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  1. Varieties of Ignorance: Mystery and the Unknown in Science and Religion.Telli Davoodi & Tania Lombrozo - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (4).
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 4, April 2022.
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  • Conflict Detection Predicts the Temporal Stability of Intuitive and Deliberate Reasoning.Aikaterini Voudouri, Michał Białek, Artur Domurat, Marta Kowal & Wim De Neys - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-29.
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  • Social Heuristics and Social Roles: Intuition Favors Altruism for Women but Not for Men.David G. Rand, Victoria L. Brescoll, Jim A. C. Everett, Valerio Capraro & Hélène Barcelo - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (4):389-396.
  • Mapping Cognitive Structure Onto the Landscape of Philosophical Debate: An Empirical Framework with Relevance to Problems of Consciousness, Free Will and Ethics.Jared P. Friedman & Anthony I. Jack - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (1):73-113.
    There has been considerable debate in the literature as to whether work in experimental philosophy actually makes any significant contribution to philosophy. One stated view is that many X-Phi projects, notwithstanding their focus on topics relevant to philosophy, contribute little to philosophical thought. Instead, it has been claimed the contribution they make appears to be to cognitive science. In contrast to this view, here we argue that at least one approach to X-Phi makes a contribution which parallels, and also extends, (...)
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  • Order, Order Everywhere, and Only an Agent to Think: The Cognitive Compulsion to Infer Intentional Agents.Frank C. Keil & George E. Newman - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (2):117-139.
    Several studies demonstrate that an intuitive link between agents and order emerges within the first year of life. This appreciation seems importantly related to similar forms of inference, such as the Argument from Design. We suggest, however, that infants and young children may be more accurate in their tendencies to infer agents from order than older children and adults, who often infer intentional agents when there are none. Thus, the earliest inferences about intentional agents based on order may be quite (...)
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  • The Psychology of Philosophy: Associating Philosophical Views with Psychological Traits in Professional Philosophers.David B. Yaden & Derek E. Anderson - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-35.
    Do psychological traits predict philosophical views? We administered the PhilPapers Survey, created by David Bourget and David Chalmers, which consists of 30 views on central philosophical topics (e.g., epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of language) to a sample of professional philosophers (N = 314). We extended the PhilPapers survey to measure a number of psychological traits, such as personality, numeracy, well-being, lifestyle, and life experiences. We also included non-technical ‘translations’ of these views for eventual use in other (...)
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  • Bayesian or Biased? Analytic Thinking and Political Belief Updating.Ben M. Tappin, Gordon Pennycook & David G. Rand - 2020 - Cognition 204:104375.
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  • Individual Difference in Acts of Self-Sacrifice.Michael N. Stagnaro, Rebecca Littman & David G. Rand - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  • Rationalization and Reflection Differentially Modulate Prior Attitudes Toward the Purity Domain.Ivar R. Hannikainen & Alejandro Rosas - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (6):e12747.
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  • What Does the CRT Measure? Poor Performance May Arise From Rational Processes.Neil Levy - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-27.
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  • Dream Interpretation From a Cognitive and Cultural Evolutionary Perspective: The Case of Oneiromancy in Traditional China.Ze Hong - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (1):e13088.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 1, January 2022.
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  • Limits of the Foreign Language Effect: Intertemporal Choice.Michał Białek, Artur Domurat, Mariola Paruzel-Czachura & Rafał Muda - 2022 - Thinking and Reasoning 28 (1):97-124.
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  • Searching for the Cognitive Basis of Anti-Vaccination Attitudes.Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M. Svedholm-Häkkinen & Tapani J. J. Riekki - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-26.
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  • Intuitive And Reflective Responses In Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Colorado
    Cognitive scientists have revealed systematic errors in human reasoning. There is disagreement about what these errors indicate about human rationality, but one upshot seems clear: human reasoning does not seem to fit traditional views of human rationality. This concern about rationality has made its way through various fields and has recently caught the attention of philosophers. The concern is that if philosophers are prone to systematic errors in reasoning, then the integrity of philosophy would be threatened. In this paper, I (...)
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  • The Evolution of Analytic Thought?Gordon Pennycook & David G. Rand - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  • Reflective Reasoning & Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (11):e12786.
    Philosophy is a reflective activity. So perhaps it is unsurprising that many philosophers have claimed that reflection plays an important role in shaping and even improving our philosophical thinking. This hypothesis seems plausible given that training in philosophy has correlated with better performance on tests of reflection and reflective reasoning has correlated with demonstrably better judgments in a variety of domains. This article reviews the hypothesized roles of reflection in philosophical thinking as well as the empirical evidence for these roles. (...)
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  • Vice Epistemology of Believers in Pseudoscience.Filip Tvrdý - 2021 - Filozofia 76 (10):735-751.
    The demarcation of pseudoscience has been one of the most important philosophical tasks since the 1960s. During the 1980s, an atmosphere of defeatism started to spread among philosophers of science, some of them claimed the failure of the demarcation project. I defend that the more auspicious approach to the problem might be through the intellectual character of epistemic agents, i.e., from the point of view of vice epistemology. Unfortunately, common lists of undesirable character features are usually based on a priori (...)
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  • How is Analytical Thinking Related to Religious Belief? A Test of Three Theoretical Models.Adam Baimel, Cindel J. M. White, Hagop Sarkissian & Ara Norenzayan - 2021 - Religion, Brain and Behavior 11 (3):239-260.
    The replicability and importance of the correlation between cognitive style and religious belief have been debated. Moreover, the literature has not examined distinct psychological accounts of this relationship. We tested the replicability of the correlation (N = 5284; students and broader samples of Canadians, Americans, and Indians); while testing three accounts of how cognitive style comes to be related to belief in God, karma, witchcraft, and to the belief that religion is necessary for morality. The first, the dual process model, (...)
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  • The Pros and Cons of Identifying Critical Thinking with System 2 Processing.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2018 - Topoi 37 (1):113-119.
    The dual-process model of cognition but most especially its reflective component, system 2 processing, shows strong conceptual links with critical thinking. In fact, the salient characteristics of system 2 processing are so strikingly close to that of critical thinking, that it is tempting to claim that critical thinking is system 2 processing, no more and no less. In this article, I consider the two sides of that claim: Does critical thinking always require system 2 processing? And does system 2 processing (...)
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  • Anthropocentric Biases in Teleological Thinking: How Nature Seems Designed for Humans.Jesse L. Preston & Faith Shin - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
    People frequently see design in nature that reflects intuitive teleological thinking– that is, the order in nature that supports life suggests it was designed for that purpose. This research proposes that inferences are stronger when nature supports human life in particular. Five studies examine evidence for an anthro-teleological bias. People agreed more with design statements framed to aid humans than the same statements framed to aid other targets. The bias was greatest when advantages for humans were well-known and salient and (...)
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  • The Time Course of Conflict on the Cognitive Reflection Test.Eoin Travers, Jonathan J. Rolison & Aidan Feeney - 2016 - Cognition 150:109-118.
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  • Disbelief in Belief: On the Cognitive Status of Supernatural Beliefs.Maarten Boudry & Jerry Coyne - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (4):601-615.
    Religious people seem to believe things that range from the somewhat peculiar to the utterly bizarre. Or do they? According to a new paper by Neil Van Leeuwen, religious “credence” is nothing like mundane factual belief. It has, he claims, more in common with fictional imaginings. Religious folk do not really “believe”—in the ordinary sense of the word—what they profess to believe. Like fictional imaginings, but unlike factual beliefs, religious credences are activated only within specific settings. We argue that Van (...)
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  • Ethnomedical Specialists and their Supernatural Theories of Disease.Aaron D. Lightner, Cynthiann Heckelsmiller & Edward H. Hagen - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-36.
    Religious healing specialists such as shamans often use magic. Evolutionary theories that seek to explain why laypersons find these specialists convincing focus on the origins of magical cognition and belief in the supernatural. In two studies, we reframe the problem by investigating relationships among ethnomedical specialists, who possess extensive theories of disease that can often appear “supernatural,” and religious healing specialists. In study 1, we coded and analyzed cross-cultural descriptions of ethnomedical specialists in 47 cultures, finding 24% were also religious (...)
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  • Regulating “Good” People in Subtle Conflicts of Interest Situations.Yuval Feldman & Eliran Halali - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (1):65-83.
    Growing recognition in both the psychological and management literature of the concept of “good people” has caused a paradigm shift in our understanding of wrongful behavior: Wrongdoings that were previously assumed to be based on conscious choice—that is, deliberate decisions—are often the product of intuitive processes that prevent people from recognizing the wrongfulness of their behavior. Several leading scholars have dubbed this process as an ethical “blind spot.” This study explores the main implications of the good people paradigm on the (...)
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  • Does "Think" Mean the Same Thing as "Believe"? Linguistic Insights Into Religious Cognition.Larisa Heiphetz, Casey Landers & Neil Van Leeuwen - 2021 - Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 13 (3):287-297.
    When someone says she believes that God exists, is she expressing the same kind of mental state as when she says she thinks that a lake bigger than Lake Michigan exists⎯i.e., does she refer to the same kind of cognitive attitude in both cases? Using evidence from linguistic corpora (Study 1) and behavioral experiments (Studies 2-4), the current work provides evidence that individuals typically use the word “believe” more in conjunction with statements about religious credences and “think” more in conjunction (...)
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  • Belief in Fake News, Responsiveness to Cognitive Conflict, and Analytic Reasoning Engagement.Michael V. Bronstein, Gordon Pennycook, Lydia Buonomano & Tyrone D. Cannon - forthcoming - Thinking and Reasoning:1-26.
    Analytic and intuitive reasoning processes have been implicated as important determinants of belief in fake news. However, the underlying cognitive mechanisms that encourage endo...
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  • What Makes You So Sure? Dogmatism, Fundamentalism, Analytic Thinking, Perspective Taking and Moral Concern in the Religious and Nonreligious.Jared Friedman & Anthony I. Jack - 2017 - Journal of Religion and Health 57 (1):157–190.
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  • Cognitive Style and Religiosity: The Role of Conflict Detection.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Nathaniel Barr, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2014 - Memory and Cognition 42 (1):1-10.
    Recent research has indicated a negative relation between the propensity for analytic reasoning and religious beliefs and practices. Here, we propose conflict detection as a mechanism underlying this relation, on the basis of the hypothesis that more-analytic people are less religious, in part, because they are more sensitive to conflicts between immaterial religious beliefs and beliefs about the material world. To examine cognitive conflict sensitivity, we presented problems containing stereotypes that conflicted with base-rate probabilities in a task with no religious (...)
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  • Belief Bias During Reasoning Among Religious Believers and Skeptics.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2013 - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 20 (4):806-811.
    We provide evidence that religious skeptics, as compared to believers, are both more reflective and effective in logical reasoning tasks. While recent studies have reported a negative association between an analytic cognitive style and religiosity, they focused exclusively on accuracy, making it difficult to specify potential underlying cognitive mechanisms. The present study extends the previous research by assessing both performance and response times on quintessential logical reasoning problems. Those reporting more religious skepticism made fewer reasoning errors than did believers. This (...)
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  • Is Utilitarian Sacrifice Becoming More Morally Permissible?Ivar R. Hannikainen, Edouard Machery & Fiery A. Cushman - 2018 - Cognition 170:95-101.
  • Beyond Moral Dilemmas: The Role of Reasoning in Five Categories of Utilitarian Judgment.François Jaquet & Florian Cova - 2021 - Cognition 209:104572.
    Over the past two decades, the study of moral reasoning has been heavily influenced by Joshua Greene’s dual-process model of moral judgment, according to which deontological judgments are typically supported by intuitive, automatic processes while utilitarian judgments are typically supported by reflective, conscious processes. However, most of the evidence gathered in support of this model comes from the study of people’s judgments about sacrificial dilemmas, such as Trolley Problems. To which extent does this model generalize to other debates in which (...)
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  • Are There Gender Differences in Cognitive Reflection? Invariance and Differences Related to Mathematics.Caterina Primi, Maria Anna Donati, Francesca Chiesi & Kinga Morsanyi - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):258-279.
    Cognitive reflection is recognized as an important skill, which is necessary for making advantageous decisions. Even though gender differences in the Cognitive Reflection test appear to be robust across multiple studies, little research has examined the source of the gender gap in performance. In Study 1, we tested the invariance of the scale across genders. In Study 2, we investigated the role of math anxiety, mathematical reasoning, and gender in CRT performance. The results attested the measurement equivalence of the Cognitive (...)
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  • Do Social Constraints Inhibit Analytical Atheism? Cognitive Style and Religiosity in Turkey.Catherine L. Caldwell-Harris, Sevil Hocaoğlu & Jonathan Morgan - 2020 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 20 (1-2):1-21.
    Recent studies claim that having an analytical cognitive style is correlated with reduced religiosity in western populations. However, in cultural contexts where social norms constrain behavior, such cognitive characteristics may have reduced influence on behaviors and beliefs. We labeled this the ‘constraining environments hypothesis.’ In a sample of 246 Muslims in Turkey, the hypothesis was supported for gender. Females face social pressure to be religious. Unlike their male counterparts, they were more religious, less analytical, and their analytical scores were uncorrelated (...)
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  • Commentary: Cognitive Reflection Vs. Calculation in Decision Making.Gordon Pennycook & Robert M. Ross - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  • The Negative Relationship Between Reasoning and Religiosity Is Underpinned by a Bias for Intuitive Responses Specifically When Intuition and Logic Are in Conflict.Richard E. Daws & Adam Hampshire - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • The Effect of Analytic Cognitive Style on Credulity.Eva Ballová Mikušková & Vladimíra Čavojová - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Adopting the Ritual Stance: The Role of Opacity and Context in Ritual and Everyday Actions.Rohan Kapitány & Mark Nielsen - 2015 - Cognition 145:13-29.
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  • Override the Controversy: Analytic Thinking Predicts Endorsement of Evolution.Will M. Gervais - 2015 - Cognition 142:312-321.
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  • Activating Analytic Thinking Enhances the Value Given to Individualizing Moral Foundations.Onurcan Yilmaz & S. Adil Saribay - 2017 - Cognition 165:88-96.
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  • “Spiritual but Not Religious”: Cognition, Schizotypy, and Conversion in Alternative Beliefs.Aiyana K. Willard & Ara Norenzayan - 2017 - Cognition 165:137-146.
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  • Analytic Thinking Reduces Belief in Conspiracy Theories.Viren Swami, Martin Voracek, Stefan Stieger, Ulrich S. Tran & Adrian Furnham - 2014 - Cognition 133 (3):572-585.
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  • Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Paul Seli, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2012 - Cognition 123 (3):335-346.
    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement, conventional religious beliefs and paranormal beliefs with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs (...)
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  • The Divided Mind of a Disbeliever: Intuitive Beliefs About Nature as Purposefully Created Among Different Groups of Non-Religious Adults.Elisa Järnefelt, Caitlin F. Canfield & Deborah Kelemen - 2015 - Cognition 140:72-88.
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  • Why Did This Happen to Me? Religious Believers’ and Non-Believers’ Teleological Reasoning About Life Events.Konika Banerjee & Paul Bloom - 2014 - Cognition 133 (1):277-303.
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  • Are Atheists Implicit Theists?Cortney Hitzeman & Colin Wastell - 2017 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 17 (1-2):27-50.
    The Cognitive Science of Religion commonly advances the view that religious beliefs emerge naturally via specific cognitive biases without cultural influence. From this perspective comes the claim that self-proclaimed atheists harbour traces of supernatural thinking. By exploring the potential influence of the cultural learning mechanism Credibility Enhancing Displays, which affirms beliefs, current disparities between studies involved in priming the implicit theism of atheists, might be reconciled. Eighty-eight university students were randomly assigned to either a religious or control prime condition. A (...)
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  • How Danes Evaluate Moral Claims Related to Abortion: A Questionnaire Survey.Sigurd Wiingaard Uldall - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):570-572.
  • The Mediating Effect of Reflective-Analytic Cognitive Style on Rational Thought.Ralph E. Viator, Nancy L. Harp, Shannon B. Rinaldo & Blair B. Marquardt - 2019 - Thinking and Reasoning 26 (3):381-413.
    We investigate whether non-miserly cognitive styles mediate the effects of cognitive ability and thinking dispositions on rational thought. Specifically, we review relevant literature on two dimens...
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  • Skepticism: Genuine Unbelief or Implicit Beliefs in the Supernatural?Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M. Svedholm-Häkkinen & Tapani Riekki - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:216-228.
  • Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective Than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis.Gordon Pennycook, Robert M. Ross, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2016 - PLoS ONE 11 (4):e0153039.
    Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a (...)
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  • Psychics, Aliens, or Experience? Using the Anomalistic Belief Scale to Examine the Relationship Between Type of Belief and Probabilistic Reasoning.Toby Prike, Michelle M. Arnold & Paul Williamson - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 53:151-164.