Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. Expected Comparative Utility Theory: A New Theory of Rational Choice.David Robert - 2018 - Philosophical Forum 49 (1):19-37.
    In this paper, I argue for a new normative theory of rational choice under risk, namely expected comparative utility (ECU) theory. I first show that for any choice option, a, and for any state of the world, G, the measure of the choiceworthiness of a in G is the comparative utility (CU) of a in G—that is, the difference in utility, in G, between a and whichever alternative to a carries the greatest utility in G. On the basis of this (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Bias, Norms, Introspection, and the Bias Blind Spot1.Thomas Kelly - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    In this paper, I sketch a general framework for theorizing about bias and bias attributions. According to the account, paradigmatic cases of bias involve systematic departures from genuine norms. I attempt to show that the account illuminates a number of important psychological phenomena, including: the fact that accusations of bias frequently inspire not only denials but also countercharges of bias (“you only think that I'm biased because you're biased!”); the fact that we tend to see ourselves as less biased than (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: a practical guide.Kenneth S. Pope - 2016 - Hoboken: Wiley.
    Psychotherapy holds out the promise of help for people who are hurting and in need. It can save lives and change lives. In therapy, clients can find their strengths and sense of hope. They can change course toward a more meaningful and healthy life. They can confront loss, tragedy, hopelessness, and the end of life in ways that do not leave them numb or paralyzed. They can discover what brings them joy and what sustains them through hard times. They can (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  • Data based radicalism? data usage and the problem of critical distance in contextual and empirical political theory.Nahshon Perez - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy.
    Empirical political theory has grown in importance. In empirical political theory, attention to data is part of the evaluative step. A concern was raised that being attentive to the content of political science data implies that such attentiveness would limit the normative contours of empirical political theory, and will create a status-quo bias. This concern has been called the ‘problem of critical distance’. One way to appraise the significance of this problem is to examine the work done by empirical political (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Public Trust and Biotech Innovation: A Theory of Trustworthy Regulation of (Scary!) Technology.Clark Wolf - 2021 - Social Philosophy and Policy 38 (2):29-49.
    Regulatory agencies aim to protect the public by moderating risks associated with innovation, but a good regulatory regime should also promote justified public trust. After introducing the USDA 2020 SECURE Rule for regulation of biotech innovation as a case study, this essay develops a theory of justified public trust in regulation. On the theory advanced here, to be trustworthy, a regulatory regime must (1) fairly and effectively manage risk, must be (2) “science based” in the relevant sense, and must in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Empirical Research and Recommendations for Moral Action: A Plea for the Transparent Reporting of Bridge Principles in Public Health Research.Katja Kuehlmeyer, Marcel Mertz, Joschka Haltaufderheide, Alexander Kremling, Sebastian Schleidgen & Julia Inthorn - 2022 - Public Health Ethics 15 (2):147-159.
    Academic publications of empirical public health research often entail recommendations for moral action that address practitioners and policy makers. These recommendations are regularly based on implicit moral judgments with the underlying reasons not explicitly stated. In this paper, we elaborate on the moral relevance of such judgments and the need to explain them in order to account for academic argumentation. We argue for an explicit reporting of bridge principles to increase the transparency of the reporting of public health research. The (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Disability, Diversity, and Preference for the Status Quo: Bias or Justifiable Preference?David Wasserman - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (6):11-12.
  • Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment: Ethically Equivalent?Lars Øystein Ursin - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (3):10-20.
    Withholding and withdrawing treatment are widely regarded as ethically equivalent in medical guidelines and ethics literature. Health care personnel, however, widely perceive moral differences between withholding and withdrawing. The proponents of equivalence argue that any perceived difference can be explained in terms of cognitive biases and flawed reasoning. Thus, policymakers should clear away any resistance to accept the equivalence stance by moral education. To embark on such a campaign of changing attitudes, we need to be convinced that the ethical analysis (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  • Warrants to conserve.Jonathan Stanhope - 2021 - Analysis 81 (1):62-71.
    This paper is about reasons to conserve, in particular why some things warrant being conserved. In discussing G. A. Cohen’s conservatism, I find strains of four answers to the question why, presumptively, we should not sacrifice existing valuable things, a fortiori destroy them for no overall gain in value. After criticizing the first three, I develop the fourth into a deflationary proposal. That is, it implicates just one sub-type of value and takes certain first-order properties – or the value supervening (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • The Good, the Bad, and the Transitivity of Better Than.Jacob M. Nebel - 2018 - Noûs 52 (4):874-899.
    The Rachels–Temkin spectrum arguments against the transitivity of better than involve good or bad experiences, lives, or outcomes that vary along multiple dimensions—e.g., duration and intensity of pleasure or pain. This paper presents variations on these arguments involving combinations of good and bad experiences, which have even more radical implications than the violation of transitivity. These variations force opponents of transitivity to conclude that something good is worse than something that isn’t good, on pain of rejecting the good altogether. That (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  • Conservatisms about the Valuable.Jacob M. Nebel - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (1):180-194.
    ABSTRACT Sometimes it seems that an existing bearer of value should be preserved even though it could be destroyed and replaced with something of equal or greater value. How can this conservative intuition be explained and justified? This paper distinguishes three answers, which I call existential, attitudinal, and object-affecting conservatism. I raise some problems for existential and attitudinal conservatism, and suggest how they can be solved by object-affecting conservatism.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Contextual Injustice.Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 30 (1):1–30.
    Contextualist treatments of clashes of intuitions can allow that two claims, apparently in conflict, can both be true. But making true utterances is far from the only thing that matters — there are often substantive normative questions about what contextual parameters are appropriate to a given conversational situation. This paper foregrounds the importance of the social power to set contextual standards, and how it relates to injustice and oppression, introducing a phenomenon I call "contextual injustice," which has to do with (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • Stable and unstable choices.Anders Herlitz - 2020 - Economics and Philosophy 36 (1):113-125.
    This paper introduces a condition for rational choice that states that accepting decision methods and normative theories that sometimes entail that the act of choosing a maximal alternative renders this alternative non-maximal is irrational. The paper illustrates how certain distributive theories that ascribe importance to what the status quo is violate this condition and argues that they thereby should be rejected.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Adaptive Preferences Are a Red Herring.Dale Dorsey - 2017 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 3 (4):465-484.
    ABSTRACT:Current literature in moral and political philosophy is rife with discussion of adaptive preferences. This is no accident: while preferences are generally thought to play an important role in a number of normative domains, adaptive preferences seem exceptions to this general rule—they seem problematic in a way that preference-respecting theories of these domains cannot adequately capture. Thus, adaptive preferences are often taken to be theoretically explanatory: a reason for adjusting our theories of the relevant normative domains. However, as I shall (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • The reversal test, status quo bias, and opposition to human cognitive enhancement.Steve Clarke - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):369-386.
    Bostrom and Ord’s reversal test has been appealed to by many philosophers to substantiate the charge that preferences for status quo options are motivated by status quo bias. I argue that their characterization of the reversal test needs to be modified, and that their description of the burden of proof it imposes needs to be clarified. I then argue that there is a way to meet that burden of proof which Bostrom and Ord fail to recognize. I also argue that (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Understanding the Relationship Between Disability and Enhancement.Lysette Chaproniere - forthcoming - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.
    This paper assesses how views of disability and enhancement can combine. It is hard to maintain that disabilities and enhancements are both undesirable. Disability-positive views can combine with support for or opposition to enhancement, but not with the view that enhanced traits reliably increase well-being. It is consistent to hold that disability is bad and enhancement good; the plausibility of this combination depends on whether it is better to have more options and fewer limitations. Understanding these combined positions makes it (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Why Paternalists Must Endorse Epistocracy.Jason Brennan & Christopher Freiman - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 21 (3).
    Recent findings from psychology and behavioral economics suggest that we are “predictably irrational” in the pursuit of our interests. Paternalists from both the social sciences and philosophy use these findings to defend interfering with people's consumption choices for their own good. We should tax soda, ban cigarettes, and mandate retirement savings to make people healthier and wealthier than they’d be on their own. Our thesis is that the standard arguments offered in support of restricting people’s consumption choices for their own (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Conservative Value.Geoffrey Brennan & Alan Hamlin - 2016 - The Monist 99 (4):352-371.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  • Political conservation, or how to prevent institutional decay.Martin Beckstein - 2019 - Constellations 26 (4):623-637.
  • Similarity and the trustworthiness of distributive judgements.Alex Voorhoeve, Arnaldur Stefánsson & Brian Wallace - 2019 - Economics and Philosophy 35 (3):537-561.
    When people must either save a greater number of people from a smaller harm or a smaller number from a greater harm, do their choices reflect a reasonable moral outlook? We pursue this question with the help of an experiment. In our experiment, two-fifths of subjects employ a similarity heuristic. When alternatives appear dissimilar in terms of the number saved but similar in terms of the magnitude of harm prevented, this heuristic mandates saving the greater number. In our experiment, this (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate.Steve Clarke, Julian Savulescu, Tony Coady, Alberto Giubilini & Sagar Sanyal (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press UK.
    We humans can enhance some of our mental and physical abilities above the normal upper limits for our species with the use of particular drug therapies and medical procedures. We will be able to enhance many more of our abilities in more ways in the near future. Some commentators have welcomed the prospect of wide use of human enhancement technologies, while others have viewed it with alarm, and have made clear that they find human enhancement morally objectionable. The Ethics of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • The Minority Body: A Theory of Disability.Elizabeth Barnes - 2016 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Disability is primarily a social phenomenon -- a way of being a minority, a way of facing social oppression, but not a way of being inherently or intrinsically worse off. This is how disability is understood in the Disability Rights and Disability Pride movements; but there is a massive disconnect with the way disability is typically viewed within analytic philosophy. The idea that disability is not inherently bad or sub-optimal is one that many philosophers treat with open skepticism, and sometimes (...)
  • Ethics Without Numbers.Jacob M. Nebel - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    This paper develops and explores a new framework for theorizing about the measurement and aggregation of well-being. It is a qualitative variation on the framework of social welfare functionals developed by Amartya Sen. In Sen’s framework, a social or overall betterness ordering is assigned to each profile of real-valued utility functions. In the qualitative framework developed here, numerical utilities are replaced by the properties they are supposed to represent. This makes it possible to characterize the measurability and interpersonal comparability of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Being Rational and Being Wrong.Kevin Dorst - manuscript
    Do people tend to be overconfident in their opinions? Many think so. They’ve run studies to test whether people are calibrated: whether their confidence in their opinions matches the proportion of those opinions that are true. Under certain conditions, people are systematically “over-calibrated”—for example, of the opinions they’re 80% confident in, only 60% are true. From this observed over-calibration, it’s inferred that people are irrationally overconfident. My question: When—and why—is this inference warranted? Answering this question requires articulating a general connection (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark