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  1. Adaptors and the Turn-Taking Mechanism.Przemysław Żywiczyński, Sławomir Wacewicz & Sylwester Orzechowski - 2017 - Interaction Studies 18 (2):276-298.
    Turn-taking – the coordinated and efficient transition between the roles of sender and receiver in communication – is a fundamental property of conversational interaction. The turn-taking mechanism depends on a variety of linguistic factors related to syntax, semantics and prosody, which have recently been subject to vigorous research. This contrasts with the relative lack of studies on nonverbal visual signals and cues that can be involved in taking turns at talking. In this paper, we consider the relation between turn-transitions and (...)
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  • How Fish Color Their Skin: A Paradigm for Development and Evolution of Adult Patterns.Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard & Ajeet Pratap Singh - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (3):1600231.
    Pigment cells in zebrafish − melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores − originate from neural crest‐derived stem cells associated with the dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. Clonal analysis indicates that these progenitors remain multipotent and plastic beyond embryogenesis well into metamorphosis, when the adult color pattern develops. Pigment cells share a lineage with neuronal cells of the peripheral nervous system; progenitors propagate along the spinal nerves. The proliferation of pigment cells is regulated by competitive interactions among cells of the (...)
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  • The Aristotelian Conception of Habit and its Contribution to Human Neuroscience.José Ignacio Murillo & Javier Bernacer - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1-10.
    The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific research. We first summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, (...)
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  • Hunger and Thirst Interact to Regulate Ingestive Behavior in Flies and Mammals.Nicholas Jourjine - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (5):1600261.
    In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate (...)
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  • Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences.Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins & Trevor Pearce (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    Despite the burgeoning interest in new and more complex accounts of the organism-environment dyad by biologists and philosophers, little attention has been paid in the resulting discussions to the history of these ideas and to their deployment in disciplines outside biology—especially in the social sciences. Even in biology and philosophy, there is a lack of detailed conceptual models of the organism-environment relationship. This volume is designed to fill these lacunae by providing the first multidisciplinary discussion of the topic of organism-environment (...)
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  • Hardwiring: Innateness in the Age of the Brain.Giordana Grossi - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1047-1082.
    “Hardwired” is a term commonly used to describe the properties of certain behaviors or brain regions. As its usage has increased exponentially in the past 50 years, both in popular media and the scholarly literature, the concept appears to have gained a cloak of respectability in scientific discourse. However, its specific meaning is difficult to pinpoint. In this paper, I examine how “hardwired” has been used in the psychological and neuroscientific literature. The analysis reveals two major themes: one centers on (...)
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  • Purpose and Conditioning: A Reply to Waller.John A. Mills - 1984 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 14 (3):363–367.
  • An Assessment of Skinner's Theory of Animal Behavior.John A. Mills - 1988 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 18 (2):197–218.
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  • Measures of Prägnanz?Baingio Pinna, Andrea van Doorn & Jan Koenderink - 2018 - Gestalt Theory 40 (1):7-28.
    Summary Prägnanz was suggested by Max Wertheimer in the 1920s as subsuming all “Laws of Gestalt” as they apply to visual awareness. Thus, it assumes a prominent position in any account of Gestalt phenomena. From a phenomenological perspective, some visual stimuli evidently “have more Prägnanz” than others, so Prägnanz seems to be an intensive quality. Here, we investigate the intricacies that need to be faced on the way to a definition of formal scales. Such measures naturally depend both upon the (...)
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  • The Distinction Between Innate and Acquired Characteristics.Paul Griffiths - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The idea that some characteristics of an organism are explained by the organism's intrinsic nature, whilst others reflect the influence of the environment is an ancient one. It has even been argued that this distinction is itself part of the evolved psychology of the human species. The distinction played an important role in the history of philosophy as the locus of the dispute between Rationalism and Empiricism discussed in another entry in this encyclopedia. This entry, however, focuses on twentieth-century accounts (...)
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  • Food and Medicine: A Biosemiotic Perspective.Yogi Hale Hendlin & Jonathan Hope (eds.) - 2021 - Berlin: Springer Nature.
    This edited volume provides a biosemiotic analysis of the ecological relationship between food and medicine. Drawing on the origins of semiotics in medicine, this collection proposes innovative ways of considering aliments and treatments. Considering the ever-evolving character of our understanding of meaning-making in biology, and considering the keen popular interest in issues relating to food and medicines - fueled by an increasing body of interdisciplinary knowledge - the contributions here provide diverse insights and arguments into the larger ecology of organisms’ (...)
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  • Group Selection: The Theory Replaces the Bogey Man.David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):639-654.
    In both biology and the human sciences, social groups are sometimes treated as adaptive units whose organization cannot be reduced to individual interactions. This group-level view is opposed by a more individualistic one that treats social organization as a byproduct of self-interest. According to biologists, group-level adaptations can evolve only by a process of natural selection at the group level. Most biologists rejected group selection as an important evolutionary force during the 1960s and 1970s but a positive literature began to (...)
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  • Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences.David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):585-608.
    In both biology and the human sciences, social groups are sometimes treated as adaptive units whose organization cannot be reduced to individual interactions. This group-level view is opposed by a more individualistic one that treats social organization as a byproduct of self-interest. According to biologists, group-level adaptations can evolve only by a process of natural selection at the group level. Most biologists rejected group selection as an important evolutionary force during the 1960s and 1970s but a positive literature began to (...)
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  • Confusion and Dependence in Uses of History.David Slutsky - 2012 - Synthese 184 (3):261-286.
    Many people argue that history makes a special difference to the subjects of biology and psychology, and that history does not make this special difference to other parts of the world. This paper will show that historical properties make no more or less of a difference to biology or psychology than to chemistry, physics, or other sciences. Although historical properties indeed make a certain kind of difference to biology and psychology, this paper will show that historical properties make the same (...)
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  • Karl von Frisch and the Discipline of Ethology.Kelle Dhein - 2021 - Journal of the History of Biology 54 (4):739-767.
    In 1973, the discipline of ethology came into its own when three of its most prominent practitioners—Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch—jointly received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Historians have shown how Lorenz and Tinbergen were central to the practical and theoretical innovations that came to define ethology as a distinct form of animal behavior research in the twentieth century. Frisch is rarely mentioned in such histories. In this paper, I ask, What is Frisch’s relationship to (...)
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  • The Role of the Amygdala in the Appraising Brain.David Sander, Kristen A. Lindquist, Tor D. Wager, Hedy Kober, Eliza Bliss-Moreau & Lisa Feldman Barrett - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (3):161.
    Lindquist et al. convincingly argue that the brain implements psychological operations that are constitutive of emotion rather than modules subserving discrete emotions. However, the nature of such psychological operations is open to debate. I argue that considering appraisal theories may provide alternative interpretations of the neuroimaging data with respect to the psychological operations involved.
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  • Brain Mechanisms for Offense, Defense, and Submission.David B. Adams - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):201-213.
  • Knowing Thyself, Knowing the Other: They're Not the Same.Jonathan Schull & J. David Smith - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):166-167.
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  • Motivational Systems, Motivational Mechanisms, and Aggression.David B. Adams - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):230-241.
  • The Awakened Brain: From Wright's Psychozoology to Barkow's Selfless Persons.David Paul Lumsden - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):311-312.
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  • Can Voluntary Movement Be Understood on the Basis of Reflex Organization?David J. Ostry & Frances E. Wilkinson - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):618-619.
  • Beyond Interactionism: A Transactional Approach to Behavioral Development.David B. Miller - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):641-642.
  • Defense Motivational System: Issues of Emotion, Reinforcement, and Neural Structure.David Adams - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (4):675-676.
  • Behavioral Flexibility and the Organization of Action.David S. Olton - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):634-635.
  • Nonlinear Experiential Influences on the Development of Fear Reactions.David B. Miller - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):306-307.
  • We Are Making Good Progress in the Neural Analysis of Behaviour.David L. Macmillan - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (3):395-395.
  • Why Are Phobias Irrational?Peter F. Lovibond, David A. T. Siddle & Nigel W. Bond - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):303-303.
  • The Perception of Time and the Notion of a Point of View.Christoph Hoerl - 1997 - European Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):156-171.
    This paper aims to investigate the temporal content of perceptual experience. It argues that we must recognize the existence of temporal perceptions, i.e., perceptions the content of which cannot be spelled out simply by looking at what is the case at an isolated instant. Acts of apprehension can cover a succession of events. However, a subject who has such perceptions can fall short of having a concept of time. Similar arguments have been put forward to show that a subject who (...)
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  • Liberal Representationalism: A Deflationist Defense.Marc Artiga - 2016 - Dialectica 70 (3):407-430.
    The idea that only complex brains can possess genuine representations is an important element in mainstream philosophical thinking. An alternative view, which I label ‘liberal representationalism’, holds that we should accept the existence of many more full-blown representations, from activity in retinal ganglion cells to the neural states produced by innate releasing mechanisms in cognitively unsophisticated organisms. A promising way of supporting liberal representationalism is to show it to be a consequence of our best naturalistic theories of representation. However, several (...)
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  • Genes, Neurons and Codes: Remarks on Biological Communication.Michel Kerszberg - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (7):699-708.
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  • An Evaluation of What the Mouse Knockout Experiments Are Telling Us About Mammalian Behaviour.Eric B. Keverne - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (12):1091-1098.
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  • Philosophy as an Open Meta‐Science of Interdisciplinary Cross‐Induction.Magoroh Maruyama - 1962 - Dialectica 16 (4):361-384.
  • The Evolution of Cognition—a Hypothesis.Holk Cruse - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (1):135-155.
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  • Why and How Did Narrative Fictions Evolve? Fictions as Entertainment Technologies.Edgar Dubourg & Nicolas Baumard - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Narrative fictions have surely become the single most widespread source of entertainment in the world. In their free time, humans read novels and comics, watch movies and TV series, and play video games: they consume stories that they know to be false. Such behaviors are expanding at lightning speed in modern societies. Yet, the question of the origin of fictions has been an evolutionary puzzle for decades: Are fictions biological adaptations, or the by-products of cognitive mechanisms that evolved for another (...)
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  • Acquired Powers: The Transformation of Natural Into Personal Powers.John Shotter - 1973 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 3 (2):141–156.
  • On Quantitative Comparative Research in Communication and Language Evolution.D. Kimbrough Oller & Ulrike Griebel - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (3):296-308.
    Quantitative comparison of human language and natural animal communication requires improved conceptualizations. We argue that an infrastructural approach to development and evolution incorporating an extended interpretation of the distinctions among illocution, perlocution, and meaning can help place the issues relevant to quantitative comparison in perspective. The approach can illuminate the controversy revolving around the notion of functional referentiality as applied to alarm calls, for example in the vervet monkey. We argue that referentiality offers a poor point of quantitative comparison across (...)
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  • Basic Emotion Theory, Social Constructionism, and the Universal Ethogram.Warren D. TenHouten - 2021 - Social Science Information 60 (4):610-630.
    While emotion researchers with an evolutionary and biological orientation increasingly agree that small sets of discrete emotions are basic or primary, other researchers – particularly social constructionists – instead argue that all emotions are expressions of language and culture largely unconstrained by biology. Emotions are indeed socially and psychologically constructed, but not from scratch, for the basic emotions have evolved as biologically-structured adaptive reactions to the most fundamental problems of life, and have a deep evolutionary history. These life-problems were first (...)
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  • Function, Homology and Character Individuation.Paul E. Griffiths - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (1):1-25.
    I defend the view that many biological categories are defined by homology against a series of arguments designed to show that all biological categories are defined, at least in part, by selected function. I show that categories of homology are `abnormality inclusive'—something often alleged to be unique to selected function categories. I show that classifications by selected function are logically dependent on classifications by homology, but not vice-versa. Finally, I reject the view that biologists must use considerations of selected function (...)
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  • Wright and Taylor: Empiricist Teleology.Arthur J. Minton - 1975 - Philosophy of Science 42 (3):299-306.
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  • Adaptationism for Human Cognition: Strong, Spurious, or Weak?Scott Atran - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (1):39-67.
    Strong adaptationists explore complex organic design as taskspecific adaptations to ancestral environments. This strategy seems best when there is evidence of homology. Weak adaptationists don't assume that complex organic (including cognitive and linguistic) functioning necessarily or primarily represents taskspecific adaptation. This approach to cognition resembles physicists' attempts to deductively explain the most facts with fewest hypotheses. For certain domainspecific competencies (folkbiology) strong adaptationism is useful but not necessary to research. With grouplevel belief systems (religion) strong adaptationism degenerates into spurious notions (...)
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  • Culture: The Driving Force of Human Cognition.Ivan Colagè & Francesco D'Errico - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (2):654-672.
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  • Our Animal Bodies.Steven Horst - 1998 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 22 (1):34-61.
  • The Mobility Gradient From a Comparative Phylogenetic Perspective.David Eilam - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):274-275.
  • Neural Circuitry for Motivational Systems.David A. Yutzey - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):229-230.
  • Connectionist Models Are Also Algorithmic.David S. Touretzky - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):496-497.
  • Dynamic Programming: From Eternity to Here.David F. Sherry - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):147-148.
  • Learning, Memory, and Syntactic Bootstrapping: A Meditation.Jeffrey Lidz - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (1):78-90.
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  • Vertebrate Neuroethology: Doomed From the Start?David J. Ingle - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (3):392-393.
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  • Ewert's Model: Some Discoveries and Some Difficulties.David Ingle - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):383-385.
  • Toward an Empirical Foundation for Evolutionary Psychology.David M. Buss - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):301-302.
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