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Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment

Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall (1980)

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  1. The Psychological Contributions of Pragmatism and of Original Institutional Economics and Their Implications for Policy Action.Arturo Hermann - 2020 - Economic Thought 9 (1):48.
    The aim of this work is to illustrate the psychological contributions of Pragmatism and of the Original Institutional Economics (also referred to as OIE or institutionalism), and their relevance for improving the process of social valuing and, as a consequence, the effectiveness of policy action. As a matter of fact, both institutionalist and pragmatist theories were well acquainted with various strands of psychology, and some of them also provided relevant contributions in this respect. Moreover, these theories reveal, along with various (...)
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  • The Power of the Past: A Contribution to a Cognitive Sociology of Ethnic Conflict.Jens Rydgren - 2007 - Sociological Theory 25 (3):225-244.
    The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ways in which the past matters for ethnic conflict in the present. More specifically, by presenting a sociocognitive approach to the problem, this article sets out to specify macro-micro bridging mechanisms that explain why a history of prior conflict is likely to increase the likelihood that new conflicts will erupt. People's inclination toward simplified and/or invalid inductive reasoning in the form of analogism, and their innate disposition for ordering events in teleological (...)
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  • Intentionality, Mind and Folk Psychology.Winand H. Dittrich & Stephen E. G. Lea - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):39-41.
    The comment addresses central issues of a "theory theory" approach as exemplified in Gopnik' and Goldman's BBS-articles. Gopnik, on the one hand, tries to demonstrate that empirical evidence from developmental psychology supports the view of a "theory theory" in which common sense beliefs are constructed to explain ourselves and others. Focusing the informational processing routes possibly involved we would like to argue that his main thesis (e.g. idea of intentionality as a cognitive construct) lacks support at least for two reasons: (...)
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  • Goldman has Not Defeated Folk Functionalism.James H. Fetzer - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):42-43.
  • Minds Beyond Brains and Algorithms.Jan M. Zytkow - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):691-692.
  • Texting ECHO on Historical Data.Jan M. Zytkow - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):489-490.
  • Coherence as an Ideal of Rationality.Lyle Zynda - 1996 - Synthese 109 (2):175 - 216.
    Probabilistic coherence is not an absolute requirement of rationality; nevertheless, it is an ideal of rationality with substantive normative import. An idealized rational agent who avoided making implicit logical errors in forming his preferences would be coherent. In response to the challenge, recently made by epistemologists such as Foley and Plantinga, that appeals to ideal rationality render probabilism either irrelevant or implausible, I argue that idealized requirements can be normatively relevant even when the ideals are unattainable, so long as they (...)
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  • Human and Nonhuman Systems Are Adaptive in a Different Sense.Tamás Zétényi - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):507-508.
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  • Explaining Synchronic Self-Control.Jing Zhu - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (3):475-492.
  • What to Do About Peer Review: Is the Cure Worse Than the Disease?Thomas R. Zentall - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):166-167.
  • The Psychologist's Fallacy.Philip David Zelazo & Douglas Frye - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):89-90.
  • Ontogeny and Intentionality.Philip David Zelazo & J. Steven Reznick - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):631-632.
  • Direction of Fit and Normative Functionalism.Nick Zangwill - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 91 (2):173-203.
    What is the difference between belief and desire? In order to explain the difference, recent philosophers have appealed to the metaphor of.
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  • Intentionality, Theoreticity and Innateness.Deborah Zaitchik & Jerry Samet - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):87-89.
  • Unphilosophical Probability.Sandy L. Zabell - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):358-359.
  • Consciousness, Historical Inversion, and Cognitive Science.Andrew W. Young - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):630-631.
  • Testing Predictions and Gaining Insights From Dynamic State-Variable Models.R. C. Ydenberg - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):109-110.
  • Previous Knowledge Can Induce an Illusion of Causality Through Actively Biasing Behavior.Ion Yarritu & Helena Matute - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • Systematicity and the Continuity Thesis.K. Brad Wray - 2019 - Synthese 196 (3):819-832.
    Hoyningen-Huene develops an account of what science is, distinguishing it from common sense. According to Hoyningen-Huene, the key distinguishing feature is that science is more systematic. He identifies nine ways in which science is more systematic than common sense. I compare Hoyningen-Huene’s view to a view I refer to as the “Continuity Thesis.” The Continuity Thesis states that scientific knowledge is just an extension of common sense. This thesis is associated with Quine, Planck, and others. I argue that Hoyningen-Huene ultimately (...)
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  • Three Questions for Goldman.Andrew Woodfield - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):86-87.
  • The Association of Moral Development and Moral Intensity with Music Piracy.Darryl J. Woolley - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (3):211-218.
    Prior research has not found a meaningful relationship between digital piracy and moral development, possibly because students do not recognize digital piracy as a moral issue. Rather than measure moral development as an individual characteristic, this study tests which components of moral development are seen as relevant to digital piracy. If some of the stages of moral development are applicable to music piracy behavior, people are more likely to pirate than to engage in other more morally intense behaviors. Some of (...)
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  • Moral Choice in an Agency Framework: The Search for a Set of Motivational Typologies.Gordon Francis Woodbine & Dennis Taylor - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (3):261-277.
    Moral choice, as a precursor to behaviour, has an important influence on the success or failure of business entities. According to Rest, 1983, Morality, Moral Behavior and Moral Development (John Wiley & Sons, New York), moral choice is prompted, amongst other things, by a motivational component. With this in mind, data obtained from a sample of four hundred financial sector operatives, employed in a rapidly developing region of China, was used to construct a relatively stable set of motivational typologies which (...)
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  • Hermeneutics and Psychoanalysis.Robert L. Woolfolk - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (2):265-266.
  • Revitalizing the Metaphoric Process in Commonsense Psychology.Wan-Chi Wong - 2002 - Philosophical Psychology 15 (4):473 – 488.
    In response to the increasingly acknowledged power of metaphor upon everyday and scientific thinking, the present essay aims to revitalize the metaphoric process in commonsense psychology from the interaction view perspective. As prerequisites, a historical review of the "man-the-scientist" metaphor inherited in commonsense psychology, and a situation analysis of its dormant state are attempted. With metaphorical imagination, a holistic-paradigmatic view of personal theories is postulated on the basis of new knowledge in the philosophy and history of science, namely, the Duhem (...)
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  • On the Interaction of Theory and Data in Concept Learning.Edward J. Wisniewski & Douglas L. Medin - 1994 - Cognitive Science 18 (2):221-281.
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  • Base Rates Do Not Constrain Nonprobability Judgments.Paul D. Windschitl & Gary L. Wells - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):40-41.
  • Language as a Community of Interacting Belief Systems: A Case Study Involving Conduct Toward Self and Others. [REVIEW]David Sloan Wilson - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):77-97.
    Words such as selfish and altruistic that describe conduct toward self and others are notoriously ambiguous in everyday language. I argue that the ambiguity is caused, in part, by the coexistence of multiple belief systems that use the same words in different ways. Each belief system is a relatively coherent linguistic entity that provides a guide for human behavior. It is therefore a functional entity with design features that dictate specific word meaning. Since different belief systems guide human behavior in (...)
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  • Consciousness: Limited but Consequential.Timothy D. Wilson - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):701-701.
  • Computer Decision-Support Systems for Public Argumentation: Assessing Deliberative Legitimacy. [REVIEW]William Rehg, Peter McBurney & Simon Parsons - 2005 - AI and Society 19 (3):203-228.
    Recent proposals for computer-assisted argumentation have drawn on dialectical models of argumentation. When used to assist public policy planning, such systems also raise questions of political legitimacy. Drawing on deliberative democratic theory, we elaborate normative criteria for deliberative legitimacy and illustrate their use for assessing two argumentation systems. Full assessment of such systems requires experiments in which system designers draw on expertise from the social sciences and enter into the policy deliberation itself at the level of participants.
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  • Computability, Consciousness, and Algorithms.Robert Wilensky - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):690-691.
  • A New Look at Anchoring Effects: Basic Anchoring and its Antecedents.Timothy D. Wilson, Christopher E. Houston, Kathryn M. Etling & Nancy Brekke - 1996 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 125 (4):387.
  • Is Economics Still Immersed in the Old Concepts of the Enlightenment Era?Andrzej P. Wierzbicki - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):236-237.
  • Self-Deception, Human Emotion, and Moral Responsibility: Toward a Pluralistic Conceptual Scheme.William Whisner - 1989 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 19 (4):389–410.
  • Psychology, or Sociology of Science?N. E. Wetherick - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):489-489.
  • More Models Just Means More Difficulty.N. E. Wetherick - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):367-368.
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  • Negation in Skinner's System.N. E. Wetherick - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):606-607.
  • Freud and Sociobiology.N. E. Wetherick - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):319-320.
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  • Cohen on Contraposition.N. E. Wetherick - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):358-358.
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  • How We Think About Human Nature: Cognitive Errors and Concrete Remedies.Alexander J. Werth & Douglas Allchin - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):825-846.
    Appeals to human nature are ubiquitous, yet historically many have proven ill-founded. Why? How might frequent errors be remedied towards building a more robust and reliable scientific study of human nature? Our aim is neither to advance specific scientific or philosophical claims about human nature, nor to proscribe or eliminate such claims. Rather, we articulate through examples the types of errors that frequently arise in this field, towards improving the rigor of the scientific and social studies. We seek to analyze (...)
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  • Ideology, First-Person Authority and Self-Deception.Robert Welshon - 1991 - Social Epistemology 5 (3):163 – 175.
  • Towards an Account of Argumentation in Science.Mark Weinstein - 1990 - Argumentation 4 (3):269-298.
    In this article it is argued that a complex model that includes Toulmin's functional account of argument, the pragma-dialectical stage analysis of argumentation offered by the Amsterdam School, and criteria developed in critical thinking theory, can be used to account for the normativity and field-dependence of argumentation in science. A pragma-dialectical interpretation of the four main elements of Toulmin's model, and a revised account of the double role of warrants, illuminates the domain specificity of scientific argumentation and the restrictions to (...)
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  • Reason and Critical Thinking.Mark Weinstein - 1988 - Informal Logic 10 (1).
  • Reason and refutation: a review of two recent books by Harvey Siegel. [REVIEW]Mark Weinstein - 1992 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 11 (3):231-263.
  • Critical Thinking and Education for Democracy.Mark Weinstein - 1991 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 23 (2):9–29.
  • Competence, Performance, and Ignorance.Robert W. Weisberg - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):356-358.
  • Psychoanalysis: Conventional Wisdom, Self Knowledge, or Inexact Science.Murray L. Wax - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (2):264-265.
  • Enhancing Moral Intensity: The Roles of Personal and Consequential Information in Ethical Decision-Making. [REVIEW]Loy D. Watley & Douglas R. May - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (2):105-126.
    This research explored how (a) information regarding consequences and (b) personal information regarding the potential victim influences perceptions of moral intensity and ethical behavioral intent. An experimental vignette research design was used and 314 professional managers participated. The results of the study indicated that personal information impacted ethical behavioral intent through its influence on perceptions of proximity. In contrast, consequential information''s impact depended on the presence of personal information or prior knowledge. Implications for management and future ethical research are discussed.
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  • The Importance of Cognitive Illusions.Peter Wason - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):356-356.
  • Do Peer Reviewers Really Agree More on Rejections Than Acceptances? A Random-Agreement Benchmark Says They Do Not.Gerald S. Wasserman - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):165-166.
  • Penrose's Grand Unified Mystery.David Waltz & James Pustejovsky - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):688-690.