a minimalistic logical framework combining the expressiveness of dynamic logic in which actions are first-class citizens in the object language, with the expressiveness of logics of agency such as STIT and logics of group capabilities such as CL and ATL. We present a logic called ( Deterministic Dynamic logic of Agency ) which supports reasoning about actions and joint actions of (...)
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  • Von Wright’s “The Logic of Preference” Revisited.Fenrong Liu - 2010 - Synthese 175 (1):69 - 88.
    Preference is a key area where analytic philosophy meets philosophical logic. I start with two related issues: reasons for preference, and changes in preference, first mentioned in von Wright’s book The Logic of Preference but not thoroughly explored there. I show how these two issues can be handled together in one dynamic logical framework, working with structured two-level models, and I investigate the resulting dynamics of reason-based preference in some detail. Next, I study the foundational issue of entanglement between preference (...)
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  • Von Wright’s “The Logic of Preference” Revisited.Fenrong Liu - 2010 - Synthese 175 (1):69-88.
    Preference is a key area where analytic philosophy meets philosophical logic. I start with two related issues: reasons for preference, and changes in preference, first mentioned in von Wright’s book The Logic of Preference but not thoroughly explored there. I show how these two issues can be handled together in one dynamic logical framework, working with structured two-level models, and I investigate the resulting dynamics of reason-based preference in some detail. Next, I study the foundational issue of entanglement between preference (...)
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  • Diversity of Agents and Their Interaction.Fenrong Liu - 2009 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1):23-53.
    Diversity of agents occurs naturally in epistemic logic, and dynamic logics of information update and belief revision. In this paper we provide a systematic discussion of different sources of diversity, such as introspection ability, powers of observation, memory capacity, and revision policies, and we show how these can be encoded in dynamic epistemic logics allowing for individual variation among agents. Next, we explore the interaction of diverse agents by looking at some concrete scenarios of communication and learning, and we propose (...)
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  • A Two-Level Perspective on Preference.Fenrong Liu - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (3):421 - 439.
    This paper proposes a two-level modeling perspective which combines intrinsic 'betterness' and reason-based extrinsic preference, and develops its static and dynamic logic in tandem. Our technical results extend, integrate, and re-interpret earlier theorems on preference representation and update in the literature on preference change.
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  • Dynamic Epistemic Logic of Belief Change in Legal Judgments.Pimolluck Jirakunkanok, Katsuhiko Sano & Satoshi Tojo - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (3):201-249.
    This study realizes belief/reliability change of a judge in a legal judgment by dynamic epistemic logic. A key feature of DEL is that possibilities in an agent’s belief can be represented by a Kripke model. This study addresses two difficulties in applying DEL to a legal case. First, since there are several methods for constructing a Kripke model, our question is how we can construct the model from a legal case. Second, since this study employs several dynamic operators, our question (...)
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  • Epistemic GDL: A Logic for Representing and Reasoning About Imperfect Information Games.Guifei Jiang, Dongmo Zhang, Laurent Perrussel & Heng Zhang - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 294 (C):103453.
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  • Epistemic Logic for Rule-Based Agents.Mark Jago - 2009 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1):131-158.
    The logical omniscience problem, whereby standard models of epistemic logic treat an agent as believing all consequences of its beliefs and knowing whatever follows from what else it knows, has received plenty of attention in the literature. But many attempted solutions focus on a fairly narrow specification of the problem: avoiding the closure of belief or knowledge, rather than showing how the proposed logic is of philosophical interest or of use in computer science or artificial intelligence. Sentential epistemic logics, as (...)
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  • Towards a Theory of Intention Revision.Wiebe van Der Hoek, Wojciech Jamroga & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):265-290.
    Although the change of beliefs in the face of new information has been widely studied with some success, the revision of other mental states has received little attention from the theoretical perspective. In particular, intentions are widely recognised as being a key attitude for rational agents, and while several formal theories of intention have been proposed in the literature, the logic of intention revision has been hardly considered. There are several reasons for this: perhaps most importantly, intentions are very closely (...)
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  • On the Dynamics of Institutional Agreements.Andreas Herzig, Tiago de Lima & Emiliano Lorini - 2009 - Synthese 171 (2):321 - 355.
    In this paper we investigate a logic for modelling individual and collective acceptances that is called acceptance logic. The logic has formulae of the form $A_{Gx} \phi $ reading 'if the agents in the set of agents G identify themselves with institution x then they together accept that φ'. We extend acceptance logic by two kinds of dynamic modal operators. The first kind are public announcements of the form x!ψ, meaning that the agents learn that ψ is the case in (...)
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  • Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Andreas Herzig - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (3):441-445.
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  • Informational Dynamics of Epistemic Possibility Modals.Peter Hawke & Shane Steinert-Threlkeld - 2018 - Synthese 195 (10):4309-4342.
    We investigate, in a logical setting, the expressivist proposal that assertion primarily functions to express and coordinate doxastic states and that ‘might’ fundamentally expresses lack of belief. We provide a formal model of an agent’s doxastic state and novel assertability conditions for an associated formal language. We thereby prove that an arbitrary assertion always succeeds in expressing a well-defined doxastic state, and propose a fully general and intuitive update operation as a model of an agent coming to accept an arbitrary (...)
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  • Recapturing Dynamic Logic of Relation Changers Via Bounded Morphisms.Ryo Hatano & Katsuhiko Sano - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (1):95-124.
    The present contribution shows that a Hilbert-style axiomatization for dynamic logic of relation changers is complete for the standard Kripke semantics not by a well-known rewriting technique but by the idea of an auxiliary semantics studied by van Benthem and Wang et al. A key insight of our auxiliary semantics for dynamic logic of relation changers can be described as: “relation changers are bounded morphisms.” Moreover, we demonstrate that this semantic insight can be used to provide a modular cut-free labelled (...)
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  • What Will They Say?—Public Announcement Games.Hans van Ditmarsch & Thomas Ågotnes - 2011 - Synthese 179 (S1):57 - 85.
    Dynamic epistemic logic describes the possible information-changing actions available to individual agents, and their knowledge pre-and post conditions. For example, public announcement logic describes actions in the form of public, truthful announcements. However, little research so far has considered describing and analysing rational choice between such actions, i.e., predicting what rational self-interested agents actually will or should do. Since the outcome of information exchange ultimately depends on the actions chosen by all the agents in the system, and assuming that agents (...)
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  • Question–Answer Games.Thomas Ågotnes, Johan van Benthem, Hans van Ditmarsch & Stefan Minica - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):265-288.
    We propose strategic games wherein the strategies consist of players asking each other questions and answering those questions. We study simplifications of such games wherein two players simultaneously ask each other a question that the opponent is then obliged to answer. The motivation for our research is to model conversation including the dynamics of questions and answers, to provide new links between game theory and dynamic logics of information, and to exploit the dynamic/strategic structure that, we think, lies implicitly inside (...)
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  • The structure of communicative acts.Sarah E. Murray & William B. Starr - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44 (2):425-474.
    Utterances of natural language sentences can be used to communicate not just contents, but also forces. This paper examines this topic from a cross-linguistic perspective on sentential mood. Recent work in this area focuses on conversational dynamics: the three sentence types can be associated with distinctive kinds of conversational effects called sentential forces, modeled as three kinds of updates to the discourse context. This paper has two main goals. First, it provides two arguments, on empirical and methodological grounds, for treating (...)
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  • The Language of Social Software.Jan van Eijck - 2010 - Synthese 177 (S1):77 - 96.
    Computer software is written in languages like C, Java or Haskell. In many cases social software is expressed in natural language. The paper explores connections between the areas of natural language analysis and analysis of social protocols, and proposes an extended program for natural language semantics, where the goals of natural language communication are derived from the demands of specific social protocols.
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  • The Strength of Desires: A Logical Approach.Didier Dubois, Emiliano Lorini & Henri Prade - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (1):199-231.
    The aim of this paper is to propose a formal approach to reasoning about desires, understood as logical propositions which we would be pleased to make true, also acknowledging the fact that desire is a matter of degree. It is first shown that, at the static level, desires should satisfy certain principles that differ from those to which beliefs obey. In this sense, from a static perspective, the logic of desires is different from the logic of beliefs. While the accumulation (...)
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  • Preferences in AI: An Overview.Carmel Domshlak, Eyke Hüllermeier, Souhila Kaci & Henri Prade - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence 175 (7-8):1037-1052.
  • Logic of Change, Change of Logic.Hans van Ditmarsch, Brian Hill & Ondrej Majer - 2009 - Synthese 171 (2):227 - 234.
  • My Beliefs About Your Beliefs: A Case Study in Theory of Mind and Epistemic Logic.Hans Van Ditmarsch & Willem Labuschagne - 2007 - Synthese 155 (2):191 - 209.
    We model three examples of beliefs that agents may have about other agents' beliefs, and provide motivation for this conceptualization from the theory of mind literature. We assume a modal logical framework for modelling degrees of belief by partially ordered preference relations. In this setting, we describe that agents believe that other agents do not distinguish among their beliefs ('no preferences'), that agents believe that the beliefs of other agents are in part as their own ('my preferences'), and the special (...)
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  • Reflecting on Social Influence in Networks.Zoé Christoff, Jens Ulrik Hansen & Carlo Proietti - 2014 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (3-4):299-333.
    In many social contexts, social influence seems to be inescapable: the behavior of others influences us to modify ours, and vice-versa. However, social psychology is full of examples of phenomena where individuals experience a discrepancy between their public behavior and their private opinion. This raises two central questions. First, how does an individual reason about the behavior of others and their private opinions in situations of social influence? And second, what are the laws of the resulting information dynamics? In this (...)
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  • Logic and Semantics for Imperatives.Nate Charlow - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (4):617-664.
    In this paper I will develop a view about the semantics of imperatives, which I term Modal Noncognitivism, on which imperatives might be said to have truth conditions (dispositionally, anyway), but on which it does not make sense to see them as expressing propositions (hence does not make sense to ascribe to them truth or falsity). This view stands against “Cognitivist” accounts of the semantics of imperatives, on which imperatives are claimed to express propositions, which are then enlisted in explanations (...)
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  • A Semantics for Hyperintensional Belief Revision Based on Information Bases.Sena Bozdag - 2022 - Studia Logica 110 (3):679-716.
    I propose a novel hyperintensional semantics for belief revision and a corresponding system of dynamic doxastic logic. The main goal of the framework is to reduce some of the idealisations that are common in the belief revision literature and in dynamic epistemic logic. The models of the new framework are primarily based on potentially incomplete or inconsistent collections of information, represented by situations in a situation space. I propose that by shifting the representational focus of doxastic models from belief sets (...)
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  • The Dynamics of Awareness.Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada & Johan van Benthem - 2010 - Synthese 177 (S1):5 - 27.
    Classical epistemic logic describes implicit knowledge of agents about facts and knowledge of other agents based on semantic information. The latter is produced by acts of observation or communication that are described well by dynamic epistemic logics. What these logics do not describe, however, is how significant information is also produced by acts of inference— and key axioms of the system merely postulate "deductive closure". In this paper, we take the view that all information is produced by acts, and hence (...)
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