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  1. Metaphysical Realism and Objectivity: Some Theoretical Reflections.Aldo Stella & Giancarlo Ianulardo - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (4):1001-1021.
    In this paper we aim to show an intrinsic contradiction of contemporary Metaphysical Realism by focusing on the relation between the subject and the object. Metaphysical Realism considers facts and objects as being empirical, and therefore they are considered in relation to the subject, while at the same time facts are assumed to belong to an autonomous and independent reality. However, if a real object is considered to be independent from the subject, once it enters in a relation with the (...)
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  • Risk, Prudence and Moral Formation in the Laboratory.Paul Scherz - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (3):304-315.
    Sociologists of science have noted that the institutional cultures and practices of research tend to de-emphasize the risks produced in the lab, resulting in injuries and deaths in recent lab accidents and increased dangers for surrounding communities. In response to these accidents, science ethics and policy increasingly focus on risk management. One strategy to confront these problems is to implement more procedural safeguards, but ethnographies of science suggest that procedural forms can have the unintended effect of contributing to complacency. What (...)
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  • International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching.Michael R. Matthews (ed.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the (...)
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  • Gadamer: aplicación y comprensión.Pedro Karczmarczyk (ed.) - 2007 - Editorial de la Universidad Nacional de la Plata.
    La obra es un estudio de una de las nociones fundamentales en la filosofía de Gadamer, el concepto de aplicación. Se intenta dar cuenta de la manera en que dicho concepto viene a solucionar, o tal vez sería mejor decir, a disolver, en la reflexión del siglo XX, el problema que enfrentaban las ciencias históricas en el siglo XIX para convertirse en conocimiento objetivo. Dicho problema consistía en dos importantes dificultades vinculadas entre sí: la imposibilidad de disponer de un objeto (...)
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  • EPSA Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009, The European Philosophy of Science Association Proceedings Vol. 1, 375-386.H. W. De Regt (ed.) - 2012 - Springer.
  • The Philosophy of Generative Linguistics.Peter Ludlow - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Peter Ludlow presents the first book on the philosophy of generative linguistics, including both Chomsky's government and binding theory and his minimalist ...
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  • Media, Knowledge & Education - Exploring New Spaces, Relations and Dynamics in Digital Media Ecologies.Theo Hug (ed.) - 2008 - Innsbruck University Press.
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  • The Ghost of Wittgenstein: Forms of Life, Scientific Method, and Cultural Critique.William T. Lynch - 2005 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (2):139-174.
    In developing an "internal" sociology of science, the sociology of scientific knowledge drew on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy to reinterpret traditional epistemological topics in sociological terms. By construing scientific reasoning as rule following within a collective, sociologists David Bloor and Harry Collins effectively blocked outside criticism of a scientific field, whether scientific, philosophical, or political. Ethnomethodologist Michael Lynch developed an alternative, Wittgensteinian reading that similarly blocked philosophical or political critique, while also disallowing analytical appeals to historical or institutional contexts. I criticize (...)
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  • Operationalism.Hasok Chang - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Otto Neurath.Jordi Cat - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • A Dialogue on Institutions.C. Mantzavinos - 2021 - Heidelberg, New York: Springer.
    This book consists of a dialogue between two interlocutors, Pablo and a student, who discuss a great range of issues in social philosophy and political theory, and in particular, the emergence, working properties and economic effects of institutions. It uses the dialogical form to make philosophy more accessible, but also to show how ideas develop through intellectual interaction. The fact that one of the interlocutors is the "student" in a place in the real world makes the dialogue quasi-fictive in character (...)
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  • Épistémologie des services de renseignement.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2020 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Une analogie entre les aspects épistémologiques et méthodologiques de l'activité des services de renseignement et certaines disciplines scientifiques, en préconisant une approche plus scientifique du processus de collecte et d'analyse de l'information au sein du cycle du renseignement. J'affirme que les aspects théoriques, ontologiques et épistémologiques de l'activité de nombreux services de renseignement sont sous-estimés, ce qui conduit à une compréhension incomplète des phénomènes actuels et à une confusion dans la collaboration interinstitutionnelle. Après une brève Introduction, qui inclut un historique (...)
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  • Grasping Intersubjectivity: An Invitation to Embody Social Interaction Research.Hanne De Jaegher, Barbara Pieper, Daniel Clénin & Thomas Fuchs - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (3):491-523.
    Underlying the recent focus on embodied and interactive aspects of social understanding are several intuitions about what roles the body, interaction processes, and interpersonal experience play. In this paper, we introduce a systematic, hands-on method for investigating the experience of interacting and its role in intersubjectivity. Special about this method is that it starts from the idea that researchers of social understanding are themselves one of the best tools for their own investigations. The method provides ways for researchers to calibrate (...)
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  • Without a Rehearsal— School as a Theatre of Social Myths.Pei Huang - unknown
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  • Putting Explainable AI in Context: Institutional Explanations for Medical AI.Jacob Browning & Mark Theunissen - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    There is a current debate about if, and in what sense, machine learning systems used in the medical context need to be explainable. Those arguing in favor contend these systems require post hoc explanations for each individual decision to increase trust and ensure accurate diagnoses. Those arguing against suggest the high accuracy and reliability of the systems is sufficient for providing epistemic justified beliefs without the need for explaining each individual decision. But, as we show, both solutions have limitations—and it (...)
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  • Current Issues in the Philosophy of Biology.Marjorie Grene - 1997 - Perspectives on Science 5 (2):255-281.
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  • Interpretation in Design: The Problem of Tacit and Explicit Understanding in Computer Support of Cooperative Design.Gerry Stahl - 1993 - Dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder
    This work analyzes the central role of interpretation in non-routine design. Based on this analysis, a theory of computer support for interpretation in cooperative design is constructed. The theory is grounded in studies of design and interpretation. It is illustrated by mechanisms provided by a software substrate for computer-based design environments, applied to a sample task of lunar habitat design. ;Computer support of innovative design must overcome the problem that designers necessarily make extensive use of situated tacit understanding while computers (...)
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  • Character Education in a Public High School: A Multi-Year Inquiry Into Unified Studies.David D. Williams, Stephen C. Yanchar, Larry C. Jensen & Cheryl Lewis - 2003 - Journal of Moral Education 32 (1):3-33.
    This article describes how a unique high school programme, not formally designed to teach moral principles or character lessons, contributed substantially to the character education of its students. Graduates over 20 years old were interviewed ( n =106) and completed a questionnaire ( n =204). Findings suggest the programme teachers helped students develop character attributes by providing a desirable character education environment. A majority of students reported that the programme was personalised, practical and, in many cases, life changing. A majority (...)
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  • Mapping Experiment as a Learning Process: How the First Electromagnetic Motor Was Invented.David Gooding - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (2):165-201.
    Narrative accounts misrepresent discovery by reconstructing worlds ordered by success rather than the world as explored. Such worlds rarely contain the personal knowledge that informed actual exploration and experiment. This article describes an attempt to recover situated learning in a material environment, tracing the discovery of the first electromagnetic motor by Michael Faraday in September 1821 to show how he modeled new experience and invented procedures to communicate that novelty. The author introduces a notation to map experiment as an active (...)
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  • Things That Went Bump in the Night: Narrative and Tacit Knowing.David Hiles - unknown
    This paper replicates a previous study of how people give accounts of their experience after encountering an unusual and unpredictable event in their ordinary lives. Such accounts usually take the form of proto-narratives, which because of their link to an actual event are called contingent narratives. My previous study is extended in this paper by trying to theorize the processes involved. The key feature of these narratives is the ease with which people seem to use a narrative circumspection to making (...)
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  • The Ad Hoc Collective Work of Building Gothic Cathedrals with Templates, String, and Geometry.David Turnbull - 1993 - Science, Technology and Human Values 18 (3):315-340.
    Gothic cathedrals like Chartres were built in a discontinuous process by groups of masons using their own local knowledge, measures, and techniques. They had neither plans nor knowledge of structural mechanics. The success of the masons in building such large complex innovative structures lies in the use of templates, string, constructive geometry, and social organization to assemble a coherent whole from the messy heterogeneous practices of diverse groups of workers. Chartres resulted from the ad hoc accumulation of the work of (...)
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  • Self–Interest Properly Felt: Democracy's Unintended Consequences and Tocqueville's Solution.David Meskill - 2007 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 19 (1):111-124.
    ABSTRACT The need to cooperate in countless ways in a democracy raises the fundamental question posed by the prisoner's dilemma: How can self?interested individuals cooperate? Tocqueville recognized this problem and anticipated the most convincing solution to date: Robert Frank's conception of emotions as ?commitment devices.? Tocqueville's analysis of the miscalculations of modern ?individualism,? which lead people first into isolation and then into servitude, mirrors the failure of conscious rationality in the prisoner's dilemma. Conversely, Tocqueville emphasizes emotional ?habits of the heart? (...)
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  • Lautman and the Reality of Mathematics.David Neil Corfield - unknown
    Working in he 1930s, Albert Lautman described with extraordinary clarity the new understanding of mathematics of that time. He delighted in the multiple manifestations of a common idea in different mathematical fields. However, he took the common idea to belong not to mathematics itself, but to an 'ideal reality' sitting above mathematics. I argue in this paper that now that we have a mathematical language which can characterize these common ideas, we need not follow Lautman to adopt his form of (...)
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  • Common Knowledge of the Second Kind.David Bella & Jonathan King - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (6):415 - 430.
    Although most of us know that human beings cannot and should not be replaced by computers, we have great difficulties saying why this is so. This paradox is largely the result of institutionalizing several fundamental misconceptions as to the nature of both trustworthy objective and moral knowledge. Unless we transcend this paradox, we run the increasing risks of becoming very good at counting without being able to say what is worth counting and why. The degree to which this is occurring (...)
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  • Reality in Perspectives.Mahdi Khalili - 2022 - Dissertation, VU University Amsterdam
    This dissertation is about human knowledge of reality. In particular, it argues that scientific knowledge is bounded by historically available instruments and theories; nevertheless, the use of several independent instruments and theories can provide access to the persistent potentialities of reality. The replicability of scientific observations and experiments allows us to obtain explorable evidence of robust entities and properties. The dissertation includes seven chapters. It also studies three cases – namely, Higgs bosons and hypothetical Ϝ-particles (section 2.4), the Ptolemaic and (...)
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  • Planning Reaches by Evaluating Stored Postures.David A. Rosenbaum, Loukia D. Loukopoulos, Ruud G. J. Meulenbroek, Jonathan Vaughan & Sascha E. Engelbrecht - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (1):28-67.
  • Taking Stock of Engineering Epistemology: Multidisciplinary Perspectives.Vivek Kant & Eric Kerr - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (4):685-726.
    How engineers know, and act on that knowledge, has a profound impact on society. Consequently, the analysis of engineering knowledge is one of the central challenges for the philosophy of engineering. In this article, we present a thematic multidisciplinary conceptual survey of engineering epistemology and identify key areas of research that are still to be comprehensively investigated. Themes are organized based on a survey of engineering epistemology including research from history, sociology, philosophy, design theory, and engineering itself. Five major interrelated (...)
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  • The Quantitative-Qualitative Distinction and the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Procedure.Nimal Ratnesar & Jim Mackenzie - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (4):501–509.
  • Introduction.Christopher Winch & John Gingell - 2004 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 36 (5):479–483.
  • Clinical Judgement and the Medical Profession.Gunver S. Kienle & Helmut Kiene - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):621-627.
  • How to Collaborate: Procedural Knowledge in the Cooperative Development of Science.Paul Thagard - 2006 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):177-196.
    A philosopher once asked me: “Paul, how do you collaborate?” He was puzzled about how I came to have more than two dozen co-authors over the past 20 years. His puzzlement was natural for a philosopher, because co-authored articles and books are still rare in philosophy and the humanities, in contrast to science where most current research is collaborative. Unlike most philosophers, scientists know how to collaborate; this paper is about the nature of such procedural knowledge. I begin by discussing (...)
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  • A Generative View of Rationality and Growing Awareness†.Teppo Felin & Jan Koenderink - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    In this paper we contrast bounded and ecological rationality with a proposed alternative, generative rationality. Ecological approaches to rationality build on the idea of humans as “intuitive statisticians” while we argue for a more generative conception of humans as “probing organisms.” We first highlight how ecological rationality’s focus on cues and statistics is problematic for two reasons: the problem of cue salience, and the problem of cue uncertainty. We highlight these problems by revisiting the statistical and cue-based logic that underlies (...)
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  • The Art of Mathematical Rationality.Herbert Breger - 2008 - In Marcelo Dascal (ed.), Leibniz: What Kind of Rationalist? Springer. pp. 141--152.
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  • The epistemic opacity of autonomous systems and the ethical consequences.Mihály Héder - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    This paper takes stock of all the various factors that cause the design-time opacity of autonomous systems behaviour. The factors include embodiment effects, design-time knowledge gap, human factors, emergent behaviour and tacit knowledge. This situation is contrasted with the usual representation of moral dilemmas that assume perfect information. Since perfect information is not achievable, the traditional moral dilemma representations are not valid and the whole problem of ethical autonomous systems design proves to be way more empirical than previously understood.
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  • Cognitive Systems of Human and Non-Human Animals: At the Crossroads of Phenomenology, Ethology and Biosemiotics.Filip Jaroš & Matěj Pudil - 2020 - Biosemiotics 13 (2):155-177.
    The article aims to provide a general framework for assessing and categorizing the cognitive systems of human and non-human animals. Our approach stems from biosemiotic, ethological, and phenomenological investigations into the relations of organisms to one another and to their environment. Building on the analyses of Merleau-Ponty and Portmann, organismal bodies and surfaces are distinguished as the base for sign production and interpretation. Following the concept of modelling systems by Sebeok, we develop a concentric model of human and non-human animal (...)
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  • Aristotle on Natural Slavery.Malcolm Heath - 2008 - Phronesis 53 (3):243-270.
    Aristotle's claim that natural slaves do not possess autonomous rationality (Pol. 1.5, 1254b20-23) cannot plausibly be interpreted in an unrestricted sense, since this would conflict with what Aristotle knew about non-Greek societies. Aristotle's argument requires only a lack of autonomous practical rationality. An impairment of the capacity for integrated practical deliberation, resulting from an environmentally induced excess or deficiency in thumos (Pol. 7.7, 1327b18-31), would be sufficient to make natural slaves incapable of eudaimonia without being obtrusively implausible relative to what (...)
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  • Tacit Beginnings Towards a Model of Scientific Thinking.Rory J. Glass - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (10):2709-2725.
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  • Putting Sociology First—Reconsidering the Role of the Social in ‘Nature of Science’ Education.Gábor Á Zemplén - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (5):525-559.
  • Teaching the Philosophical and Worldview Components of Science.Michael R. Matthews - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (6-7):697-728.
  • Engineers of Life? A Critical Examination of the Concept of Life in the Debate on Synthetic Biology.Johannes Steizinger - 2016 - In Georg Toepfer & Margret Engelhard (eds.), : Ambivalences of Creating Life – Societal and Philosophical Dimensions of Synthetic Biology. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 275−292.
    The concept of life plays a crucial role in the debate on synthetic biology. The first part of this chapter outlines the controversial debate on the status of the concept of life in current science and philosophy. Against this background, synthetic biology and the discourse on its scientific and societal consequences is revealed as an exception. Here, the concept of life is not only used as buzzword but also discussed theoretically and links the ethical aspects with the epistemological prerequisites and (...)
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  • Science, Worldviews and Education.Michael R. Matthews - 2014 - In International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 1585-1635.
    Science has always engaged with the worldviews of societies and cultures. The theme is of particular importance at the present time as many national and provincial education authorities are requiring that students learn about the nature of science (NOS) as well as learning science content knowledge and process skills. NOS topics are being written into national and provincial curricula. Such NOS matters give rise to at least the following questions about science, science teaching and worldviews: -/- What is a worldview? (...)
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  • Science Textbooks: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science.Mansoor Niaz - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 1411-1441.
    Research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science (HPS), and this has facilitated the evaluation of science textbooks. Purpose of this chapter is to review research based on analyses of science textbooks that explicitly use a history and philosophy of science framework. This review has focused on studies published in the 15-year period (1996–2010) and has drawn on the following major science education journals: International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, (...)
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  • Hermeneutics as an Approach to Science: Part I.Martin Eger - 1993 - Science & Education 2 (1):1-29.
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  • Hermeneutics as an Approach to Science: Part II.Martin Eger - 1993 - Science & Education 2 (4):303-328.
  • Alternative Interpretations, History, and Experiment: Reply to Cushing, Crease, Bevilacqua, and Giannetto.Martin Eger - 1995 - Science & Education 4 (2):173-188.
  • Reappraising Positivism and Education: The Arguments of Philipp Frank and Herbert Feigl.Michael R. Matthews - 2004 - Science & Education 13 (1-2):7-39.
  • Achievements of the Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Natural Science A Comparison with Constructivist Sociology.Martin Eger - 1997 - Man and World 30 (3):343-367.
    The hermeneutic-phenomenological approach to the natural sciences has a special interest in the interpretive phases of these sciences and in the circumstances, cognitive and social, that lead to divergent as well as convergent interpretations. It tries to ascertain the role of the hermeneutic circle in research; and to this end it has developed, over the past three decades or so, a number of adaptations of hermeneutic and phenomenological concepts to processes of experimentation and theory-making. The purpose of the present essay (...)
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  • Techno-Science and Religious Sin: Orthodox Theology and Heidegger. [REVIEW]Byron Kaldis - 2008 - Sophia 47 (2):107-128.
    This paper places certain religious ideas of Eastern Christianity about our relationship to nature critically against techno-scientific thinking and practice. Specifically, the two focal issues of the discussion are the concept of religious sin, on the one hand, and the peculiarly modern fusion of science and technology, resulting in the novel phenomenon of techno-science, on the other. Two corresponding theses are advanced: that of sin as an epistemic, and not as a moral, error, and that of the “Eucharistic” viz., celebratory (...)
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  • Heidegger's Resonance with Engineering: The Primacy of Practice. [REVIEW]Professor W. P. S. Dias - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (3):523-532.
    This paper describes how some aspects of Martin Heidegger’s philosophy resonate strongly with an engineering outlook. He argued that practice was more “primordial” than theory, though preserving an important role for theoretical understanding as well, thus speaking to the gap between engineering education (highly theoretical) and engineering practice (mostly empirical). He also underlined the reality of “average” practices into which we are socialized, though affirming the potential for original work and action too, thus providing the grounds for self-actualization whether within (...)
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  • Search Regimes and the Industrial Dynamics of Science.Andrea Bonaccorsi - 2008 - Minerva 46 (3):285-315.
    The article addresses the issue of dynamics of science, in particular of new sciences born in twentieth century and developed after the Second World War (information science, materials science, life science). The article develops the notion of search regime as an abstract characterization of dynamic patterns, based on three dimensions: the rate of growth, the degree of internal diversity of science and the associated dynamics (convergent vs. proliferating), and the nature of complementarity. The article offers a conceptual discussion for the (...)
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