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Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle

Oxford University Press (1989)

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  1. Philia: the biological foundations of Aristotle’s ethics.Jorge Torres - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (4):1-27.
    This article is the first one to offer an investigation, from a biological perspective, of “natural philia” or “kin-based” philia in Aristotle’s practical philosophy. After some preliminary considerations about its place in Aristotle’s ethical treatises, the discussion focuses on Aristotle’s biology. Here we learn that natural philia, couched in terms of a biological praxis rather than a trait of character, is widespread in the animal kingdom, although in different ways and to varying degrees. To account for such differences, Aristotle establishes (...)
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  • Demandingness and Boundaries Between Persons.Edward Harcourt - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 26 (3):437-455.
    ABSTRACTDemandingness objections to consequentialism often claim that consequentialism underestimates the moral significance of the stranger/special other distinction, mistakenly extending to strangers demands it is proper for special others to make on us, and concluding that strangers may properly demand anything of us if it increases aggregate goodness. This argument relies on false assumptions about our relations with special others. Boundaries between ourselves and special others are both a common and a good-making feature of our relations with them. Hence, demandingness objections (...)
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  • When A Dolphin Loves A Boy: Some Greco-Roman and Native American Love Stories.Craig A. Williams - 2013 - Classical Antiquity 32 (1):200-242.
    This article catalogues and interprets an underexplored body of Greek and Roman narratives of animals who fall in love with humans. These narratives, unlike myths and fables, purport to tell of events which occur in the real world of their day; they are stories of desire, but not of copulation; and their configurations of desire are characteristically Greco-Roman. With their anthropocentric and hierarchically configured models of desire, and their emphasis on the impossibility of fulfillment, these narratives illustrate some lasting Western (...)
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  • Eros e linguaggio nel Simposio.Lidia Palumbo - 2012 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 9:85-92.
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  • The Psychical Forces in Plato’s Phaedrus.Eva Buccioni - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (3):331 – 357.
  • The Role of Friendship in Aristotle's Political Theory.Richard Mulgan - 1999 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 2 (4):15-32.
  • The Virtue of Solitude and the Vicissitudes of Friendship.Horst Hutter - 1999 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 2 (4):131-148.
  • Reviving Greco‐Roman Friendship: A Bibliographical Review.Heather Devere - 1999 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 2 (4):149-187.
  • A Friend Being Good and One’s Own in Nicomachean Ethics 9.9.Mika Perälä - 2016 - Phronesis 61 (3):307-336.
    This paper reconsiders Aristotle’s arguments inNicomachean Ethics9.9 concerning the claim that a virtuous friend is naturally desirable. The paper demonstrates that a virtuous friend, according to Aristotle, is naturally desirable not only because he is good, but also because he is one’s own. Although the two are different ways of being desirable, the paper shows that Aristotle takes being one’s own to consist in a distinctive kind of being good. This enables him to extend the grounds of virtue-friendship beyond the (...)
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  • Commentary on Osborne.Susan B. Levin - 1999 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 15 (1):282-293.
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  • Commentary on Rowe: Mortal Love.David Konstan - 1998 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):260-268.
  • Colloquium 8.Ruby Blondell - 1998 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):213-238.
  • Diotima and Demeter as Mystagogues in Plato's.Nancy Evans - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (2):1 - 27.
    : Like the goddess Demeter, Diotima from Mantineia, the prophetess who teaches Socrates about eros and the "rites of love" in Plato's Symposium, was a mystagogue who initiated individuals into her mysteries, mediating to humans esoteric knowledge of the divine. The dialogue, including Diotima's speech, contains religious and mystical language, some of which specifically evokes the female-centered yearly celebrations of Demeter at Eleusis. In this essay, I contextualize the worship of Demeter within the larger system of classical Athenian practices, and (...)
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  • A History of Erotic Philosophy.Alan Soble - 2009 - Journal of Sex Research 49 (2-3):104-120.
  • Herennius Pontius: The Construction of a Samnite Philosopher.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2011 - Classical Antiquity 30 (1):119-147.
    This article explores in greater depth the historiographical traditions concerning Herennius Pontius, a Samnite wisdom-practitioner who is said by the Peripatetic Aristoxenus of Tarentum to have been an interlocutor of the philosophers Archytas of Tarentum and Plato of Athens. Specifically, it argues that extant speeches attributed to Herennius Pontius in the writings of Cassius Dio and Appian preserve a philosophy of “extreme proportional benefaction” among unequals. Greek theories of ethics among unequals such as those of Aristotle and Archytas of Tarentum, (...)
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  • ?Only in the Contemplation of Beauty is Human Life Worth Living? Plato, Symposium 211d.Alexander Nehamas - 2007 - European Journal of Philosophy 15 (1):1–18.
  • Diotima's Eudaemonism: Intrinsic Value and Rational Motivation in Plato's Symposium.Ralph Wedgwood - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (4-5):297-325.
    This paper gives a new interpretation of the central section of Plato's Symposium (199d-212a). According to this interpretation, the term "καλóν", as used by Plato here, stands for what many contemporary philosophers call "intrinsic value"; and "love" (ἔρως) is in effect rational motivation , which for Plato consists in the desire to "possess" intrinsically valuable things - that is, according to Plato, to be happy - for as long as possible. An explanation is given of why Plato believes that "possessing" (...)
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  • VIII—Beyond Eros: Friendship in the "Phaedrus".Frisbee C. C. Sheffield - 2011 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 111 (2pt2):251-273.
    It is often held that Plato did not have a viable account of interpersonal love. The account of eros—roughly, desire—in the Symposium appears to fail, and, though the Lysis contains much suggestive material for an account of philia—roughly, friendship—this is an aporetic dialogue, which fails, ultimately, to provide an account of friendship. This paper argues that Plato's account of friendship is in the Phaedrus. This dialogue outlines three kinds of philia relationship, the highest of which compares favourably to the Aristotelian (...)
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  • A Topical Bibliography of Scholarship on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics: 1880 to 2004.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30:1-116.
    Scholarship on Aristotle’s NICOMACHEAN ETHICS (hereafter “the Ethics”) flourishes in an almost unprecedented fashion. In the last ten years, universities in North America have produced on average over ten doctoral dissertations a year that discuss the practical philosophy that Aristotle espouses in his Nicomachean Ethics, Eudemian Ethics, and Politics. Since the beginning of the millennium there have been three new translations of the entire Ethics into English alone, several more that translate parts of the work into English and other modern (...)
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  • Socrates on Egoism. Does He Say We Should Be Virtuous and Egoists?Diana Hoyos Valdés - 2013 - Co-herencia 10 (19):41-56.
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  • Arystoteles o możliwości bycia niesprawiedliwym wobec samego siebie.Maciej Smolak - 2021 - Diametros 18 (67):71-92.
    The aim of this article is to clarify the sense of Aristotle's aporia “whether it is possible to treat oneself unjustly or not” and to argue that it is possible to treat oneself unjustly voluntarily. Two passages in NE V 9 are particularly noteworthy, namely 1136a31-1136b1 and 1136b13-25. In the first passage Aristotle proposes the hypothesis that the uncontrolled person is capable to treat oneself unjustly voluntarily. In the second passage he gives two arguments – “from apparent loss” and “from (...)
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  • Friendly AI.Barbro Fröding & Martin Peterson - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):207-214.
    In this paper we discuss what we believe to be one of the most important features of near-future AIs, namely their capacity to behave in a friendly manner to humans. Our analysis of what it means for an AI to behave in a friendly manner does not presuppose that proper friendships between humans and AI systems could exist. That would require reciprocity, which is beyond the reach of near-future AI systems. Rather, we defend the claim that social AIs should be (...)
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  • Ideas of Beauty, Ideals of Character.Jonathan Fine - forthcoming - In Kelly Olson (ed.), A Cultural History of Beauty in Antiquity.
    This chapter presents several of the dominant ideas and intellectual debates about human beauty from archaic Greece to early Christianity. At issue are ideals of character, ethical ideals of who one should be and how one should live. What constitutes beauty and why beauty matters change alongside conceptions of body and soul, virtue and happiness, and the relationship between human beings and the divine.
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  • Useful Friendships: A Foundation for Business Ethics. [REVIEW]Mary Catherine Sommers - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1453-1458.
    "Friendship", for Aristotle, is a term with "focal meaning" which denominates relationships as casual as fellow travelers on a voyage, as permanent as spouses, and whose motives are as various as the commercial, military, religious, sexual, political and the virtuous. What can be said of all these relationships is that they involve a solidarity, a concordat, a reciprocity, which has its foundation in a common field between the parties and which produces common actions or exchanges. All friendships tend to equality (...)
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  • Civic Friendship and Thin Citizenship.R. K. Bentley - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (1):5-19.
    Contemporary appeals for a deepening of civic friendship in liberal democracies often draw on Aristotle. This paper warns against a certain kind of attempt to use Aristotle in our own theorising, namely accounts of civic friendship that characterise it as similar in some way to Aristotelian virtue friendship. The most prominent of these attempts have focused on disinterested mutual regard as a basic ingredient in all Aristotelian forms of friendship. The argument against this is that it inadequately accounts for the (...)
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  • Justice, Instruction, and the Good: The Case for Public Education in Aristotle and Plato'sLaws.Randall R. Curren - 1994 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 13 (1):1-31.
    This paper develops an interpretation and analysis of the arguments for public education which open Book VIII of Aristotle's Politics , drawing on both the wider Aristotelian corpus and on examination of continuities with Plato's Laws . Part III : Sections VIII-XI examine the two arguments which Aristotle adduces in support of the claim that education should be provided through a public system. The first of these arguments concerns the need to unify society through education for friendship and the sharing (...)
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  • Ikipolitiškumas Ir Politiškumas Aristotelio Politikoje.Vilius Bartninkas - 2014 - Problemos 85:18-29.
    Straipsnyje teigiama, kad ikipolitiškumo ir politiškumo skirtis, išreikšta valstybės ir namų ūkio sąvokomis, yra esminga suvokiant Aristotelio bendruomeninius projektus. Mąstymas šia skirtimi atskleidžia tokių bendruomeninių projektų struktūrą ir principus bei pašalina įtampas, glūdinčias skirtinguose ir dažnai nesuderinamuose Aristotelio teiginiuose. Straipsnyje parodoma, kaip namų ūkį bei valstybę galima apibrėžti kaip skirtingas ir vis dėlto tarpusavyje priklausomas bendruomenes ir kaip jų apibrėžimai paveikia konkrečių konstitucinių bendruomenių suvokimą.
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  • Love Life: Aristotle on Living Together with Friends.Irene Liu - 2010 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 53 (6):579-601.
    According to Aristotle, the most characteristic activity of friendship is “living together” [to suzên]. This paper seeks to understand living together in the light of his famous, foundational claim that humans are social by nature. Based on an interpretation of Nicomachean Ethics 9.9, I explain our need for friends in terms of a more fundamental human need to appreciate one's life as a whole. I then argue that friendship is built into the very structure of human life itself such that (...)
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  • Platonic Personal Immortality.Doug Reed - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly (3):812-836.
    I argue that Plato distinguishes between personal immortality and immortality of the soul. I begin by criticizing the consensus view that Plato identifies the person and the soul. I then turn to the issue of immortality. By considering passages from 'Symposium' and 'Timaeus', I make the case that Plato thinks that while the soul is immortal by nature, if a person is going to be immortal, they must become so. Finally, I argue that Plato has a psychological continuity approach to (...)
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  • Good, Pleasure and Types of Friendships in Aristotle’s Eudemian Ethics.Maciej Smolak - 2016 - Peitho 7 (1):183-204.
    In EE H 2 Aristotle presents a typology of friendship starting from the puzzle whether the good or the pleasure is the object of love. But after indicating the reasons for loving and identifying three types of friendships he raises three important questions : whether there is any friendship without pleasure; how the hedonical friendship differs from the ethically friendship; on which of the two things the loving depends: do we love somebody because he is good, even if he is (...)
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  • The Motive of Society: Aristotle on Civic Friendship, Justice, and Concord.Eleni Leontsini - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (1):21-35.
    My aim in this paper is to demonstrate the relevance of the Aristotelian notion of civic friendship to contemporary political discussion by arguing that it can function as a social good. Contrary to some dominant interpretations of the ancient conception of friendship according to which it can only be understood as an obligatory reciprocity, I argue that friendship between fellow citizens is important because it contributes to the unity of both state and community by transmitting feelings of intimacy and solidarity. (...)
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  • La amistad cívica en Aristóteles: concordia y fraternidad.Oriol Farrés Juste - 2015 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 32 (1):41-67.
    El artículo muestra la importancia de la amistad en el contexto de la filosofía política aristotélica. Esta importancia se verifica en su peso específico en comparación con la justicia, puesto que Aristóteles mismo sostiene que la amistad cívica es incluso un objetivo superior al de la búsqueda de la justicia. En concreto, el artículo se centra en la función de la concordia, como tipo especial de amistad cívica, en términos de conservación de la unidad y estabilidad de la polis. Para (...)
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  • Friendship, Knowledge and Reciprocity in Lysis.José Antonio Giménez - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (4):315-337.
    Plato’s characterization of philia in Lysis, on one hand, as one-sided belonging to the ultimate object of our desire and, on the other, as interpersonal reciprocal belonging appears problematic. Yonesawa has recently claimed that one can make sense of both uses of “belonging” if we assume that one is the other’s friend when each one coincides in being the ultimate object of the other’s desire. This paper proposes instead that Lysis’ ‘reciprocity’ of friendship results from friends’ right wanting, which presupposes (...)
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  • Justice, Friendship and Care: Aristotle and Gilligan - Two of a Kind?Aafke E. Komter - 1995 - European Journal of Women's Studies 2 (2):151-169.
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  • Socratic Askesis in the Symposium.Artur Pacewicz - 2019 - Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia 14 (1):71-81.
    The present paper attempts to explain Socrates’ remark in Symposium 212b, where the expression “diapherontos askein” is used to describe Socrates’ attitude towards erotic matters [ta erotika]. The analysis of the dialogue shows that a human being with a reliable power of Eros and knowledge about the proper way of life should strengthen their character virtues through self-restraint and justice. This power is a natural component of every person, and the knowledge about life can be obtained both from the Symposium (...)
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  • Diotima and Demeter as Mystagogues in Plato's Symposium.Nancy Evans - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (2):1-27.
    Like the goddess Demeter, Diotima from Mantineia, the prophetess who teaches Socrates about eros and the “rites of love” in Plato's Symposium, was a mystagogue who initiated individuals into her mysteries, mediating to humans esoteric knowledge of the divine. The dialogue, including Diotima's speech, contains religious and mystical language, some of which specifically evokes the female-centered yearly celebrations of Demeter at Eleusis. In this essay, I contextualize the worship of Demeter within the larger system of classical Athenian practices, and propose (...)
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  • The Guise of the Beautiful: Symposium 204d Ff.Jonathan Fine - 2019 - Phronesis 65 (2):129-152.
    A crux of Plato’s Symposium is how beauty relates to the good. Diotima distinguishes beauty from the good, I show, to explain how erotic pursuits are characteristically ambivalent and opaque. Human beings pursue beauty without knowing why or thinking it good; yet they are rational, if aiming at happiness. Central to this reconstruction is a passage widely taken to show that beauty either coincides with the good or demands disinterested admiration. It shows rather that what one loves as beautiful does (...)
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  • Animal Ethics Based on Friendship. Frööding & Peterson - 2011 - Journal of Animal Ethics 1 (1):58.
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  • Is Aristotle Right About Friendship?Ryan Dawson - 2012 - Praxis 3 (2):1-16.
    This paper will evaluate whether Aristotle’s discussion of friendship in the Nicomachean Ethics points towards a plausible account of friendship. We shall evaluate Whiting’s claim that Aristotle provides us with a model of how friendship should be and is at its best, even if most friendships do not live up to this. Whiting’s view centres on a view of friendship as grounded on mutual admiration of ethical character. Whilst there is appeal in the idea, stressed by Whiting, that friendship is (...)
     
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  • A Extensão E a Definição Do Conceito de Philia.Mateus Perito - 2017 - Aufklärung 4 (1):145-162.
    O conceito de amizade foi deixado de lado ao longo dos anos nas pesquisas éticas. Entretanto, quando olhamos para os autores gregos, constatamos que o conceito de amizade ocupava um espaço muito maior no universo da ética. Através da análise das três formas de amizade expostas na ética de Aristóteles, o presente artigo objetiva demonstrar a extensão e a definição do conceito de philia apresentados na Ética a Nicômaco de Aristóteles, deixando claro a importância que o conceito de amizade tem (...)
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  • Philoctetes' Pity: Commentary on Moravcsik.David Konstan - 1997 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 13 (1):276-283.
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  • Colloquium 6.Joseph P. Lawrence - 1991 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 7 (1):215-225.
  • Tyrannized Souls: Plato's Depiction of the ‘Tyrannical Man’.Mark A. Johnstone - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):423-437.
    In book 9 of Plato's Republic, Socrates describes the nature and origins of the ‘tyrannical man’, whose soul is said to be ‘like’ a tyrannical city. In this paper, I examine the nature of the ‘government’ that exists within the tyrannical man's soul. I begin by demonstrating the inadequacy of three potentially attractive views sometimes found in the literature on Plato: the view that the tyrannical man's soul is ruled by his ‘lawless’ unnecessary appetites, the view that it is ruled (...)
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  • The Symposium and Platonic Ethics: Plato, Vlastos, and a Misguided Debate.Frisbee Sheffield - 2012 - Phronesis 57 (2):117-141.
    Abstract Scholarship on the Symposium is dominated by a debate on interpersonal love started by Gregory Vlastos in his article, `The Individual as an Object of Love in Plato.' This paper argues that this debate is a misguided one, because it is not reflective of the central concerns of this text. Attention needs to be turned to the broader ethical questions posed about the ends of life, the nature of human happiness, and contemplation. Failure to do so will mean that (...)
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  • Aristotle on Vice.Jozef Müller - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):459-477.
    In this paper, I argue that the widely held view that Aristotle's vicious agent is a principled follower of a wrong conception of the good whose soul, just like the soul of the virtuous agent, is marked by harmony between his reason and non-rational desires is an exegetical mistake. Rather, Aristotle holds – consistently and throughout the Nicomachean Ethics – that the vicious agent lacks any real principles of action and that his soul lacks unity and harmony even more than (...)
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  • Civic Friendship: A Critique of Recent Care Theory.Sibyl A. Schwarzenbach - 2007 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 10 (2):233-255.
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  • Love.Bennett W. Helm - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This essay focuses on personal love, or the love of particular persons as such. Part of the philosophical task in understanding personal love is to distinguish the various kinds of personal love. For example, the way in which I love my wife is seemingly very different from the way I love my mother, my child, and my friend. This task has typically proceeded hand-in-hand with philosophical analyses of these kinds of personal love, analyses that in part respond to various puzzles (...)
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  • Plato on Friendship and Eros.C. D. C. Reeve - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.