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  1. Die Wurzeln der Idiographischen Paläontologie: Karl Alfred von Zittels Praxis und sein Begriff des FossilsThe Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel’s Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record.Marco Tamborini - 2015 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 23 (3-4):117-142.
  • “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy.Joeri Witteveen - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:20-33.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay, I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting (...)
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  • The Reception of Darwin in Late Nineteenth-Century German Paleontology as a Case of Pyrrhic Victory.Marco Tamborini - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 66:37-45.
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  • Paleontology and Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.Marco Tamborini - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (4):575-612.
    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory (...)
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  • Die Wurzeln der Idiographischen Paläontologie: Karl Alfred von Zittels Praxis und sein Begriff des Fossils.Marco Tamborini - 2015 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 23 (3-4):117-142.
    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology. The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. (...)
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  • Challenging the Adaptationist Paradigm: Morphogenesis, Constraints, and Constructions.Marco Tamborini - 2020 - Journal of the History of Biology 53 (2):269-294.
    In this paper, I argue that the German morphological tradition made a major contribution to twentieth-century study of form. Several scientists paved the way for this research: paleontologist Adolf Seilacher, entomologist Hermann Weber, and biologist Johann-Gerhard Helmcke together with architect Frei Otto. All of them sought to examine morphogenetic processes to illustrate their inherent structural properties, thus challenging the neo-Darwinian framework of evolutionary theory. I point out that the German theoretical challenge to adaptationist thinking was possible through an exchange and (...)
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  • Karl Beurlen , Nature Mysticism, and Aryan Paleontology.Olivier Rieppel - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (2):253-299.
    The relatively late acceptance of Darwinism in German biology and paleontology is frequently attributed to a lingering of Lamarckism, a persisting influence of German idealistic Naturphilosophie and Goethean romanticism. These factors are largely held responsible for the vitalism underlying theories of saltational and orthogenetic evolutionary change that characterize the writings of many German paleontologists during the first half of the 20th century. A prominent exponent of that tradition was Karl Beurlen, who is credited with having been the first German paleontologist (...)
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  • Adolf Naef (1883–1949): On Foundational Concepts and Principles of Systematic Morphology. [REVIEW]Olivier Rieppel, David M. Williams & Malte C. Ebach - 2013 - Journal of the History of Biology 46 (3):445-510.
    During the early twentieth century, the Swiss Zoologist Adolf Naef (1883–1949) established himself as a leader in German comparative anatomy and higher level systematics. He is generally labeled an ‘idealistic morphologist’, although he himself called his research program ‘systematic morphology’. The idealistic morphology that flourished in German biology during the first half of the twentieth century was a rather heterogeneous movement, within which Adolf Naef worked out a special theoretical system of his own. Following a biographical sketch, we present an (...)
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  • The Dynamics of Evolution.Ronald Rainger - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):109-121.
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  • The Architects of the Evolutionary Synthesis in National Socialist Germany: Science and Politics. [REVIEW]Thomas Junker & Uwe Hoßfeld - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):223-249.
    The Synthetic Theory of Evolution (SyntheticDarwinism) was forged between 1925 and 1950.Several historians of science have pointed outthat this synthesis was a joint venture ofSoviet, German, American and Britishbiologists: A fascinating example of scientificcooperation, considering the fact that theevolutionary synthesis emerged during thedecades in which these countries were engagedin fierce political, military and ideologicalconflicts. The ideological background of itsAnglo-American representatives has beenanalyzed in the literature. We have examinedthe scientific work and ideological commitmentsof the German Darwinians during the ThirdReich. We based (...)
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  • Jan Lever: Challenging the Role of Typological Thinking in Reformational Views of Biology.Abraham C. Flipse & Harry Cook - 2017 - Philosophia Reformata 82 (1):3-25.
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  • The Creation of the Essentialism Story: An Exercise in Metahistory.Mary P. Winsor - 2006 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (2):149 - 174.
    The essentialism story is a version of the history of biological classification that was fabricated between 1953 and 1968 by Ernst Mayr, who combined contributions from Arthur Cain and David Hull with his own grudge against Plato. It portrays pre-Darwinian taxonomists as caught in the grip of an ancient philosophy called essentialism, from which they were not released until Charles Darwin's 1859 Origin of Species. Mayr's motive was to promote the Modern Synthesis in opposition to the typology of idealist morphologists; (...)
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  • The Constitution of Paleobiological Data.Marco Tamborini - unknown
    The objective of this dissertation is to write the first pages of the biography of paleobiological data. I will focus on i) the genesis of this kind of data as it emerged in German stratigraphy and paleontology between the mid 19th and the early 20th centuries and ii) how the conceptualization of the paleontological data was reformulated and taken as the starting point for studying the patterns of the diversity of life in deep time between the 1940s and 70s. This (...)
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