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  1. Towards a Systematic Evaluation of Moral Bioenhancement.Karolina Kudlek - forthcoming - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-16.
    The ongoing debate about moral bioenhancement has been exceptionally stimulating, but it is defined by extreme polarization and lack of consensus about any relevant aspect of MBE. This article reviews the discussion on MBE, showing that a lack of consensus about enhancements’ desirable features and the constant development of the debate calls for a more rigorous ethical analysis. I identify a list of factors that may be of crucial importance for illuminating the matters of moral permissibility in the MBE debate (...)
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  • The Morality of Moral Neuroenhancement.Thomas Douglas - forthcoming - In Clausen Jens & Levy Neil (eds.), Handbook of Neuroethics. Springer.
    This chapter reviews recent philosophical and neuroethical literature on the morality of moral neuroenhancements. It first briefly outlines the main moral arguments that have been made concerning moral status neuroenhancements. These are neurointerventions that would augment the moral status of human persons. It then surveys recent debate regarding moral desirability neuroenhancements: neurointerventions that augment that the moral desirability of human character traits, motives or conduct. This debate has contested, among other claims (i) Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu’s contention that there (...)
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  • Moral Enhancement Should Target Self-Interest and Cognitive Capacity.Rafael Ahlskog - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):363-373.
    Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement. First, (...)
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  • Ethical Issues with Artificial Ethics Assistants.Elizabeth O'Neill, Michal Klincewicz & Michiel Kemmer - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of Digital Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines the possibility of using AI technologies to improve human moral reasoning and decision-making, especially in the context of purchasing and consumer decisions. We characterize such AI technologies as artificial ethics assistants (AEAs). We focus on just one part of the AI-aided moral improvement question: the case of the individual who wants to improve their morality, where what constitutes an improvement is evaluated by the individual’s own values. We distinguish three broad areas in which an individual might think (...)
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  • How Would We Know If Moral Enhancement Had Occurred?Garry Young - 2018 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 32 (4):587-606.
    ABSTRACT The aim of this essay is to question the coherence of debates on moral enhancement by neurophysical or pharmaceutical means in the absence of a cogent conception of the object of moral scrutiny: namely, moral enhancement. I present two conceptions of moral enhancement—weak and strong—and argue that given the problem of acquiring a standard measure of moral enhancement, regardless of whether enhancement is present in its weak or strong form and regardless of whether one endorses moral realism or different (...)
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  • Moral Frankensteins.Thom Brooks - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):28-30.
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  • The Fragility of Moral Traits to Technological Interventions.Joao Fabiano - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (2):269-281.
    I will argue that deep moral enhancement is relatively prone to unexpected consequences. I first argue that even an apparently straightforward example of moral enhancement such as increasing human co-operation could plausibly lead to unexpected harmful effects. Secondly, I generalise the example and argue that technological intervention on individual moral traits will often lead to paradoxical effects on the group level. Thirdly, I contend that insofar as deep moral enhancement targets higher-order desires, it is prone to be self-reinforcing and irreversible. (...)
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  • The Use of Animal Models in Behavioural Neuroscience Research.B. Bovenkerk & F. Kaldewaij - unknown
    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are also likely to be considered the ones that are most morally problematic to use, if it seems probable that they have experiences that are similar to human experiences that we have strong reasons to avoid (...)
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  • The Role of Emotion Modulation in Moral Bioenhancement Debate.Karolina Kudlek - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):113-123.
    This paper aims to analyze technical and internal aspects of one particular type of human moral enhancement, i.e. enhancement of moral motivation via direct emotion modulation. More precisely, it challenges the assumption that modifying certain emotions will have the results desired by the advocates of this theory. It is argued that neuropsychological understanding of the role and function of emotions, as well as of underlying cognitive mechanisms, might be relevant for the discussion about biomedical enhancement of moral capacities. Moreover, typical (...)
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  • Moral Relevance in the Concepts and Language of Human Synthetic Moral Enhancement.Christian Carrozzo - 2015 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Medicine 14 (2):06-12.
  • Can Prudence Be Enhanced?Jason T. Eberl - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (5):506-526.
    Some bioethicists have argued that moral bioenhancement, complementing traditional means of enhancing individuals’ moral dispositions, is essential if we are to survive as a species. Traditional means of moral enhancement have historically included civil legislation, socially recognized moral exemplars, religious teachings and disciplines, and familial upbringing. I explore the necessity and feasibility of pursuing methods of moral bioenhancement as a complement to such traditional means, grounding my analysis within a virtue-theoretic framework. Specifically, I focus on the essential intellectual virtue for (...)
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  • Why “Moral Enhancement” Isn’T Always Moral Enhancement: The Case of Traumatic Brain Injury in American Vets.Valerie Gray Hardcastle - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (5):527-546.
    In this article, I argue that as we learn more about how we might intervene in the brain in ways that impact human behavior, the scope of what counts as “moral behavior” becomes smaller and smaller because things we successfully manipulate using evidence-based science are often things that fall outside the sphere of morality. Consequently, the argument that we are morally obligated to morally enhance our neighbors starts to fall apart, not because humans should be free to make terrible choices, (...)
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  • Neurofeedback-Based Moral Enhancement and Traditional Moral Education.Koji Tachibana - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (33):19-42.
    Scientific progress in recent neurofeedback research may bring about a new type of moral neuroenhancement, namely, neurofeedback-based moral enhancement; however, this has yet to be examined thoroughly. This paper presents an ethical analysis of the possibility of neurofeedback-based moral enhancement and demonstrates that this type of moral enhancement sheds new light on the moral enhancement debate. First, I survey this debate and extract the typical structural flow of its arguments. Second, by applying structure to the case of neurofeedback-based moral enhancement, (...)
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  • Moral Neuroenhancement.Brian D. Earp, Thomas Douglas & Julian Savulescu - 2017 - In L. Syd M. Johnson & Karen S. Rommelfanger (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics. Routledge.
    In this chapter, we introduce the notion of “moral neuroenhancement,” offering a novel definition as well as spelling out three conditions under which we expect that such neuroenhancement would be most likely to be permissible (or even desirable). Furthermore, we draw a distinction between first-order moral capacities, which we suggest are less promising targets for neurointervention, and second-order moral capacities, which we suggest are more promising. We conclude by discussing concerns that moral neuroenhancement might restrict freedom or otherwise “misfire,” and (...)
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  • Direct Vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.G. Owen Schaefer - 2015 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (3):261-289.
    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn’t want people to become more moral? Still, the project’s approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, (...)
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  • The Ethical Desirability of Moral Bioenhancement: A Review of Reasons. [REVIEW]Jona Specker, Farah Focquaert, Kasper Raus, Sigrid Sterckx & Maartje Schermer - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):67.
    The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement.
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  • My Brain Made Me Moral: Moral Performance Enhancement for Realists.John Shook - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (3):199-211.
    How should ethics help decide the morality of enhancing morality? The idea of morally enhancing the human brain quickly emerged when the promise of cognitive enhancement in general began to seem realizable. However, on reflection, achieving moral enhancement must be limited by the practical challenges to any sort of cognitive modification, along with obstacles particular to morality’s bases in social cognition. The objectivity offered by the brain sciences cannot ensure the technological achievement of moral bioenhancement for humanity-wide application. Additionally, any (...)
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  • Virtue Theory for Moral Enhancement.Joao Fabiano - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):89-102.
    Our present moral traits are unable to provide the level of large-scale co-operation necessary to deal with risks such as nuclear proliferation, drastic climate change and pandemics. In order to survive in an environment with powerful and easily available technologies, some authors claim that we need to improve our moral traits with moral enhancement. But this is prone to produce paradoxical effects, be self-reinforcing and harm personal identity. The risks of moral enhancement require the use of a safety framework; such (...)
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  • 초인본주의의 도덕적 향상에 관한 신경윤리학적 성찰과 도덕교육적 함의. 추병완 - 2015 - Journal of Ethics: The Korean Association of Ethics 1 (100):33-62.
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  • Lone Wolf Terrorists and the Impotence of Moral Enhancement.Valerie Gray Hardcastle - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:271-291.
    In their recent bookUnfit for the Future, Persson and Savulescu make a heartfelt plea for the increasing necessity of “moral enhancement”, interventions that improve human capacities for moral behaviour.3They argue that, with all the technological advances of the 20thand 21stcenturies, the sheer scope of horror that humans can now potentially wreak on their neighbours or the world is staggering. Hence, we are morally obliged to use interventions at our disposal to prevent such atrocities. However, as we learn more about human (...)
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  • The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.Marco Antonio Azevedo - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):461-479.
    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral (...)
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  • Neurofeedback-Based Moral Enhancement and the Notion of Morality.Koji Tachibana - 2017 - The Annals of the University of Bucharest - Philosophy Series 66 (2):25-41.
    Some skeptics question the very possibility of moral bioenhancement by arguing that if we lack a widely acceptable notion of morality, we will not be able to accept the use of a biotechnological technique as a tool for moral bioenhancement. I will examine this skepticism and argue that the assessment of moral bioenhancement does not require such a notion of morality. In particular, I will demonstrate that this skepticism can be neutralized in the case of recent neurofeedback techniques. This goal (...)
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  • On the Possibilities of the Convergence of Technological Progress and Democratic Social Change: Focusing on the Attempt to Justify Enhancement by the Techno-Progressives技術的進歩と民主的社会変革の融合の可能性.Shinnosuke Horiuchi - 2020 - Journal of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 47 (2):97-107.
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  • On Defining Moral Enhancement: A Clarificatory Taxonomy.Kasper Raus, Farah Focquaert, Maartje Schermer, Jona Specker & Sigrid Sterckx - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (3):263-273.
    Recently there has been some discussion concerning a particular type of enhancement, namely ‘ moral enhancement ’. However, there is no consensus on what precisely constitutes moral enhancement, and as a result the concept is used and defined in a wide variety of ways. In this article, we develop a clarificatory taxonomy of these definitions and we identify the criteria that are used to delineate the concept. We think that the current definitions can be distinguished from each other by the (...)
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  • Neuroethics Beyond Normal.John R. Shook & James Giordano - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (1):121-140.
    :An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither “treatments” nor “enhancements” are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body (...)
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  • Ethics of Decoded Neurofeedback in Clinical Research, Treatment, and Moral Enhancement.Eisuke Nakazawa, Keiichiro Yamamoto, Koji Tachibana, Soichiro Toda, Yoshiyuki Takimoto & Akira Akabayashi - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (2):110-117.
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  • Is Moral Enhancement a Right, or a Threat to Rights?John R. Shook - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:209-231.
    Enhancements for morality could become technologically practical at the expense of becoming unethical and uncivil. A mode of moral enhancement intensifying a person's imposition of conformity upon others, labeled here as “moral righteousness”, is particularly problematic. Moral energies contrary to expansions of civil rights and liberties can drown out reasoned justifications for equality and freedom, delaying social progress. The technological capacity of moral righteousness in the hands of a majority could impose puritanical conformities and override some rights and liberties. Fortunately, (...)
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  • Moral Enhancement, Instrumentalism, and Integrative Ethical Education.Giuseppe Turchi - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:293-311.
    In this chapter I will discuss some of the arguments presented in Unfit for the Future, where the authors stress the necessity of moral enhancement to prevent a global catastrophe. Persson and Savulescu promote a reductionistic view of moral intuitions suggesting that oxytocin, serotonin, and genetic treatments could save humanity from the perils of contemporary liberalism, weapons of mass destruction, and uncontrolled pollution. I will contend that although we need a moral enhancement it cannot be a brute manipulation of our (...)
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  • Kantian Challenges for the Bioenhancement of Moral Autonomy.Anna Frammartino Wilks - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:121-143.
    In the debate over moral bioenhancement, some object that biochemical, genetic, and neurological interventions aiming at enhancing moral agency threaten the autonomy of persons, as they compromise moral deliberation and motivation. Opponents of this view argue that such interventions may actually enhance autonomy itself, thereby increasing a person's capacity for moral agency. My aim is to explore the various senses of autonomy commonly appealed to in such controversies and to expose their limitations in resolving the central disputed issues. I propose (...)
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  • The Necessity of Objective Standards for Moral Enhancement.Filippo Santoni de Sio, Hannah Maslen & Nadira Faulmüller - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):15-16.
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  • Public Attitudes Towards Moral Enhancement. Evidence That Means Matter Morally.Jona Specker, Maartje H. N. Schermer & Peter B. Reiner - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):405-417.
    To gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants from the United States were recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one of several contrastive vignettes in which a 13-year-old child is described as bullying another student in school and then is offered an empathy-enhancing program. The empathy-enhancing program is described (...)
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  • Moral Enhancement Requires Multiple Virtues.James J. Hughes - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):86-95.
  • Doing Good, Choosing Freely: How Moral Enhancement Can Be Compatible with Individual Freedom.Joshua M. Brostoff - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):698-709.
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  • Moral Development in Early Childhood Is Key for Moral Enhancement.Markus Christen & Darcia Narvaez - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):25-26.
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  • On Moral Enhancement.Simkulet William - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):17-18..
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  • University Courses on Moral Reasoning in the 21st Century.John Banja - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):1-2.
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  • The Ethics of Novel Neurotechnologies: Focus on Research Ethics and on Moral Values.Dorothee Horstkötter - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (2):123-125.
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  • Moral Formation and Moral Enhancement.William Paul Kabasenche - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (2):130-131.
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  • Moral Enhancement? Acknowledging Limitations of Neurotechnology and Morality.John R. Shook & James Giordano - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (2):118-120.
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  • Feeling Good About the End: Adderall and Moral Enhancement.Ryan Tonkens - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (1):15-16.
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  • Moral Enhancement for Antisocial Behavior? An Uneasy Relationship.Dorothee Horstkötter, Ron Berghmans & Guido de Wert - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):26-28.
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  • Moral Enhancement as Rehabilitation?Benjamin L. Curtis - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):23-24.
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  • Moral Enhancement Worth Having: Thinking Holistically.William Paul Kabasenche - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):18-20.
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  • Enhancing the Capacity for Moral Agency.Ori Lev - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (4):20-22.
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