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Studies of similarity

In Eleanor Rosch & Barbara Lloyd (eds.), Cognition and Categorization. Lawrence Elbaum Associates. pp. 1--1978 (1978)

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  1. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology.Herman Cappelen, Tamar Szabó Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the most comprehensive book ever published on philosophical methodology. A team of thirty-eight of the world's leading philosophers present original essays on various aspects of how philosophy should be and is done. The first part is devoted to broad traditions and approaches to philosophical methodology. The entries in the second part address topics in philosophical methodology, such as intuitions, conceptual analysis, and transcendental arguments. The third part of the book is devoted to essays about the interconnections between philosophy (...)
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  • Contesting Gender Concepts, Language and Norms: Three Critical Articles on Ethical and Political Aspects of Gender Non-Conformity.Stephanie Julia Kapusta - 2015 - Dissertation, Western University
    In chapter one I firstly critique some contemporary family-resemblance approaches to the category woman, and claim that they do not take sufficient account of dis-semblance, that is, resemblances that people have in common with members of the contrast category man. Second, I analyze how the concept of woman is semantically contestable: resemblance/dissemblance structures give rise to vagueness and to borderline cases. Borderline cases can either be included in the category or excluded from it. The factors which incline parties in a (...)
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  • Representation is Representation of Similarities.Shimon Edelman - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):449-467.
    Intelligent systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing both the needs of superordinate and basic-level categorization and of identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented by its similarity to a number of reference shapes, measured in a high-dimensional space of elementary features. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a (...)
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  • A Solution to Plato's Problem: The Latent Semantic Analysis Theory of Acquisition, Induction, and Representation of Knowledge.Thomas K. Landauer & Susan T. Dumais - 1997 - Psychological Review 104 (2):211-240.
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  • Understanding Metaphorical Comparisons: Beyond Similarity.Sam Glucksberg & Boaz Keysar - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (1):3-18.
  • Refining the Bayesian Approach to Unifying Generalisation.Nina Poth - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-31.
    Tenenbaum and Griffiths (2001) have proposed that their Bayesian model of generalisation unifies Shepard’s (1987) and Tversky’s (1977) similarity-based explanations of two distinct patterns of generalisation behaviours by reconciling them under a single coherent task analysis. I argue that this proposal needs refinement: instead of unifying the heterogeneous notion of psychological similarity, the Bayesian approach unifies generalisation by rendering the distinct patterns of behaviours informationally relevant. I suggest that generalisation as a Bayesian inference should be seen as a complement to, (...)
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  • Getting Serious About Similarity.Michael Weisberg - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):785-794.
    Although most philosophical accounts about model/world relations focus on structural mappings such as isomorphism, similarity has long been discussed as an alternative account. Despite its attractions, proponents of the similarity view have not provided detailed accounts of what it means that a model is similar to a real-world target system. This article gives the outlines of such an account, drawing on the work of Amos Tversky.
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  • A Delineation Solution to the Puzzles of Absolute Adjectives.Heather Burnett - 2014 - Linguistics and Philosophy 37 (1):1-39.
    The paper presents both new data and a new analysis of the semantic and pragmatic properties of the class of absolute scalar adjectives within an extension of a well-known logical framework for the analysis of gradable predicates: the delineation semantics framework . It has been long observed that the context-sensitivity, vagueness and gradability features of absolute scalar predicates give rise to certain puzzles for their analysis within most, if not all, modern formal semantic frameworks. While there exist proposals for solving (...)
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  • Scientific Representation and Dissimilarity.Brandon Boesch - 2019 - Synthese 198 (6):5495-5513.
    In this essay, I examine the role of dissimilarity in scientific representation. After briefly reviewing some of the philosophical literature which places a strong emphasis on the role of similarity, I turn to examine some work from Carroll and Borges which demonstrates that perfect similarity is not valuable in the representational use of maps. Expanding on this insight, I go on to argue that this shows that dissimilarity is an important part of the representational use of maps—a point I then (...)
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  • The Meaning of Meaning in Biology and Cognitive Science: A Semiotic Reconstruction.Göran Sonesson - 2006 - Sign Systems Studies 34 (1):135-211.
    The present essay aims at integrating different concepts of meaning developed in semiotics, biology, and cognitive science, in a way that permits the formulation of issues involving evolution and development. The concept of sign in semiotics, just like the notion of representation in cognitive science, have either been used too broadly, or outright rejected. My earlier work on the notions of iconicity and pictoriality has forced me to spell out the taken-forgranted meaning of the sign concept, both in the Saussurean (...)
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  • Events and the Semantic Content of Thematic Relations.Barry Schein - 2002 - In Gerhard Preyer Georg Peter (ed.), Logical Form and Language. Oxford University Press. pp. 263--344.
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  • Meaning Matters in Children’s Plural Productions.Jennifer A. Zapf & Linda B. Smith - 2008 - Cognition 108 (2):466-476.
  • From Similarity to Chance.Daniel Osherson - manuscript
    “In reality, all arguments from experience are founded on the similarity which we discover among natural objects, and by which we are induced to expect effects similar to those which we have found to follow from such objects. ... From causes which appear similar we expect similar effects.”.
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  • Prototypes and Conceptual Analysis.William Ramsey - 1992 - Topoi 11 (1):59-70.
    In this paper, I explore the implications of recent empirical research on concept representation for the philosophical enterprise of conceptual analysis. I argue that conceptual analysis, as it is commonly practiced, is committed to certain assumptions about the nature of our intuitive categorization judgments. I then try to show how these assumptions clash with contemporary accounts of concept representation in cognitive psychology. After entertaining an objection to my argument, I close by considering ways in which conceptual analysis might be altered (...)
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  • Differential Weighting of Common and Distinctive Components.Ilana Ritov, Itamar Gati & Amos Tversky - 1990 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119 (1):30-41.
  • The Under— and Overestimation Effects in Comparative Judgments — Assimilation and Contrast Mechanisms.Agnieszka de Zavala & Marzena Cypryańska - 2008 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 39 (4):217-225.
    The Under— and Overestimation Effects in Comparative Judgments — Assimilation and Contrast Mechanisms The aim of the studies presented in this paper was to propose a new explanation of under— and overestimation effects in comparative judgments. The fundamental assumption of this new interpretation is that in comparative judgments the target is contrasted with the comparison standard when the compared objects seem generally dissimilar and assimilated to the standard when the objects seem generally similar. In a series of three studies students (...)
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  • Bridging the Gap Between Similarity and Causality: An Integrated Approach to Concepts.Corinne L. Bloch-Mullins - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (3):605-632.
    A growing consensus in the philosophy and psychology of concepts is that while theories such as the prototype, exemplar, and theory theories successfully account for some instances of concept formation and application, none of them successfully accounts for all such instances. I argue against this ‘new consensus’ and show that the problem is, in fact, more severe: the explanatory force of each of these theories is limited even with respect to the phenomena often cited to support it, as each fails (...)
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  • Motion Events in Language and Cognition.S. Gennari - 2002 - Cognition 83 (1):49-79.
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  • The Emergence of Events.Judith Avrahami & Yaakov Kareev - 1994 - Cognition 53 (3):239-261.
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  • Some Origins of Belief.Daniel N. Osherson, Edward E. Smith & Eldar B. Shafir - 1986 - Cognition 24 (3):197-224.
  • Similar, and Similar Concepts.Lila R. Gleitman, Henry Gleitman, Carol Miller & Ruth Ostrin - 1996 - Cognition 58 (3):321-376.
  • Comparison and the Development of Knowledge.Lera Boroditsky - 2007 - Cognition 102 (1):118-128.
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  • What Some Concepts Might Not Be.Sharon Lee Armstrong, Lila R. Gleitman & Henry Gleitman - 1983 - Cognition 13 (1):263--308.
  • Manifestations and Consequences of Negative Information’s Great Diversity.Hans Alves - unknown
    In the present dissertation, I propose a general, robust, and objective characteristic of the information environment, according to which negative information is more diverse than positive information. I present an explanatory framework for this phenomenon based on the non-extremity of positive qualities. Specifically, most attribute dimensions host one “positive” range which is surrounded by two distinct “negative” ranges, resulting in a greater diversity of negative compared to positive attributes, stimuli, and information in general. Chapter 1 of my dissertation reviews evidence (...)
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  • Principles of Categorization.Eleanor Rosch - 1988 - In Allan Collins & Edward E. Smith (eds.), Readings in Cognitive Science, a Perspective From Psychology and Artificial Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. pp. 312-22.
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  • Attention, Similarity, and the Identification–Categorization Relationship.Robert M. Nosofsky - 1986 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (1):39-57.
  • Mental Representations of Affect Knowledge.Lisa Feldman Barrett & Thyra Fossum - 2001 - Cognition and Emotion 15 (3):333-363.