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  1. Differences in the Distribution of Attention to Trained Procedure Between Finders and Non-Finders of the Alternative Better Procedure.Yuki Ninomiya, Hitoshi Terai & Kazuhisa Miwa - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The human ability to flexibly discover alternatives without fixating on a known solution supports a variety of human creative activities. Previous research has shown that people who discover an alternative procedure relax their attentional bias to information regarding the known solutions just prior to the discovery. This study examined whether the difference in the distribution of attention between the finders and non-finders of the alternative procedure is observed from the phase of solving the problem using the trained procedure. We evaluated (...)
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  • Conflict, Metacognition, and Analytic Thinking.Valerie A. Thompson & Stephen C. Johnson - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):215-244.
    One hundred and three participants solved conflict and non-conflict versions of four reasoning tasks using a two-response procedure: a base rate task, a causal reasoning task, a denominator neglect task, and a categorical syllogisms task. Participants were asked to give their first, intuitive answer, to make a Feeling of Rightness judgment, and then were given as much time as needed to rethink their answer. They also completed a standardized measure of IQ and the actively open-minded thinking questionnaire. The FORs of (...)
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  • Elaborative Feedback and Instruction Improve Cognitive Reflection but Do Not Transfer to Related Tasks.Dustin P. Calvillo, Jonathan Bratton, Victoria Velazquez, Thomas J. Smelter & Danielle Crum - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-29.
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  • Thinking Through Talking to Yourself: Inner Speech as a Vehicle of Conscious Reasoning.Wade Munroe - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-27.
  • Metacognitive Control in Single- Vs. Dual-Process Theory.Caleb Dewey - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-36.
    Recent work in cognitive modelling has found that most of the data that has been cited as evidence for the dual-process theory (DPT) of reasoning is best explained by non-linear, “monotonic” one-process models (Stephens et al., 2018, 2019). In this paper, I consider an important caveat of this research: it uses models that are committed to unrealistic assumptions about how effectively task conditions can isolate Type-1 and Type-2 reasoning. To avoid this caveat, I develop a coordinated theoretical, experimental, and modelling (...)
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  • Biased Estimates of Environmental Impact in the Negative Footprint Illusion: The Nature of Individual Variation.Emma Threadgold, John E. Marsh, Mattias Holmgren, Hanna Andersson, Megan Nelson & Linden J. Ball - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    People consistently act in ways that harm the environment, even when believing their actions are environmentally friendly. A case in point is a biased judgment termed the negative footprint illusion, which arises when people believe that the addition of “eco-friendly” items to conventional items, reduces the total carbon footprint of the whole item-set, whereas the carbon footprint is, in fact, increased because eco-friendly items still contribute to the overall carbon footprint. Previous research suggests this illusion is the manifestation of an (...)
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  • Great Minds Do Not Think Alike: Philosophers’ Views Predicted By Reflection, Education, Personality, And Other Demographic Differences.Nick Byrd - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-38.
    Prior research found correlations between reflection test performance and philosophical tendencies among laypeople. In two large studies (total N = 1299)—one pre-registered—many of these correlations were replicated in a sample that included both laypeople and philosophers. For example, reflection test performance predicted preferring atheism over theism and instrumental harm over harm avoidance on the trolley problem. However, most reflection-philosophy correlations were undetected when controlling for other factors such as numeracy, preferences for open-minded thinking, personality, philosophical training, age, and gender. Nonetheless, (...)
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  • Intuitive And Reflective Responses In Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Colorado
    Cognitive scientists have revealed systematic errors in human reasoning. There is disagreement about what these errors indicate about human rationality, but one upshot seems clear: human reasoning does not seem to fit traditional views of human rationality. This concern about rationality has made its way through various fields and has recently caught the attention of philosophers. The concern is that if philosophers are prone to systematic errors in reasoning, then the integrity of philosophy would be threatened. In this paper, I (...)
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  • Testing for the Phenomenal: Intuition, Metacognition, and Philosophical Methodology.Miguel Egler - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (1):48-66.
    Recent empirical studies raise methodological concerns about the use of intuitions in philosophy. According to one prominent line of reply, these concerns are unwarranted since the empirical studies motivating them do not control for the putatively characteristic phenomenology of intuitions. This paper makes use of research on metacognitive states that have precisely this phenomenology to argue that the above reply fails. Furthermore, it shows that empirical findings about these metacognitive states can help philosophers make better informed assessments of their warrant (...)
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  • Why Are You Talking to Yourself? The Epistemic Role of Inner Speech in Reasoning.Wade Munroe - forthcoming - Noûs.
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  • Reflective Reasoning & Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (11):e12786.
    Philosophy is a reflective activity. So perhaps it is unsurprising that many philosophers have claimed that reflection plays an important role in shaping and even improving our philosophical thinking. This hypothesis seems plausible given that training in philosophy has correlated with better performance on tests of reflection and reflective reasoning has correlated with demonstrably better judgments in a variety of domains. This article reviews the hypothesized roles of reflection in philosophical thinking as well as the empirical evidence for these roles. (...)
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  • Meta-Moral Cognition: An Introduction.Reena Cheruvalath - 2019 - Mind and Society 18 (1):33-42.
    This paper examines the literature on meta-moral cognition and juxtaposes that with meta-cognition. At a basic level, the moral agent coordinates and assigns meaning to the various micro-concepts and moral concepts involved in a moral judgment. These concepts are combined to make moral assumptions. Meta-moral cognition is a higher level cognitive skill. The skill helps the moral agent to understand the cognitive process, control it, regulate the concepts and strategies used, and helps to reflect on the right and wrong of (...)
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  • How to Solve Hume's Problem of Induction.Alexander Jackson - 2019 - Episteme 16 (2):157-174.
    This paper explains what’s wrong with a Hume-inspired argument for skepticism about induction. Hume’s argument takes as a premise that inductive reasoning presupposes that the future will resemble the past. I explain why that claim is not plausible. The most plausible premise in the vicinity is that inductive reasoning from E to H presupposes that if E then H. I formulate and then refute a skeptical argument based on that premise. Central to my response is a psychological explanation for how (...)
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  • How You Know You Are Not a Brain in a Vat.Alexander Jackson - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (10):2799-2822.
    A sensible epistemologist may not see how she could know that she is not a brain in a vat ; but she doesn’t panic. She sticks with her empirical beliefs, and as that requires, believes that she is not a BIV. (She does not inferentially base her belief that she is not a BIV on her empirical knowledge—she rejects that ‘Moorean’ response to skepticism.) Drawing on the psychological literature on metacognition, I describe a mechanism that’s plausibly responsible for a sensible (...)
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  • The Sense of Effort: a Cost-Benefit Theory of the Phenomenology of Mental Effort.Marcell Székely & John Michael - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (4):889-904.
    In the current paper, we articulate a theory to explain the phenomenology of mental effort. The theory provides a working definition of mental effort, explains in what sense mental effort is a limited resource, and specifies the factors that determine whether or not mental effort is experienced as aversive. The core of our theory is the conjecture that the sense of effort is the output of a cost-benefit analysis. This cost-benefit analysis employs heuristics to weigh the current and anticipated costs (...)
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  • Information Use Differences in Hot and Cold Risk Processing: When Does Information About Probability Count in the Columbia Card Task?Łukasz Markiewicz & Elżbieta Kubińska - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Heuristics and Biases: Interactions Among Numeracy, Ability, and Reflectiveness Predict Normative Responding.Paul A. Klaczynski - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Bat-and-Ball Problem: A Word-Problem Debiasing Approach.Jerome D. Hoover & Alice F. Healy - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-32.
    Three experiments explored the effects of word problem cueing on debiasing versions of the bat-and-ball problem. In the experimental condition order, participants solved a simpler isomorphic versio...
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  • The Role of Representativeness in Reasoning and Metacognitive Processes: An in-Depth Analysis of the Linda Problem.Marin Dujmović, Pavle Valerjev & Igor Bajšanski - 2020 - Thinking and Reasoning 27 (2):161-186.
    We conducted a thorough investigation of the impact of representativeness on reasoning and metacognitive processes by employing the Linda problem. In congruent versions, the more representative res...
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  • Cognitive Style and Religiosity: The Role of Conflict Detection.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Nathaniel Barr, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2014 - Memory and Cognition 42 (1):1-10.
    Recent research has indicated a negative relation between the propensity for analytic reasoning and religious beliefs and practices. Here, we propose conflict detection as a mechanism underlying this relation, on the basis of the hypothesis that more-analytic people are less religious, in part, because they are more sensitive to conflicts between immaterial religious beliefs and beliefs about the material world. To examine cognitive conflict sensitivity, we presented problems containing stereotypes that conflicted with base-rate probabilities in a task with no religious (...)
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  • Dunning-Kruger Effect: Intuitive Errors Predict Overconfidence on the Cognitive Reflection Test.Mariana V. C. Coutinho, Justin Thomas, Alia S. M. Alsuwaidi & Justin J. Couchman - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The Cognitive Reflection Test is a measure of analytical reasoning that cues an intuitive but incorrect response that must be rejected for successful performance to be attained. The CRT yields two types of errors: Intuitive errors, which are attributed to Type 1 processes; and non-intuitive errors, which result from poor numeracy skills or deficient reasoning. Past research shows that participants who commit the highest numbers of errors on the CRT overestimate their performance the most, whereas those with the lowest error-rates (...)
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  • Domain-Specific Experience and Dual-Process Thinking.Zoë A. Purcell, Colin A. Wastell & Naomi Sweller - 2020 - Thinking and Reasoning 27 (2):239-267.
    Prominent dual process models assert that reasoning processes can transition from effortful to intuitive with increases in domain-specific experience. In two studies we directly e...
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  • Evidence for Age-Equivalent and Task-Dissociative Metacognition in the Memory Domain.Alexandria C. Zakrzewski, Edie C. Sanders & Jane M. Berry - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Research suggests that metacognitive monitoring ability does not decline with age. For example, judgments-of-learning accuracy is roughly equivalent between younger and older adults. But few studies have asked whether younger and older adults’ metacognitive ability varies across different types of memory processes. The current study tested the relationship between memory and post-decision confidence ratings at the trial level on item and associative memory recognition tests. As predicted, younger and older adults had similarmetacognitive efficiency, when using meta-d’/d’, a measure derived from (...)
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  • Disfluent Fonts Do Not Help People to Solve Math and Non-Math Problems Regardless of Their Numeracy.Miroslav Sirota, Andriana Theodoropoulou & Marie Juanchich - 2020 - Thinking and Reasoning 27 (1):142-159.
    Prior research has suggested that perceptual disfluency activates analytical processing and increases the solution rate of mathematical problems with appealing but incorrect answers (i.e., the Cogn...
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  • Studying the Role of Cognitive Control in Reasoning: Evidence for the Congruency Sequence Effect in the Ratio-Bias Task.Balazs Aczel & Bence Palfi - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (1):81-97.
    In this study, we investigated whether control of the conflict between incongruent heuristic and analytical answer options in a reasoning task is modulated by the presence of conflict on previous trials. In two experiments, we found that the incongruency of the previous trial has a significant effect on the control exhibited on the current trial. Our data also showed that this adaptation effect is modulated by the incongruency of the previous series of trials. These results demonstrate the same control adaptation (...)
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  • Fluency and Belief Bias in Deductive Reasoning: New Indices for Old Effects.Dries Trippas, Simon J. Handley & Michael F. Verde - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • How and When? Metacognition and Solution Timing Characterize an “Aha” Experience of Object Recognition in Hidden Figures.Tetsuo Ishikawa, Mayumi Toshima & Ken Mogi - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  • The Effect of Font Size on Children’s Memory and Metamemory.Vered Halamish, Hila Nachman & Tami Katzir - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Reactivity to Measures of Metacognition.Kit S. Double & Damian P. Birney - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Disfluency Prompts Analytic Thinking—But Not Always Greater Accuracy: Response To.Adam L. Alter, Daniel M. Oppenheimer & Nicholas Epley - 2013 - Cognition 128 (2):252-255.
    In this issue of Cognition, Thompson and her colleagues challenge the results from a paper we published several years ago. That paper demonstrated that metacognitive difficulty or disfluency can trigger more analytical thinking as measured by accuracy on several reasoning tasks. In their experiments, Thompson et al. find evidence that people process information more deeply—but not necessarily more accurately—when they experience disfluency. These results are consistent with our original theorizing, but the authors misinterpret it as counter-evidence because they suggest that (...)
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  • Can I Cut the Gordian Tnok? The Impact of Pronounceability, Actual Solvability, and Length on Intuitive Problem Assessments of Anagrams.Sascha Topolinski, Giti Bakhtiari & Thorsten M. Erle - 2016 - Cognition 146:439-452.
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  • Analytic Thinking Reduces Belief in Conspiracy Theories.Viren Swami, Martin Voracek, Stefan Stieger, Ulrich S. Tran & Adrian Furnham - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):572-585.
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  • Oops, Scratch That! Monitoring One’s Own Errors During Mental Calculation.Ana L. Fernandez Cruz, Santiago Arango-Muñoz & Kirsten G. Volz - 2016 - Cognition 146:110-120.
    The feeling of error (FOE) is the subjective experience that something went wrong during a reasoning or calculation task. The main goal of the present study was to assess the accuracy of the FOE in the context of mental mathematical calculation. We used the number bisection task (NBT) to evoke this metacognitive feeling and assessed it by asking participants if they felt they have committed an error after solving the task. In the NBT participants have to determine whether the number (...)
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  • The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency in the Monitoring and Control of Reasoning: Reply To.Valerie A. Thompson, Rakefet Ackerman, Yael Sidi, Linden J. Ball, Gordon Pennycook & Jamie A. Prowse Turner - 2013 - Cognition 128 (2):256-258.
    In this reply, we provide an analysis of Alter et al. response to our earlier paper. In that paper, we reported difficulty in replicating Alter, Oppenheimer, Epley, and Eyre’s main finding, namely that a sense of disfluency produced by making stimuli difficult to perceive, increased accuracy on a variety of reasoning tasks. Alter, Oppenheimer, and Epley argue that we misunderstood the meaning of accuracy on these tasks, a claim that we reject. We argue and provide evidence that the tasks were (...)
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  • Meta-Reasoning: Monitoring and Control of Thinking and Reasoning.Rakefet Ackerman & Valerie A. Thompson - 2017 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21 (8):607-617.
  • I Know the Rule, but I'll Just Go with My Gut: Is There a Rational Use of Intuition?Filipe Loureiro & Teresa Garcia-Marques - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (4):469-497.
    ABSTRACTResearch has established that human thinking is often biased by intuitive judgement. The base-rate neglect effect provides such an example, so named because people often support their decisions in stereotypical individuating information, neglecting base-rates. Here, we test the hypothesis that reasoners acknowledge information provided by base-rates and may use individuating information in support of a “rational” decision process. Results from four experiments show that “base-rate neglecting” occurs when participants acknowledge sample distributions; participants who prefer individuating over base-rate information perceive base-rates (...)
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  • Matching Bias on the Selection Task: It's Fast and Feels Good.Valerie A. Thompson, Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Jamie I. D. Campbell - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):431-452.
    We tested the hypothesis that choices determined by Type 1 processes are compelling because they are fluent, and for this reason they are less subject to analytic thinking than other answers. A total of 104 participants completed a modified version of Wason's selection task wherein they made decisions about one card at a time using a two-response paradigm. In this paradigm participants gave a fast, intuitive response, rated their feeling of rightness for that response, and were then allowed free time (...)
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  • The Cognitive Reflection Test Revisited: Exploring the Ways Individuals Solve the Test.B. Szaszi, A. Szollosi, B. Palfi & B. Aczel - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (3):207-234.
    Individuals’ propensity not to override the first answer that comes to mind is thought to be a crucial cause behind many failures in reasoning. In the present study, we aimed to explore the strategies used and the abilities employed when individuals solve the cognitive reflection test, the most widely used measure of this tendency. Alongside individual differences measures, protocol analysis was employed to unfold the steps of the reasoning process in solving the CRT. This exploration revealed that there are several (...)
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  • Shared and Distinct Cue Utilization for Metacognitive Judgements During Reasoning and Memorisation.Rakefet Ackerman & Yael Beller - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (4):376-408.
    Metacognitive research is dominated by meta-memory studies; meta-reasoning research is nascent. Accessibility – the number of associations for a stimulus – is a reliable heuristic cue for Feeling of Knowing when answering knowledge questions. We used a similar cue, subjective accessibility, for exposing commonalities and differences between meta-reasoning and meta-memory. In Experiment 1, participants faced solvable Compound Remote Associate problems mixed with unsolvable random word triads. We collected initial Judgement of Solvability, final JOS and confidence. Experiment 2 focused on confidence, (...)
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  • Lax Monitoring Versus Logical Intuition: The Determinants of Confidence in Conjunction Fallacy.Balazs Aczel, Aba Szollosi & Bence Bago - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (1):99-117.
    ABSTRACTThe general assumption that people fail to notice discrepancy between their answer and the normative answer in the conjunction fallacy task has been challenged by the theory of Logical Intuition. This theory suggests that people can detect the conflict between the heuristic and normative answers even if they do not always manage to inhibit their intuitive choice. This theory gained support from the finding that people report lower levels of confidence in their choice after they commit the conjunction fallacy compared (...)
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  • When Analytic Thought is Challenged by a Misunderstanding.L. Macchi & M. Bagassi - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (1):147-164.
    In our view, the way of thinking involved in insight problem solving is very close to the process involved in the understanding of an utterance, when a misunderstanding occurs. In this case, a more appropriate meaning has to be selected to resolve the misunderstanding , the default interpretation has to be dropped in order to “restructure”, to grasp another meaning which appears more relevant to the context and the speaker's intention. A new conception of unconscious, implicit thought emerges, informed by (...)
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