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  1. Turning a Blind Eye: A Study of Peer Reporting in a Business School Setting.Katarina Katja Mihelič & Barbara Culiberg - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (5):364-381.
    This article examines student peer reporting by extending the findings from the business ethics and higher education literature. In the conceptual model we propose that reflective moral attentiveness, subjective knowledge of the code of ethics, and academic dishonesty beliefs antecede ethical judgment of peer reporting, which impacts intentions to report peers’ unethical behavior. The relationships are tested using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that moral attentiveness significantly influences ethical judgment, which in turn affects intention. The relationship between beliefs about (...)
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  • Gender and Perceived Fundamental Moral Orientations: An Empirical Study of the Turkish Hotel Industry.Michael K. McCuddy, Musa Pinar, Ibrahim Birkin & Metin Kozak - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):331-349.
    Recent history is replete with scandalous acts and charitable acts within the business community. Unfortunately, scandalous acts seem to occur with greater frequency than charitable acts – at least as reported in the broadcast and print media. An interesting corollary to the incidence of scandalous and charitable acts is the apparent differential involvement of men and women, particularly in scandals. This article explores a possible explanation for the apparent gender differential in involvement in scandals and acts of charity. Drawing on (...)
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  • Are Women CEOs Valuable in Terms of Bank Loan Costs? Evidence From China.Jin-hui Luo, Zeyue Huang, Xue Li & Xiaojing Lin - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (2):337-355.
    Given that women CEOs are usually more risk averse, engage less in opportunistic behavior, and provide higher quality earnings than men CEOs, we argue that firms with women CEOs are likely to face lower operational and information risk and thus enjoy cheaper external funds. Using a large sample of Chinese A-share listed firms operating from 2006 to 2012, we find consistent evidence that Chinese banks tend to impose lower loan costs on firms with women CEOs compared to firms with men (...)
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  • Characterizing Ethical Cases: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Individual Differences, Organisational Climate, and Leadership on Ethical Decision-Making. [REVIEW]J. R. C. Kuntz, J. R. Kuntz, Detelin Elenkov & Anna Nabirukhina - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):317-331.
    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the unique impact of individual differences (e.g. gender, managerial experience), social culture, ethical leadership, and ethical climate on the manner in which individuals analyse and interpret an organisational scenario. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether the manner in which a scenario is initially interpreted by respondents (i.e. as a legal issue, ethical issue, and/or ethical dilemma) influenced subsequent recognition of the relevant stakeholders involved and the identification of intra- and extra-organisational variables (...)
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  • The Impact of Locus of Control, Moral Intensity, and the Microsocial Ethical Environment on Purchasing-Related Ethical Reasoning.Jocelyn Husser, Jean-Marc Andre & Véronique Lespinet-Najib - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (1):243-261.
    This study uses a sample of 242 European professional purchasers to examine the six characteristics of the decision-making process developed by Jones. The illustration mobilizes six original scenarios reproducing typical purchasing situations. Two versions of each scenario were used, one representing low moral intensity and the other showing high moral intensity. Two populations were sampled: one of 120 purchasers responding to the first version of the questionnaire and a second of 122 different purchasers responding to version two. Each version contained (...)
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  • Perception and Understanding of Bribery in International Business.Turgut Guvenli & Rajib Sanyal - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (5):333 - 348.
    This study examines attitudes toward bribery in international business and whether such attitudes differ between men and women. Results of surveys of adults studying for careers in international business indicate ambivalent and nuanced attitudes over bribe giving/taking with significant differences by sex with respect to specific hypothetical situations, suggesting a gender gap on matters of bribery. It is recommended that academic curriculum and management development programs stress ethics and legality and focus on the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar antibribery (...)
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  • Organizational Architecture, Ethical Culture, and Perceived Unethical Behavior Towards Customers: Evidence From Wholesale Banking.Edward Groenland, Ronald Jeurissen & Raymond Zaal - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (3):825-848.
    In this study, we propose and test a model of the effects of organizational ethical culture and organizational architecture on the perceived unethical behavior of employees towards customers. This study also examines the relationship between organizational ethical culture and moral acceptability judgment, hypothesizing that moral acceptability judgment is an important stage in the ethical decision-making process. Based on a field study in one of the largest financial institutions in Europe, we found that organizational ethical culture was significantly related to the (...)
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  • The Influence of Presence and Position of Women on the Boards of Directors: The Case of NHS Foundation Trusts.Javier Garcia-Lacalle & Sheila Ellwood - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1):69-84.
    This study examines the influence of women on the boards of directors of National Health Service Foundation Trusts in England. FTs provide a public service where social performance is the primary objective, although financial constraints must be met. Female presence is higher for executive directors than non-executives, reflecting the high number of women employed in the sector. We find that a high female presence among executive and non-executive directorships does not result in significant differences either in financial return or service (...)
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  • Influence of Gender and Ethical Training on University Teachers Sensitivity Towards the Integration of Ethics in Business Studies.Marcela Espinosa-Pike, Edurne Aldazabal & Ana Martín-Arroyuelos - 2012 - Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (1):9-25.
    The aim of this work is to analyse the effect of gender and ethical training received on the sensitivity of university teachers towards the inclusion of ethics in graduate business studies. To this end, a study has been carried out that uses four ethical sensitivity indicators for teachers: their opinion about the need to include ethics in the world of business, their opinion about the need to include ethics in University education involving business studies, the current integration of ethics by (...)
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  • A Review of the Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 2004–2011. [REVIEW]Jana L. Craft - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):221-259.
    This review summarizes the research on ethical decision-making from 2004 to 2011. Eighty-four articles were published during this period, resulting in 357 findings. Individual findings are categorized by their application to individual variables, organizational variables, or the concept of moral intensity as developed by Jones :366–395, 1991). Rest’s four-step model for ethical decision-making is used to summarize findings by dependent variable—awareness, intent, judgment, and behavior. A discussion of findings in each category is provided in order to uncover trends in the (...)
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  • Does Gender Influence Managers’ Ethics? A Cross‐Cultural Analysis.Chung-wen Chen, Kristine Velasquez Tuliao, John B. Cullen & Yi-Ying Chang - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (4):345-362.
    The relationship between gender and ethics has been extensively researched. However, previous studies have assumed that the gender–ethics association is constant; hence, scholars have seldom investigated factors potentially affecting the gender–ethics association. Thus, using managers as the research target, this study examined the relationship between gender and ethics and analyzed the moderating effect of cultural values on the gender–ethics association. The results showed that, compared with female managers, their male counterparts are more willing to justify business-related unethical behaviors such as (...)
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  • Are Workers More Likely to Be Deviant Than Managers? A Cross-National Analysis.Chung-wen Chen - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):1-13.
    Using Robert Merton’s perspective on social structure [Social theory and structure. Free Press, New York, 1968], this study tested the individual-level association between job position and ethical reasoning. Anomie theory was employed to examine how country-level factors moderate that individual-level association. The hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) method was used to analyze 22,359 subjects from 28 nations. The statistical results proved that workers are more likely to justify ethically suspect behaviors, and that this individual-level relationship is moderated by the country-level factors (...)
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  • Assertiveness Bias in Gender Ethics Research: Why Women Deserve the Benefit of the Doubt: Marketing and Consumer Behavior.Saar Bossuyt & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):727-739.
    Gender is one of the most researched and contentious topics in consumer ethics research. It is common for researchers of gender studies to presume that women are more ethical than men because of their reputation for having a selfless, sensitive nature. Nevertheless, we found evidence that women behaved less ethically than men in two field experiments testing a passive form of unethical behavior. Women benefited to a larger extent from a cashier miscalculating the bill in their favor than men. However, (...)
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  • The Importance and Efficacy of Controlling for Social Desirability Response Bias.Richard A. Bernardi & Jonathan Nash - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior:1-17.
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  • Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers' Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393 - 414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender (defined as sex differences) is related to consumers' moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rulebased moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and (...)
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  • Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers’ Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393-414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender is related to consumers’ moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rule-based moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and women had higher intentions (...)
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  • Organizational Architecture, Ethical Culture, and Perceived Unethical Behavior Towards Customers: Evidence From Wholesale Banking.Raymond O. S. Zaal, Ronald J. M. Jeurissen & Edward A. G. Groenland - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (3):825-848.
    In this study, we propose and test a model of the effects of organizational ethical culture and organizational architecture on the perceived unethical behavior of employees towards customers. This study also examines the relationship between organizational ethical culture and moral acceptability judgment, hypothesizing that moral acceptability judgment is an important stage in the ethical decision-making process. Based on a field study in one of the largest financial institutions in Europe, we found that organizational ethical culture was significantly related to the (...)
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  • If You Can’T See the Forest for the Trees, You Might Just Cut Down the Forest: The Perils of Forced Choice on “Seemingly” Unethical Decision-Making.Michael O. Wood, Theodore J. Noseworthy & Scott R. Colwell - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):515-527.
    Why do otherwise well-intentioned managers make decisions that have negative social or environmental consequences? To answer this question, the authors combine the literature on construal level theory with the compromise effect to explore the circumstances that lead to seemingly unethical decision-making. The results of two studies suggest that the degree to which managers make high-risk tradeoffs is highly influenced by how they mentally represent the decision context. The authors find that managers are more likely to make seemingly unethical tradeoffs when (...)
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  • Examining the Millennials' Ethical Profile: Assessing Demographic Variations in Their Personal Value Orientations.James Weber & Michael J. Urick - 2017 - Business and Society Review 122 (4):469-506.
    The Millennials, people born between 1980 and 2000, are poised to have a profound impact on our society but are often treated as a homogenous generation. While some prior research on generations posits that there are a number of consistencies across a generation, others argue that differences may emerge and distinguish individuals within a generation. Based on prior business ethics literature, this research dissects the Millennial's personal value orientations to explore if demographic differences, such as gender, amount of work experience, (...)
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  • Is Business Ethics Education Effective? An Analysis of Gender, Personal Ethical Perspectives, and Moral Judgment.Liz C. Wang & Lisa Calvano - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):591-602.
    Although ethics instruction has become an accepted part of the business school curriculum at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, some scholars have questioned its effectiveness, and research results have been mixed. However, studies yield interesting results regarding certain factors that influence the ethicality of business students and may impact the effectiveness of business ethics instruction. One of these factors is gender. Using personal and business ethics scenarios, we examine the main and interactive effects of gender and business ethics education (...)
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  • Military Ethical Decision Making: The Effects of Option Choice and Perspective Taking on Moral Decision-Making Processes and Intentions.Megan M. Thompson, Tonya Hendriks & Ann-Renée Blais - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (7):578-596.
    We investigated the ethical decision-making processes and intentions of 151 military personnel responding to 1 of 2 ethical scenarios drawn from the deployment experiences of military commanders. For each scenario, option choice and perspective affected decision-making processes. Differences were also found between the 2 scenarios. Results add to the emerging literature concerning operational ethical conflicts and highlight the complexity and challenge that often accompanies operational ethics.
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  • Research Note and Review of the Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: Boundary Conditions and Extensions.Nitish Singh, Yung-Hwal Park & Kevin Lehnert - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (1):195-219.
    In business ethics, there is a large body of literature focusing on the conditions, factors, and influences in the ethical decision-making processes. This work builds upon the past critical reviews by updating and extending the literature review found in Craft’s :221–259, 2013) study, extending her literature review to include a total of 141 articles. Since past reviews have focused on categorizing results based upon various independent variables, we instead synthesize and look at the trends of these based upon the four (...)
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  • Influence of Ethical Ideology on Job Stress.Abhishek Shukla & Rajeev Srivastava - 2017 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):233-254.
    The relationship between ethical ideology and job stress appears to be complex. This study is based on a model presented by Forsyth, showing two dimensions that play an important role in ethical evaluation and behavior. Based on a survey of 561 employees of hotel industry in India, ethical ideologies were found to be negatively associated with job stress. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and multiple regressions. The result showed that relativism is negatively correlated with job stress. Further, it (...)
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  • Are There Gender Differences When Professional Accountants Evaluate Moral Intensity for Earnings Management?Tara J. Shawver & Lynn H. Clements - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 131 (3):557-566.
    Gender differences in ethical evaluations may vary across types of behaviors. This controlled experiment explores gender differences in ethical evaluations, moral judgment, moral intentions, and moral intensity evaluations by surveying a group of professional accountants to elicit their views on a common earnings management technique. We find that there are no significant differences between male and female professional accountants when they make an ethical evaluation involving earnings management by shipping product early to meet a quarterly bonus. Both male and female (...)
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  • Level of Coherence Among Ethics Program Components and Its Impact on Ethical Intent.Pablo Ruiz, Ricardo Martinez, Job Rodrigo & Cristina Diaz - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (4):725-742.
    Three ethics program components, a code of ethics, ethics training initiatives and ethics-oriented performance appraisal content, were examined for their relationship to ethical intent using a sample of 525 employees from the Spanish financial services industry. As expected, all three components contributed to the prediction of ethical intent. Importantly, clusters of employees who reported experiencing distinct combinations of the program components were identified and compared for their level of ethical intent. Employees who perceived all three components to be strongly implemented (...)
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  • The Impact of Ethical Tools on Aggressiveness in Financial Reporting.Brian M. Nagle, David M. Wasieleski & Stephen Rau - 2012 - Business and Society Review 117 (4):477-513.
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  • Dilemmas, Conspiracies, and Sophie’s Choice: Vignette Themes and Ethical Judgments.Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):639-653.
    Knowledge about ethical judgments has not advanced appreciably after decades of research. Such research, however, has rarely addressed the possible importance of the content of such judgments; that is, the material appearing in the brief vignettes or scenarios on which survey respondents base their evaluations. Indeed, this content has seemed an afterthought in most investigations. This paper closely examined the vast array of vignettes that have appeared in relevant research in an effort to reduce this proliferation to a more concise (...)
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  • Ethical Judgments: What Do We Know, Where Do We Go? [REVIEW]Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):575-597.
    Investigations into ethical judgments generally seem fuzzy as to the relevant research domain. We first attempted to clarify the construct and determine domain parameters. This attempt required addressing difficulties associated with pinpointing relevant literature, most notably the varied nomenclature used to refer to ethical judgments (individual evaluations of actions’ ethicality). Given this variation in construct nomenclature and the difficulties it presented in identifying pertinent focal studies, we elected to focus on research that cited papers featuring prominent and often-used measures of (...)
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