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  1. Beyond “Religion” and “Spirituality”.James Murphy - 2017 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 39 (1):1-26.
    A review of recent research suggests that academic and popular distinctions between “religion” and “spirituality” are unfounded. Working from a meaning systems perspective, it is argued that recognizing that “religious” and “spiritual” are part of the same broad category does not go far enough. It is argued that a wider perspective that considers the interplay of many different cultural and social factors on both beliefs and practices is more useful. This broadening of the multi-level, interdisciplinary paradigm to examine all existential (...)
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  • Mysticism.Jerome Gellman - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • The Goldberg Exaptation Model: Integrating Adaptation and By-Product Theories of Religion.Taylor Davis - 2017 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (3):687-708.
    The literature on the evolution of religion has been divided by a fundamental debate between adaptation theories, which explain religious traits as products of selection for religion, and byproduct theories, which explain religious traits as products of selection for other, non-religious functions. Recently, however, a new position has emerged in this debate, as an influential new theory based on cultural selection claims to integrate adaptation theories with byproduct theories, yielding a single, unified account. I argue that the proponents of this (...)
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  • Maya Divination: Ritual Techniques of Distributed Cognition.John J. McGraw - 2016 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 16 (3-4):177-198.
    Based on more than 24 months of ethnographic research among Maya ritualists in the western highlands of Guatemala, this article examines howpajooneem, ortz’ite’seed divination, facilitates decision-making and distributes cognition between client, diviner, and ritual techniques.Tz’ite’seed divination exhibits a stylized routine that draws on important ‘mediating structures,’ including the 260-day ritual calendar known throughout Mesoamerica. Because it is both a ritual and cognitive practice, Maya divination grounds decision-making in a perennially relevant set of cultural values.
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  • Progress or Pathology? Differential Diagnosis and Intervention Criteria for Meditation-Related Challenges: Perspectives From Buddhist Meditation Teachers and Practitioners.Jared R. Lindahl, David J. Cooper, Nathan E. Fisher, Laurence J. Kirmayer & Willoughby B. Britton - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Towards a Theory of Spiritual and Religious Experiences.Chris A. M. Hermans - 2015 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 37 (2):141-167.
    How do we define religious experiences? And what would be the relationship with spiritual experiences? The author claims that the cognitive turn in science gives us new opportunities to map the territory of religion and spirituality. In line with other authors, he proposes a building block approach of cognitive mechanisms that can deal with questions regarding the specificity, origin, and complexity of religious experiences. Two concepts are presented that bridge the great divide which is presumed to exist between sciences that (...)
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  • The Christian Core of Intelligent Design.Sharon Woodill - 2015 - Zygon 50 (2):271-286.
    Intelligent design theorists assert that ID is a scientific theory that is merely consistent with some religious beliefs. Many critics point to the circumstantial evidence of the apparent development of ID from creation science and the affiliation of ID with mainstream evangelical organizations to assert its religious orientation. This article suggests that the position of ID proponents is a substantial understatement, and that beyond the circumstantial evidence of critics, fundamental Christian doctrine constitutes the essence of ID theory. The bulk of (...)
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  • The Exploratory and Reflective Domain of Metaphor in the Comparison of Religions.Paul C. Martin - 2013 - Zygon 48 (4):936-965.
    There has been a longstanding interest in discovering or uncovering resemblances among what are ostensibly diverse religious schemas by employing a range of methodological approaches and tools. However, it is generally considered a problematic undertaking. Jonathan Z. Smith has produced a large body of work aimed at explicating this and has tacitly based his model of comparison on metaphor, which is traditionally understood to connote similarity between two or more things, as based on a linguistic or pragmatic assessment. However, another (...)
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  • “The Wrong Holy Ghost”: Discerning the Apostolic Gift of Discernment Using a Signaling and Systems Theoretical Approach.Christopher Dana Lynn - 2013 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 41 (2):223-247.
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  • “The Wrong Holy Ghost”: Discerning the Apostolic Gift of Discernment Using a Signaling and Systems Theoretical Approach.Christopher Dana Lynn - 2013 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 41 (2):223-247.
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  • Lived Religion and Mystical Experiences.Katarina Johansson - 2022 - Approaching Religion 12 (1):132-148.
    This article discusses and argues for a ‘new’ and inclusive umbrella concept for varieties of experiences that have been called, inter alia, religious, spiritual, existential, paranormal, extraordinary or inexplicable. The umbrella concept to be explored is seen as a means of capturing one kind of ‘lived religion’ in contemporary society and simultaneously expanding the field of the sociology of religion. The discussion is theoretical and anchored in contemporary theories and traditions in sociology of religion, but it is also of pragmatical, (...)
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  • Religion and its Modifiers: Making Sense of the Definition and Subtypification of a Contested Concept.Avi Astor - 2022 - Theory and Society 51 (2):213-232.
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  • Growing Up Amid the Religion and Science Affair: A Perspective From Indology.Thomas B. Ellis - 2012 - Zygon 47 (3):589-607.
    Abstract This article identifies the tropes of “maturity” and “immaturity” in the dialogue between religion and science. On both sides of the aisle, authors charge, either directly or indirectly, that their dissenting interlocutors are not mature enough to see the value of their respective positions. Such accusations have recently emerged in discussions pertaining to Hindu theology, Indology, and science. Those who dismiss the substance dualism of Hindu yoga, according to Jonathan B. Edelmann, evince immaturity. Appeals to Hindu yoga are yet (...)
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  • Mindfulness, Mysticism, and Narrative Medicine.Bradley Lewis - 2016 - Journal of Medical Humanities 37 (4):401-417.
    Mindfulness based interventions are rapidly emerging in health care settings for their role in reducing stress and improving physical and mental health. In such settings, the religious roots and affiliations of MBIs are downplayed, and the possibilities for developing spiritual, even mystical, states of consciousness are minimized. This article helps rebalance this trend by using the tools of medical humanities and narrative medicine to explore MBI as a bridge between medical and spiritual approaches to health related suffering. My narrative medicine (...)
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  • Yogācāra Substrata? Precedent Frames for Yogācāra Thought Among Third-Century Yoga Practitioners in Greater Gandhāra.Daniel Stuart - 2018 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 46 (2):193-240.
    The connection between early yogācāras, or practitioners of yoga, and later Yogācāra-vijñānavāda philosophy has long preoccupied scholars. But these connections remain obscure. This article suggests that a text that has received little attention in modern scholarship, the Saddharmasmṛtyupasthānasūtra, may shed light on aspects of early yogācāra contemplative cultures that gave rise to some of the formative dynamics of Yogācāra-vijñānavāda thought. I show how traditional Buddhist meditative practice and engagement with Abhidharma theoretics come together in the Saddharmasmṛtyuasthānasūtra to produce a novel (...)
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  • Rationalist Atheology.John R. Shook - 2015 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 78 (3):329-348.
    Atheology, accurately defined by Alvin Plantinga, offers reasons why god’s existence is implausible. Skeptically reasoning that theological arguments for god fail to make their case is one way of leaving supernaturalism in an implausible condition. This ‘rationalist’ atheology appeals to logical standards to point out fallacies and other sorts of inferential gaps. Beyond that methodological marker, few shared tactics characterize atheists and agnostics stalking theological targets. If unbelief be grounded on reason, let atheology start from a theological stronghold: the principle (...)
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  • The Multifaceted Role of Imagination in Science and Religion. A Critical Examination of its Epistemic, Creative and Meaning-Making Functions.Ingrid Malm Lindberg - 2021 - Dissertation, Uppsala University
    The main purpose of this dissertation is to examine critically and discuss the role of imagination in science and religion, with particular emphasis on its possible epistemic, creative, and meaning-making functions. In order to answer my research questions, I apply theories and concepts from contemporary philosophy of mind on scientific and religious practices. This framework allows me to explore the mental state of imagination, not as an isolated phenomenon but, rather, as one of many mental states that co-exist and interplay (...)
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  • The Return of Perennial Perspectives? Why Transpersonal Psychology Should Remain Open to Essentialism.Steve Taylor - 2017 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 36 (2):75-92.
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  • Theses on the Critique of “Religion”.Craig Martin - 2015 - Critical Research on Religion 3 (3):297-302.
    Those of us who study the history and politics of the concept of religion and its related terms often find that our peers in adjacent disciplines or subdisciplines do not take into account our findings and continue to use the terms naively and unreflexively. Perhaps this is because they are unaware of the problematic norms knotted into the history of the concept or the contested political stakes involved in its use. Or, perhaps they are engaged in just the very sort (...)
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  • Measuring Counterintuitiveness in Supernatural Agent Dream Imagery.Andreas Nordin & Pär Bjälkebring - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Twenty-Five Years In: Landmark Empirical Findings in the Cognitive Science of Religion.Robert N. McCauley - 2018 - Filosofia Unisinos 19 (3).
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  • The Cognitive Science of Religion: Implications for Morality.John Teehan - 2018 - Filosofia Unisinos 19 (3).
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  • Bonding During the Night of the Churches Converging and Differing Experiences of Churchgoers and Non-Churchgoers.Elpine M. de Boer & Henk de Roest - 2016 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 38 (1):47-71.
    How should we understand the paradoxical phenomenon that people are showing substantial interest in new events organized by the church in a western-European society that is characterized by dwindling church attendance? An explorative questionnaire study among churchgoers and non-churchgoers was conducted who chose to attend the so-called Night of the Churches in the Netherlands. The majority of the respondents indicated that they experience the Night of the Churches to be a qualitatively different phenomenon from other festivals. Our data suggest that (...)
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  • Cognitive Phenomenology of Religious Experience in Religious Narratives, Dreams, and Nightmares.Victoria Pae, Patrick McNamara, April Minsky & Alina Gusev - 2015 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 37 (3):343-357.
    McNamara hypothesized that a 4-step sequential decentering process characterized the phenomenology of religious and spiritual experiences and was rooted in dreams and nightmares. We content analyzed 50 RSES, 50 dreams, and 50 nightmares for presence and ordering of elements of the decentering process. Thirty-six percent of RSES, 48% of dreams, and 44% of nightmares had all four decentering elements. The sense of success occurred most frequently in RSES and least frequently in nightmares. Conversely, diminishment of agency occurred least often in (...)
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  • Narrativization of Religious Conversion Experience in the Environment of Evangelical Protestantism in Ukraine.Dmytro Myronovych - 2015 - Władza Sądzenia 6 (1).
    In the context of this article and in the perspective of interpre - tational approach we have considered possibilities of sociological analysis of a religious conversion. Based on examples of Evangelical Protestantism communities functioning on the territory of Ukraine the author analyzes peculiarities of building and structuring conversion narratives, a strategy of representation of the religious experience, linguistic means and tools used in this process. A religious conversion is considered as a particular discursive practice or a religious communication related to (...)
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  • Seeking the Supernatural: The Interactive Religious Experience Model.Neil Van Leeuwen & Michiel van Elk - 2019 - Religion, Brain and Behavior 9 (3):221-275.
    [OPEN ACCESS TARGET ARTICLE WITH COMMENTARIES AND RESPONSE] We develop a new model of how human agency-detection capacities and other socio-cognitive biases are involved in forming religious beliefs. Crucially, we distinguish general religious beliefs (such as *God exists*) from personal religious beliefs that directly refer to the agent holding the belief or to her peripersonal time and space (such as *God appeared to _me_ last night*). On our model, people acquire general religious beliefs mostly from their surrounding culture; however, people (...)
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  • False Beliefs and Naive Beliefs: They Can Be Good for You.Roberto Casati & Marco Bertamini - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):512-513.
    Naive physics beliefs can be systematically mistaken. They provide a useful test-bed because they are common, and also because their existence must rely on some adaptive advantage, within a given context. In the second part of the commentary we also ask questions about when a whole family of misbeliefs should be considered together as a single phenomenon.
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  • Prema kognitivnoznanstvenom shvaćanju iskustva svetoga.Benedikt Perak - 2010 - Filozofska Istrazivanja 30 (1-2):237-267.
    U članku se kroz višedisciplinarni pristup kognitivnih znanosti proučava osobito ljudsko iskustvo povezano s religioznim doživljajem stvarnosti, koje se u tradiciji discipline povijesti religija naziva ‘iskustvo svetoga’. U skladu s teorijom emergencije, predlaže se definicija iskustva svetoga kao stanja svijesti sa subjektivnom kvalitetom integracije, specifičnim neurološkim korelatom i funkcionalnim obilježjima. Emergentne teorije svijesti pružaju ontološki ujednačeno tumačenje iskustava svetoga nudeći »naravna« objašnjenja bez odricanja njihove fenomenološke subjektivnosti. Prijenos iskustva svetoga iz unitarnoga, svojevrsnog intencionalno neobojenoga stanja, u izrecivi jezični kôd intencionalno (...)
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  • The Aporetics of Religious Diversity.Geert Drieghe - unknown
    My thesis situates itself within the field of the Philosophy of Worldviews. Specifically, it aims to address the normative question of what the task should be of such a philosophy when faced with the problem of conflicting beliefs between religious worldviews. To answer this question, I turn to the procedure of aporetical analysis, in short, aporetics. Firstly, aporetics offers a distinct method of consistency restoration within inconsistent sets on the basis of thesis rejection and thesis modification. Secondly, aporetics leads to (...)
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  • Reverse Engineering Complex Cultural Concepts: Identifying Building Blocks of “Religion”.Ann Taves - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 15 (1-2):191-216.
    Researchers have not yet done an adequate job of reverse engineering the complex cultural concepts of religion and spirituality in a way that allows scientists to operationalize component parts and historians of religion to consider how the component parts have been synthesized into larger socio-cultural wholes. Doing so involves two steps: distinguishing between the generic elements that structure definitions and the specific features used to characterize the generic elements as “religious” or “sacred” and disaggregating these specific features into more basic (...)
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  • On the Adaptive Advantage of Always Being Right (Even When One is Not).Nathalia L. Gjersoe & Bruce M. Hood - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):521-522.
    We propose another positive illusion that fits with McKay & Dennett's (M&D's) criteria for adaptive misbeliefs. This illusion is pervasive in adult reasoning but we focus on its prevalence in children's developing theories. It is a strongly held conviction arising from normal functioning of the doxastic system that confers adaptive advantage on the individual.
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  • Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution : Foundation of a Research Program. Part 1.Volkhard Krech - 2018 - Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 26 (1):1-51.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft Jahrgang: 26 Heft: 1 Seiten: 1-51.
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  • Zwischen Naturalismus Und Sozialkonstruktivismus: Kognitive, Körperliche, Emotionale Und Soziale Dimensionen von Religion.Sebastian Schüler - 2014 - Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 22 (1):5-36.
    ZusammenfassungNaturalistische Religionstheorien basieren auf der grundlegenden Annahme, dass sich Religionen aus den evolutionären und biologischen Merkmalen des Menschen entwickelt haben und somit zur ‚Natur‘ des Menschen gehören. In den letzten Jahren wurden solche Theorien durch den Einfluss der Kognitionswissenschaften weiterentwickelt und stellen mittlerweile ein neues Paradigma in der Religionsforschung dar. Demgegenüber steht das Verständnis einer kulturwissenschaftlich ausgerichteten Religionswissenschaft, die davon ausgeht, dass Religionen soziale Konstrukte beziehungsweise kulturelle Symbolsysteme sind. Der Beitrag stellt neben der klassischen Religionstheorie von Walter Burkert auch neuere (...)
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  • Reply to the Responses.Hubert Seiwert - 2021 - Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 29 (2):290-298.
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  • Religion, Religious: Can Anti-Definitionalists Stay Tethered to the Study of Religion?Ann Taves - 2021 - Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 29 (2):285-289.
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  • Experiential Careers: The Routinization and de-Routinization of Religious Life.Iddo Tavory & Daniel Winchester - 2012 - Theory and Society 41 (4):351-373.
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  • Sensing the Self in Spiritual Experience.V. Hari Narayanan - 2021 - Mind and Society 20 (1):25-40.
    The paper seeks to argue that the feeling of being part of a larger whole, considered to be a major feature of spiritual experience in some traditions, amounts to a change in the way the self is pre-reflectively understood. Further, the paper argues that some recent developments in the study of cognition support the case for such a revision in self-conception, and this can be used to build up a secular understanding of spirituality. The paper proceeds by making use of (...)
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  • "Signs for a People Who Reason": Religious Experience and Natural Theology.Amber L. Griffioen - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):139-163.
    In this paper, I examine various philosophical approaches to religious experience and natural theology and look at some ways in which the former might be relevant for the latter. I argue that by thinking more about oft-overlooked or -underemphasized understandings of a) what might constitute religious experience and b) what functions natural theology might serve, we can begin to develop a more nuanced approach to natural theological appeals to religious experience — one that makes use of materially mediated religious experience (...)
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  • Commentary: Measuring Counterintuitiveness in Supernatural Agent Dream Imagery.Robert Eugene Sears - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Re-Envisioning Contemplative Pedagogy Through Self-Study.Sabrina D. MisirHiralall - 2016 - Teacher Learning and Professional Development 2 (1):84-96.
    Contemplative pedagogy focuses on creating a sense of presence within educators to effectively educate the whole person through mindfulness in teaching. As I engage in a self-study, I develop initial components for the way I employ contemplative pedagogy. I aim to understand myself as an educator in order to teach effectively. One way to enable particular kinds of understandings is through self-study methodology. The foundational framework that develops through my ongoing self-study may interest those who are unfamiliar with the terrain (...)
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  • The Brain and Religion: How Do They Relate to Each Other?K. Helmut Reich - 2010 - Intellectual Discourse 18 (1).
    This essay evolves around three concepts: brain, religion, and relationship. Much of current misunderstandings and disputes result from using these concepts in differing ways without making the differences clear. Therefore, the stage is set with the corresponding definitions and a brief summary of the present state of affairs as understood here. That will also indicate the comparatively narrow content-related limits of the present considerations, which, from an enlarged perspective, are embedded in much wider concerns. Having thus situated the area under (...)
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  • Ideology as Cooperative Affordance.Joseph Bulbulia & Richard Sosis - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):515-516.
    McKay & Dennett (M&D) observe that beliefs need not be true in order to evolve. We connect this insight with Schelling's work on cooperative commitment to suggest that some beliefs are best approached as social goals. We explain why a social-interactive perspective is important to explaining the dynamics of belief formation and revision among situated partners.
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  • Concepts and Religious Experiences: Wayne Proudfoot on the Cultural Construction of Experiences.Stephen S. Bush - 2012 - Religious Studies 48 (1):101 - 117.
    The constructivist position, that mystical experiences are determined by the experiencer's cultural context, is now more prevalent among scholars of religion than the perennialist position, which maintains that mystical experiences have a common core that is cross-culturally universal. In large part, this is due to the efforts of Wayne Proudfoot in his widely accepted book, Religious Experience.In this article, I identify some significant unresolved issues in Proudfoot's defence of constructivism. My aim is not to defend perennialism, but to specify some (...)
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