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The Development of Social Knowledge: Morality and Convention

Cambridge University Press (1983)

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  1. In Moral Relationship with Nature: Development and Interaction.Peter H. Kahn - 2022 - Journal of Moral Education 51 (1):73-91.
    ABSTRACT One of the overarching problems of the world today is that too many people see themselves as dominating other groups of people, and dominating nature. That is a root problem. And thus part of a core solution builds from Kohlberg’s commitment to a universal moral orientation, though extended to include not only all people but the more-than-human world: animals, trees, plants, species, ecosystems, and the land itself. In this article, I make a case for this form of ethical extensionism, (...)
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  • Exploring the Issue of a Lack of Cohesion in Moral Education: An Empirical Study in Chinese Primary and Secondary Schools.Yan Huo & Jin Xie - 2021 - Journal of Moral Education 50 (4):512-528.
    ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to explore the issue of a perceived lack of cohesion in moral education in mainland China, and place it in an international academic context, by comparing three student cohorts: grade three and grade six in Primary School and the third year in Junior High School. The study employed mixed research methods; utilising the Chinese Code for Primary and Secondary-School Students as a blueprint for designing a student self-assessment survey. A total of 695 (...)
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  • The Case of Common Humanity: Towards a Deeper Understanding of Children’s Social Ideas.Anna L. Kirby & Paul L. Harris - 2021 - Journal of Moral Education 50 (4):401-418.
    ABSTRACT Developmental research has long sought to understand children’s social ideas, and particularly how those ideas influence their judgments and behaviors toward other people. We examine the idea of common humanity, a social idea that has been investigated historically and philosophically, to re-consider what is already known about children’s notions of social equality and difference and to suggest how research in this area might be expanded. We review the social cognition literature to argue that studying the idea of common humanity—which (...)
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  • Moral Self-Determination: The Nature, Existence, and Formation of Moral Motivation.Randall Curren & Richard M. Ryan - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (3):295-315.
    This paper addresses three basic questions about moral motivation. Concerning the nature of moral motivation, it argues that it involves responsiveness to both reasons of morality and the value of persons and everything else of value. Moral motivation is thus identified as reason-responsive appropriate valuing. Regarding whether it is possible for people to be morally motivated, the paper relies on self-determination theory (SDT) to show how moral motivation is a likely product of socialization that is need-supportive in modeling appropriate valuing (...)
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  • When Do Caregivers Begin to View Their Child as a Moral Agent? Comparing Moral and Non-Moral Reactions to Young Children’s Moral Transgressions.Samuel Essler & Markus Paulus - 2021 - Journal of Moral Education 50 (3):330-342.
    ABSTRACT Caregivers’ moral reactions to young children’s moral transgressions are informative environmental responses for children’s developing understanding of morality. One central question concerns by which age parents hold their children responsible for moral transgressions. This study indirectly investigated this question by having parents and non-parents rate the appropriateness of caregivers’ moral and non-moral reactions to moral transgressions of 6-month-old, 1-year-old, 2-year-old, and 4-year-old children. Transgressions and reactions were presented as short video clips in an online survey. Results indicated that moral (...)
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  • When Mom is Wrong: Preschoolers Place Increasing Limits on Parental Authority with Age.Ava R. Alexander & Samuel P. Putnam - 2021 - Journal of Moral Education 50 (3):343-355.
    ABSTRACT Research suggests that young children possess a relatively complex understanding of adult authority that varies by social cognitive domain. However, little is known about how children react to adult authority that strays from expected guidelines. The current study exposed 4- and 5-year-old children to vignettes in which parents issue commands that reinforce social-conventional and moral norms, commands that violate said norms, and personal domain commands. Children were asked to judge the authority’s legitimacy, as well as the child’s obligation to (...)
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  • The Character of Character: The 2019 Kohlberg Memorial Lecture.Lawrence J. Walker - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (4):381-395.
    ABSTRACT A crisis we face is that moral character seems to be declining in significance in everyday life and is not particularly relevant in evaluations of current political leaders. A case for character, however, can be mounted through the study of moral exemplars; in demonstrating that character is a viable construct and not an artifact of situational factors, that it explains more of moral functioning than cognition alone, and that it is causally operative in moral action. Aspects of the character (...)
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  • Representation of Morality in Children: A Qualitative Approach.Alexandra Maftei & Andrei Holman - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (2):194-208.
    ABSTRACTPrevious research on children’s moral reasoning usually used a quantitative approach and a pre-determined set of methods in order to establish early moral landmarks. We proposed a qualitative perspective on the basis of which we have formulated three main objectives: 1) to identify the main categories of behaviors that children spontaneously associate with the notion of morality, in line with Turiel’s Domain Theory; 2) to investigate children’s conceptions of moral and social-conventional rules and 3) to assess the gender differences in (...)
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  • Using Lesson Study in Teacher Professional Development for Domain-Based Moral Education.Allegra Joie Midgette, Robyn Ilten-Gee, Deborah Wong Powers, Aki Murata & Larry Nucci - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (4):1-21.
    This study examined the application of Lesson Study for professional development for a domain approach to moral education. A comparison was drawn between the effects of Lesson Study with 17 teachers and 144 students representing middle schools in the same district as a prior study employing intensive traditional PD. In Lesson Study, groups of same grade teachers construct lessons taught by one group member and observed by the others. Teachers meet following the lesson to critique and improve the lesson using (...)
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  • Children’s Strategies for Self-Correcting Their Social and Moral Transgressions and Perceived Personal Shortcomings: Implications for Moral Agency.Allegra Midgette - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (2):231-247.
    Previous research has found that when children engage in social and moral transgressions, they take steps to either remedy or explain their behavior. However, no prior systematic investigation has examined the strategies children employ to ‘correct’ their behavior in future situations. The present study employed a domain theory lens to investigate developmental changes in children’s self-reported strategies for self-correcting their moral and social conventional transgressions as well as adjusting self-perceived personal shortcomings. Participants were 100 children from two regions of the (...)
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  • Moral Reasoning About School Bullying in Involved Adolescents.Caroline Levasseur, Nadia Desbiens & François Bowen - 2017 - Journal of Moral Education 46 (2):158-176.
    The aim of the present study was to investigate how bullying incident participant roles and moral reasoning relate to each other in adolescents. To do so, we examined sociomoral judgments about hypothetical bullying incidents and moral disengagement in adolescents identified as bullies, defenders of the victim and passive bystanders. Six-hundred and twenty-six high school students took part in this study and 131 were assigned a specific bullying incident participant role through peer nomination. Findings reveal that defenders of the victim show (...)
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  • Located in the Thin of It: Young Children’s Use of Thin Moral Concepts.Jennifer Cole Wright, Trisha Sedlock, Jenny West, Kelly Saulpaugh & Michelle Hopkins - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (3):308-323.
    One important socio-cultural medium through which young children’s moral understanding is cultivated is parent/child discourse. Of particular interest to us was young children’s use of basic evaluative concepts, which are ubiquitous in everyday discourse and serve as a potential bridge from the non-moral to the moral domain. We investigated 14 2–5-year-old children’s use of thin evaluative concepts and found that while they frequently used good and bad to morally evaluate other people’s and their own psychological/dispositional states and behaviors—as well as, (...)
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  • Recovering the Role of Reasoning in Moral Education to Address Inequity and Social Justice.Larry Nucci - 2016 - Journal of Moral Education 45 (3):291-307.
    This article reasserts the centrality of reasoning as the focus for moral education. Attention to moral cognition must be extended to incorporate sociogenetic processes in moral growth. Moral education is not simply growth within the moral domain, but addresses capacities of students to engage in cross-domain coordination. Development beyond adolescence in moral thinking is in two forms: the gradual application of morality in broader adult contexts, and the result of social discourse and progressive readjustments at the individual and societal level (...)
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  • Integrating Moral and Social Development Within Middle School Social Studies: A Social Cognitive Domain Approach.Larry Nucci, Michael W. Creane & Deborah W. Powers - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (4):479-496.
    Eleven teachers and 254 urban middle-school students comprised the sample of this study examining the social and moral development outcomes of the integration of social cognitive domain theory within regular classroom instruction. Participating teachers were trained to construct and implement history lessons that stimulated students’ moral reasoning and conceptions of societal convention. In comparison with baselines and controls, teachers reduced didactic instruction and increased the proportion of class time devoted to small group discussions. Student engagement in transactive discourse significantly increased (...)
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  • Cognitive Underpinnings of Moral Reasoning in Adolescence: The Contribution of Executive Functions.E. Vera-Estay, J. J. Dooley & M. H. Beauchamp - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (1):17-33.
    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by intense changes, which impact the interaction between individuals and their environments. Moral reasoning is an important skill during adolescence because it guides social decisions between right and wrong. Identifying the cognitive underpinnings of MR is essential to understanding the development of this function. The aim of this study was to explore predictors of MR in typically developing adolescents and the specific contribution of higher order cognitive processing using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (...)
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  • Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople’s Associations of Moral Character.Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Marc Wilson & Ronald Fischer - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (1):54-74.
    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how they conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople’s associations of moral character in individualistic- and collectivistic-oriented cultures. Using correspondence analysis we found that the concept of moral character yielded widely shared associations with justice and welfare concerns. Yet, there were also clear cultural differences with individualistic-oriented samples associating more (...)
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  • Understanding the Learning of Values Using a Domains-of-Socialization Framework.Julia Vinik, Megan Johnston, Joan E. Grusec & Renee Farrell - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (4):475-493.
    The narratives that emerging adults wrote about a time when they learned an important moral, value or lesson were explored in order to determine the characteristics of events that lead to internalized values as well as to compare the way different kinds of moral values are socialized. Lessons resulting from misbehavior were reported most frequently. Those involving direct teaching of values were most highly internalized, with internalization assessed by importance and current impact. Self-reflection and self-generation of values was identified as (...)
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  • Understanding the Role of Dispositional and Situational Threat Sensitivity in Our Moral Judgments.Jennifer Cole Wright & Galen L. Baril - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):383-397.
    Previous research has identified different moral judgments in liberals and conservatives. While both care about harm/fairness (?individualizing? foundations), conservatives emphasize in-group/authority/purity (?binding? foundations) more than liberals. Thus, some argue that conservatives have a more complex morality. We suggest an alternative view?that consistent with conservatism as ?motivated social cognition?, binding foundation activation satisfies psychological needs for social structure/security/certainty. Accordingly, we found that students who were dispositionally threat-sensitive showed stronger binding foundation activation, and that conservatives are more dispositionally threat-sensitive than liberals. We (...)
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  • The Concept of the Moral Domain in Moral Foundations Theory and Cognitive Developmental Theory: Horses for Courses?Bruce Maxwell & Guillaume Beaulac - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):360-382.
    Moral foundations theory chastises cognitive developmental theory for having foisted on moral psychology a restrictive conception of the moral domain which involves arbitrarily elevating the values of justice and caring. The account of this negative influence on moral psychology, referred to in the moral foundations theory literature as the ?great narrowing?, involves several interrelated claims concerning the scope of the moral domain construct in cognitive moral developmentalism, the procedure by which it was initially elaborated, its empirical grounds and the influence (...)
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  • Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century.Jonathan Haidt - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):281-297.
    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology?behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an ?affective revolution? that began in the 1980s and an ?automaticity revolution? in the 1990s. In this essay I trace the history of moral psychology within the broader intellectual trends of psychology and (...)
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  • Moral Reasoning and Empathy in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Moral Education.Amie K. Senland & Ann Higgins-D’Alessandro - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (2):209-223.
    A mixed methods approach was used to understand moral reasoning and empathy in 12- to 18-year-old adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) compared to same age typically developing (TD) youth. Adolescents completed measures assessing empathy (perspective-taking, personal distress, and empathic concern), and moral reasoning, as well as a qualitative interview asking them to discuss a challenging sociomoral situation and recount their moral competencies and strengths in difficult situations. For quantitative results, both groups demonstrated similar empathic concern, but adolescents with (...)
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  • Reasoning About Family Honour Among Two Generations of Hindu Indian-Americans.Adam Kay - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (1):79-98.
    To investigate reasoning about family honour, 128 first generation (mean age = 27.2 years) and second generation Hindu Indian-American adults (mean age = 24.7 years) were presented hypothetical scenarios in which male or female protagonists defied common Hindu customs (e.g., arranged marriage, intra-religion marriage and premarital sexual abstinence). Questions assessed beliefs about customs, connections to family honour and socio-moral orientations towards honour violations. Both generations perceived intra-religion marriage and premarital sexual abstinence to function for group identity-related reasons, such as preserving (...)
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  • The Question of Moral Action: A Formalist Position.Iddo Tavory - 2011 - Sociological Theory 29 (4):272 - 293.
    This article develops a research position that allows cultural sociologists to compare morality across sociohistorical cases. In order to do so, the article suggests focusing analytic attention on actions that fulfill the following criteria: (a) actions that define the actor as a certain kind of socially recognized person, both within and across fields; (b) actions that actors experience—or that they expect others to perceive—as defining the actor both intersituationally and to a greater extent than other available definitions of self; and (...)
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  • The Origin of Moral Norms: A Moderate Nativist Account: Dialogue.Jessy Giroux - 2011 - Dialogue 50 (2):281-306.
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, I distinguish between two families of theories which view moral norms as either “inputs” or “outputs.” I argue that the most plausible version of each model can ultimately be seen as the two sides of the same model, which I call Moderate Nativism. The difference between these two apparently antagonistic models is one of perspective rather than content: while the Input model explains how emotional dispositions constrain the historical evolution of moral norms, the Output model explains (...)
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  • The Peikovian Doctrine of the Arbitrary Assertion.Robert L. Campbell - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (1):85-170.
    The doctrine of the arbitrary assertion is a key part of Objectivist epistemology as elaborated by Leonard Peikoff. For Peikoff, assertions unsupported by evidence are neither true nor false; they have no context or place in the hierarchy of conceptual knowledge; they are meaningless and paralyze rational cognition; their production is proof of irrationality. A thorough examination of the doctrine reveals worrisomely unclear standards of evidence and a jumble of contradictory claims about which assertions are arbitrary, when they are arbitrary, (...)
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  • A Tale of Two Cities: Emotion and Reason in the Formation of Moral Judgement and Possible Metaethical Implications.Susana Cadilha - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (3):1-27.
    The project of naturalizing ethics has multiple contributions, from cognitive and moral psychology to primatology, neuroscience or evolutionary theory. One of the strategies for naturalizing ethics has been to argue that moral norms and values can be explained away if we focus on their causal history, if it is possible to offer both an ultimate and proximate causal explanation for them. In this article, I will focus on the contribution of cognitive and moral psychology as a way of offering a (...)
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  • The Empirical Case for Folk Indexical Moral Relativism.James R. Beebe - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy 4.
    Recent empirical work on folk moral objectivism has attempted to examine the extent to which folk morality presumes that moral judgments are objectively true or false. Some researchers report findings that they take to indicate folk commitment to objectivism (Goodwin & Darley, 2008, 2010, 2012; Nichols & Folds-Bennett, 2003; Wainryb et al., 2004), while others report findings that may reveal a more variable commitment to objectivism (Beebe, 2014; Beebe et al., 2015; Beebe & Sackris, 2016; Sarkissian, et al., 2011; Wright, (...)
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  • Cognitive Biases in Moral Judgments That Affect Political Behavior.Jonathan Baron - 2010 - Synthese 172 (1):7 - 35.
    Cognitive biases that affect decision making may affect the decisions of citizens that influence public policy. To the extent that decisions follow principles other than maximizing utility for all, it is less likely that utility will be maximized, and the citizens will ultimately suffer the results. Here I outline some basic arguments concerning decisions by citizens, using voting as an example. I describe two types of values that may lead to sub-optimal consequences when these values influence political behavior: moralistic values (...)
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  • Cognitive Biases in Moral Judgments That Affect Political Behavior.Jonathan Baron - 2010 - Synthese 172 (1):7-35.
    Cognitive biases that affect decision making may affect the decisions of citizens that influence public policy. To the extent that decisions follow principles other than maximizing utility for all, it is less likely that utility will be maximized, and the citizens will ultimately suffer the results. Here I outline some basic arguments concerning decisions by citizens, using voting as an example. I describe two types of values that may lead to sub-optimal consequences when these values influence political behavior: moralistic values (...)
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  • A Pluralistic Framework for the Psychology of Norms.Evan Westra & Kristin Andrews - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.
    Social norms are commonly understood as rules that dictate which behaviors are appropriate, permissible, or obligatory in different situations for members of a given community. Many researchers have sought to explain the ubiquity of social norms in human life in terms of the psychological mechanisms underlying their acquisition, conformity, and enforcement. Existing theories of the psychology of social norms appeal to a variety of constructs, from prediction-error minimization, to reinforcement learning, to shared intentionality, to domain-specific adaptations for norm acquisition. In (...)
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  • Moral Schemas and Tacit Judgement or How the Defining Issues Test is Supported by Cognitive Science.Darcia Narvaez & Tonia Bock - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (3):297-314.
    Ideas from cognitive science are increasingly influential and provide insight into the nature of moral judgement. Three core ideas are discussed: modern schema theory, the frequency of automatic decision-making and implicit processes as the default mode of human information processing. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) measures the beginnings of moral understanding, which are largely non-verbal and intuitive, in contrast to the Moral Judgement Interview (MJI), which measures the highest level of verbal understanding. The positive attributes of the DIT and its (...)
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  • Is There Such a Thing as Genuinely Moral Disgust?Mara Bollard - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (2):501-522.
    In this paper, I defend a novel skeptical view about moral disgust. I argue that much recent discussion of moral disgust neglects an important ontological question: is there a distinctive psychological state of moral disgust that is differentiable from generic disgust, and from other psychological states? I investigate the ontological question and propose two conditions that any aspiring account of moral disgust must satisfy: it must be a genuine form of disgust, and it must be genuinely moral. Next, I examine (...)
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  • Animal Morality: What is the Debate About?Simon Fitzpatrick - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1151-1183.
    Empirical studies of the social lives of non-human primates, cetaceans, and other social animals have prompted scientists and philosophers to debate the question of whether morality and moral cognition exists in non-human animals. Some researchers have argued that morality does exist in several animal species, others that these species may possess various evolutionary building blocks or precursors to morality, but not quite the genuine article, while some have argued that nothing remotely resembling morality can be found in any non-human species. (...)
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  • Representations, Concepts and Social Change: The Phenomenon of AIDS.Ivana Markova & Patricia Wilkie - 1987 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 17 (4):389–409.
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  • Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment.Joshua D. Greene - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (1):163-177.
    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian responding, as individuals who reflected more on the CRT made more utilitarian judgments. A follow-up study suggested that trait reflectiveness is also associated with increased utilitarian judgment. In Experiment 2, subjects considered (...)
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  • Empathy.Karsten Stueber - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Despite its linguistic roots in ancient Greek, the concept of empathy is of recent intellectual heritage. Yet its history has been varied and colorful, a fact that is also mirrored in the multiplicity of definitions associated with the empathy concept in a number of different scientific and non-scientific discourses. In its philosophical heyday at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, empathy had been hailed as the primary means for gaining knowledge of other minds and as the method (...)
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  • The Definition of Morality.Bernard Gert - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Rational Requirements for Moral Motivation: The Psychopath's Open Question.Maria L. Montello - unknown
    Psychopaths pose a challenge to those who make claims about the strength of moral assessments. These individuals are entirely unmoved by the moral rules that they articulate and purportedly espouse. Psychopaths appear rationally intact but are emotionally broken. In some cases, they commit horrendous crimes yet show no guilt, no remorse. Sentimentalists claim that the empirical evidence about psychopaths’ affective deficits supports that moral judgment is rooted in emotion and that psychopaths do not make genuine moral judgments—they can’t. Here, I (...)
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  • Contributii la psihologia morala: evaluari ale rezultatelor si noi cercetari empirice.Bogdan Olaru & Andrei Holman (eds.) - 2015 - Bucuresti, Romania: Pro Universitaria.
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  • مناسبات ملت نبوی و حکمت عملی در اندیشه فارابی.زهیر انصاریان - 2019 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 17 (1):63-85.
    مطالعه روابط دین و فلسفه سابقه‌ای دیرین در آثار حکمای مسلمان دارد. شاید بتوان فارابی را پیشگام فیلسوفان مسلمان در ارائه یک نظریه هماهنگ و فراگیر در باب مناسبات دین و فلسفه قلمداد کرد. وی ضمن باور به یگانگی آموزه‌های این دو منظومه فکری، دین را تجلی تعلیمی و تأدیبی حکمت می‌داند. حکمت عملی به عنوان بخشی از حکمت مطلق که با زبان حقیقت و برهان سخن می‌گوید، از این قاعده مستثنی نیست. از همین رهگذر تعالیم دینی ناظر به افعال (...)
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  • Moral Rationality and Intuition: An Exploration of Relationships Between the Defining Issues Test and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire.Rebecca J. Glover, Prathiba Natesan, Jie Wang, Danielle Rohr, Lauri McAfee-Etheridge, Dana D. Booker, James Bishop, David Lee, Cory Kildare & Minwei Wu - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):395-412.
    Explorations of relationships between Haidt’s Moral Foundations Questionnaire and indices of moral decision-making assessed by the Defining Issues Test have been limited to correlational analyses. This study used Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority and Purity to predict overall moral judgment and individual Defining Issues Test-2 schema scores using responses from 222 undergraduates. Relationships were not confirmed between the separate foundations and the DIT-2 indices. Using the MFQ moral judgment items only, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed higher order constructs called Individualizing and Binding (...)
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  • Revisiting the Social Origins of Human Morality: A Constructivist Perspective on the Nature of Moral Sense-Making.Andrés Segovia-Cuéllar - 2022 - Topoi 41 (2):313-325.
    A recent turn in the cognitive sciences has deepened the attention on embodied and situated dynamics for explaining different cognitive processes such as perception, emotion, and social cognition. This has fostered an extensive interest in the social and ‘intersubjective’ nature of moral behavior, especially from the perspective of enactivism. In this paper, I argue that embodied and situated perspectives, enactivism in particular, nonetheless require further improvements with regards to their analysis of the social nature of human morality. In brief, enactivist (...)
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  • Do Evolutionary Debunking Arguments Rest on a Mistake About Evolutionary Explanations?Andreas L. Mogensen - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (7):1799-1817.
    Many moral philosophers accept the Debunking Thesis, according to which facts about natural selection provide debunking explanations for certain of our moral beliefs. I argue that philosophers who accept the Debunking Thesis beg important questions in the philosophy of biology. They assume that past selection can explain why you or I hold certain of the moral beliefs we do. A position advanced by many prominent philosophers of biology implies that this assumption is false. According to the Negative View, natural selection (...)
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  • Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Ethics.Andreas Lech Mogensen - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    I consider whether evolutionary explanations can debunk our moral beliefs. Most contemporary discussion in this area is centred on the question of whether debunking implications follow from our ability to explain elements of human morality in terms of natural selection, given that there has been no selection for true moral beliefs. By considering the most prominent arguments in the literature today, I offer reasons to think that debunking arguments of this kind fail. However, I argue that a successful evolutionary debunking (...)
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  • Forward, for “Connections Between Ethics and Moral Psychology. Studies Around the Work of Jonathan Haidt”.Jonathan Haidt - 2022 - Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso 19:13-14.
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  • Towards an Attempt to Unravel Normative Assumptions Implicit in Haidt’s Thought.Natalia Zavadivker - 2022 - Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso 19:245-269.
    This article aims to investigate, starting from both the analysis of Haidt’s Theory of Moral Foundations, and his Intuitionist-social Model, if there is any implicit normative assumption in the author in relation to the value assigned to moral intuitions, both in relation to to its content and possible adaptive functionality, as well as to the mechanisms that trigger such intuitions. An attempt is made to unravel whether the author, beyond considering emotional intuitions as the true cause of moral judgments, ascribes (...)
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  • Explaining Unethical Behaviour Among People Motivated to Act Prosocially.David M. Bersoff - 1999 - Journal of Moral Education 28 (4):413-428.
    Moral reasoning theorists working in the constructivist tradition have tended to explain unethical behaviour by assuming that a breakdown occurs in the link between a person's moral judgement within a particular situation and his ultimate behaviour in that situation. This breakdown is usually seen as being the result of the individual ignoring his deontic judgement in favour of meeting a competing, non-moral social obligation or of fulfilling a selfish interest. This model of unethical behaviour has led to suggestions that moral (...)
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  • Emotional Action and Communication in Early Moral Development.Audun Dahl, Joseph J. Campos & David C. Witherington - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2):147-157.
    Emotional action and communication are integral to the development of morality, here conceptualized as our concerns for the well-being of other people and the ability to act on those concerns. Focusing on the second year of life, this article suggests a number of ways in which young children’s emotions and caregivers’ emotional communication contribute to early forms of helping, empathy, and learning about prohibitions. We argue for distinguishing between moral issues and other normative issues also in the study of early (...)
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  • Intentional Schema Will Not Do the Work of a Theory of Mind.David Premack & Ann James Premack - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):138-140.
    Barresi & Moore's “intentional schema” will not do the work of “theory of mind.” Their model will account neither for fundamental facts of social competence, such as the social attributions of the 10-month-old infant, nor the possibility that, though having a theory of mind, the chimpanzee's theory is “weaker” than the human's.
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  • Cognitive Load Selectively Interferes with Utilitarian Moral Judgment.Jonathan D. Cohen Joshua D. Greene, Sylvia A. Morelli, Kelly Lowenberg, Leigh E. Nystrom - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1144.