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  1. The Unexamined Benefits of the Expansive Legalization of Medical Assistance-in-Dying.Sean Riley & Ben Sarbey - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-11.
    If you slide far enough down the slippery slope envisioned by opponents of medical assistance-in-dying (MAiD), you eventually land in a ghastly society with industrialized euthanasia, rampant suicide, and devalued life. But what if the slippery slope leads us somewhere better? This paper explores the benefits of eliminating nearly all MAiD prohibitions and regulations. We anticipate three positive effects for public health: 1. Expanded access to those currently not qualified from MAiD by removing ineffective access criteria; 2. Harm reduction by (...)
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  • US Hospice Structure and its Implications for the “Right to Die” Debate: An Interdisciplinary Study of the “Feeling of Being a Burden to Others”.Harold Braswell - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (4):525-534.
    This article is an analysis of the relationship between US hospice structure and the feeling of being a burden to others. A goal of US hospice care is to reduce the FBO. But in America, hospice is limited in its ability to do so because of the high caregiver burden it places on family members of dying people. Through a historical study, I show that this burden was excessive when the hospice system was created and has worsened over time. Through (...)
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  • US Hospice Structure and its Implications for the “Right to Die” Debate.Harold Braswell - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (4):525-534.
    This article is an analysis of the relationship between US hospice structure and the feeling of being a burden to others (FBO). A goal of US hospice care is to reduce the FBO. But in America, hospice is limited in its ability to do so because of the high caregiver burden it places on family members of dying people. Through a historical study, I show that this burden was excessive when the hospice system was created and has worsened over time. (...)
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  • US Hospice Structure and its Implications for the “Right to Die” Debate: An Interdisciplinary Study of the “Feeling of Being a Burden to Others”.Harold Braswell - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (4):525-534.
    This article is an analysis of the relationship between US hospice structure and the feeling of being a burden to others. A goal of US hospice care is to reduce the FBO. But in America, hospice is limited in its ability to do so because of the high caregiver burden it places on family members of dying people. Through a historical study, I show that this burden was excessive when the hospice system was created and has worsened over time. Through (...)
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  • US Hospice Structure and its Implications for the “Right to Die” Debate: An Interdisciplinary Study of the “Feeling of Being a Burden to Others”.Harold Braswell - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (4):525-534.
    This article is an analysis of the relationship between US hospice structure and the feeling of being a burden to others. A goal of US hospice care is to reduce the FBO. But in America, hospice is limited in its ability to do so because of the high caregiver burden it places on family members of dying people. Through a historical study, I show that this burden was excessive when the hospice system was created and has worsened over time. Through (...)
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  • Freiwilliger Verzicht auf Essen und Trinken – zur ethischen Lagebestimmung eines ambivalenten Begriffs.Philipp Starke - 2020 - Ethik in der Medizin 32 (2):171-187.
    Wie ist der Freiwillige Verzicht auf Essen und Trinken und eine medizinische Begleitung dabei ethisch zu bewerten? Die ethische Bewertung des Freiwilligen Verzichts auf Essen und Trinken stellt Patienten und Angehörige, aber auch begleitende Ärzte und Pflegende vor erhebliche Schwierigkeiten. Basierend auf Ergebnissen eigener qualitativer Interviews mit Personen nach dem FVET ihrer Angehörigen legt dieser Artikel die bestehende Unklarheit und inhärente ethische Ambivalenz des Begriffs FVET frei, stellt aber in der Unterscheidung von FVET-Fällen – mit bzw. ohne terminale Erkrankung – (...)
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  • Ending Life, Morality, and Meaning.Jukka Varelius - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):559-574.
    Opponents of voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide often maintain that the procedures ought not to be accepted because ending an innocent human life would both be morally wrong in itself and have unfortunate consequences. A gravely suffering patient can grant that ending his life would involve such harm but still insist that he would have reason to continue living only if there were something to him in his abstaining from ending his life. Though relatively rarely, the notion of meaning of (...)
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  • Old problems in need of new (narrative) approaches? A young physician–bioethicist’s search for ethical guidance in the practice of physician-assisted dying in the Netherlands.Bernadette Roest - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (4):274-279.
    The current empirical research and normative arguments on physician-assisted dying in the Netherlands seem insufficient to provide ethical guidance to general practitioners in the practice of PAD, due to a gap between the evidence and arguments on the one hand and the uncertainties and complexities as found in everyday practice on the other. This paper addresses the problems of current ethical arguments and empirical research and how both seem to be profoundly influenced by the Dutch legislative framework on PAD and (...)
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  • Two decades of research on euthanasia from the Netherlands. What have we learnt and what questions remain?Judith Ac Rietjens, Paul J. van der Maas, Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Johannes Jm van Delden & Agnes van der Heide - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):271-283.
    Two decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority of cases. Further, it has been shown (...)
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  • Pathologizing Suffering and the Pursuit of a Peaceful Death.Ben A. Rich - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (4):403-416.
    The specialty of psychiatry has a long-standing, virtually monolithic view that a desire to die, even a desire for a hastened death among the terminally ill, is a manifestation of mental illness. Recently, psychiatry has made significant inroads into hospice and palliative care, and in doing so brings with it the conviction that dying patients who seek to end their suffering by asserting control over the time and manner of their inevitable death should be provided with psychotherapeutic measures rather than (...)
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  • The Assisted Dying Bill and the role of the physician.Alexandra Mullock - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (8):621-624.
  • Compromising on assisted suicide: is 'turning a blind eye' ethical?Alexandra Mullock - 2012 - Clinical Ethics 7 (1):17-23.
    Following the decision of the House of Lords in Purdy, the Director of Public Prosecutions was required to promulgate guidance as to how prosecutorial discretion is exercised over the decision of whether to prosecute or not under the Suicide Act 1961. The resulting policy essentially confirms that if a lay person, who is motivated wholly by compassion, provides minor and reluctant assistance to a mentally competent adult, he or she is extremely unlikely to be prosecuted. Consequently, prosecutorial policy over cases (...)
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  • Is Continuous Sedation at the End of Life an Ethically Preferable Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide?Kasper Raus, Sigrid Sterckx & Freddy Mortier - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):32 - 40.
    The relatively new practice of continuous sedation at the end of life (CS) is increasingly being debated in the clinical and ethical literature. This practice received much attention when a U.S. Supreme Court ruling noted that the availability of CS made legalization of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) unnecessary, as CS could alleviate even the most severe suffering. This view has been widely adopted. In this article, we perform an in-depth analysis of four versions of this ?argument of preferable alternative.? Our goal (...)
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  • The traditional account of ethics and law at the end of life—and its discontents.Roger S. Magnusson - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):307-324.
    For the past 30 years, the Melbourne urologist Dr Rodney Syme has quietly—and more recently, not-so-quietly—assisted terminally and permanently ill people to die. This paper draws on Syme’s recent book, A Good Death: An Argument for Voluntary Euthanasia , to identify and to reflect on some important challenges to what I outline as the traditional account of law, ethics, and end of life decisions. Among the challenges Syme makes to the traditional view is his argument that physicians’ intentions are frail (...)
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  • Oregon's experience: Evaluating the record.Ronald A. Lindsay - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (3):19 – 27.
    Prior to passage of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, opponents of assistance in dying argued that legalization would have serious harmful consequences. Specifically, they argued that the quality and availability of palliative care would decline, that the harms of legalization would affect certain vulnerable groups disproportionately, that legal assisted dying could not be confined to the competent terminally ill who voluntarily request assistance, and that the practice would result in frequent abuses. Data from Oregon's decade-long experience decisively refute the (...)
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  • Bioethics policies and the compass of common morality.Ronald A. Lindsay - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (1):31-43.
    Even if there is a common morality, many would argue that it provides little guidance in resolving moral disputes, because universally accepted norms are both general in content and few in number. However, if we supplement common morality with commonly accepted factual beliefs and culture-specific norms and utilize coherentist reasoning, we can limit the range of acceptable answers to disputed issues. Moreover, in the arena of public policy, where one must take into account both legal and moral norms, the constraints (...)
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  • Adherence to the Request Criterion in Jurisdictions Where Assisted Dying Is Lawful? A Review of the Criteria and Evidence in the Netherlands, Belgium, Oregon, and Switzerland.Penney Lewis & Isra Black - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):885-898.
    Some form of assisted dying (voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide) is lawful in the Netherlands, Belgium, Oregon, and Switzerland. In order to be lawful in these jurisdictions, a valid request must precede the provision of assistance to die. Non-adherence to the criteria for valid requests for assisted dying may be a trigger for civil and/or criminal liability, as well as disciplinary sanctions where the assistor is a medical professional. In this article, we review the criteria and evidence in respect of (...)
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  • Adherence to the Request Criterion in Jurisdictions Where Assisted Dying is Lawful? A Review of the Criteria and Evidence in the Netherlands, Belgium, Oregon, and Switzerland.Penney Lewis & Isra Black - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):885-898.
    Some form of assisted dying (voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide) is lawful in the Netherlands, Belgium, Oregon, and Switzerland. In order to be lawful in these jurisdictions, a valid request must precede the provision of assistance to die. Non-adherence to the criteria for valid requests for assisted dying may be a trigger for civil and/or criminal liability, as well as disciplinary sanctions where the assistor is a medical professional. In this article, we review the criteria and evidence in respect of (...)
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  • Morally-Relevant Similarities and Differences Between Assisted Dying Practices in Paradigm and Non-Paradigm Circumstances: Could They Inform Regulatory Decisions?Jeffrey Kirby - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (4):475-483.
    There has been contentious debate over the years about whether there are morally relevant similarities and differences between the three practices of continuous deep sedation until death, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary euthanasia. Surprisingly little academic attention has been paid to a comparison of the uses of these practices in the two types of circumstances in which they are typically performed. A comparative domains of ethics analysis methodological approach is used in the paper to compare 1) the use of the three (...)
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  • Two Decades of Research on Euthanasia from the Netherlands. What Have We Learnt and What Questions Remain?and Agnes van der Heide Judith A. C. Rietjens, Paul J. Van der Maas, Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Johannes J. M. Van Delden - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):271.
    Two decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority of cases. Further, it has been shown (...)
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  • Legalising physician-assisted suicide in South Africa: Should it even be considered?R. K. Jacobs - 2018 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 11 (2):66.
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  • The debate about physician assistance in dying: 40 years of unrivalled progress in medical ethics?Søren Holm - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):40-43.
  • Reporting of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands: descriptive study.Hilde Buiting, Johannes van Delden, Bregje Onwuteaka-Philpsen, Judith Rietjens, Mette Rurup, Donald van Tol, Joseph Gevers, Paul van der Maas & Agnes van der Heide - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):18-.
    BackgroundAn important principle underlying the Dutch Euthanasia Act is physicians' responsibility to alleviate patients' suffering. The Dutch Act states that euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are not punishable if the attending physician acts in accordance with criteria of due care. These criteria concern the patient's request, the patient's suffering (unbearable and hopeless), the information provided to the patient, the presence of reasonable alternatives, consultation of another physician and the applied method of ending life. To demonstrate their compliance, the Act requires physicians (...)
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  • Poverty: Not a Justification for Banning Physician‐Assisted Death.Lindsey M. Freeman, Susannah L. Rose & Stuart J. Youngner - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (6):38-46.
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  • Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organisations.S. Fischer, C. A. Huber, L. Imhof, R. Mahrer Imhof, M. Furter, S. J. Ziegler & G. Bosshard - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (11):810-814.
    Background: In Switzerland, non-medical right-to-die organisations such as Exit Deutsche Schweiz and Dignitas offer suicide assistance to members suffering from incurable diseases. Objectives: First, to determine whether differences exist between the members who received assistance in suicide from Exit Deutsche Schweiz and Dignitas. Second, to investigate whether the practices of Exit Deutsche Schweiz have changed since the 1990s. Methods: This study analysed all cases of assisted suicide facilitated by Exit Deutsche Schweiz (E) and Dignitas (D) between 2001 and 2004 and (...)
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  • Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organisations.S. Fischer, C. A. Huber, L. Imhof, R. Mahrer Imhof & M. Furter - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (11):810-814.
    Background: In Switzerland, non-medical right-to-die organisations such as Exit Deutsche Schweiz and Dignitas offer suicide assistance to members suffering from incurable diseases.Objectives: First, to determine whether differences exist between the members who received assistance in suicide from Exit Deutsche Schweiz and Dignitas. Second, to investigate whether the practices of Exit Deutsche Schweiz have changed since the 1990s.Methods: This study analysed all cases of assisted suicide facilitated by Exit Deutsche Schweiz and Dignitas between 2001 and 2004 and investigated by the University (...)
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  • Aid-in-dying laws and the physician's duty to inform.Mara Buchbinder - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (10):666-669.
    On 19 July 2016, three medical organisations filed a federal lawsuit against representatives from several Vermont agencies over the Patient Choice and Control at End of Life Act. The law is similar to aid-in-dying laws in four other US states, but the lawsuit hinges on a distinctive aspect of Vermont's law pertaining to patients' rights to information. The lawsuit raises questions about whether, and under what circumstances, there is an ethical obligation to inform terminally ill patients about AID as an (...)
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  • Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Physician Aid-in-Dying and Suicide Prevention in Psychiatry”.Margaret Pabst Battin & Brent M. Kious - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (10):W14-W17.
    Volume 19, Issue 10, October 2019, Page W14-W17.
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  • Ending One's Life.Margaret Pabst Battin & Brent M. Kious - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (3):37-47.
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  • Physician-assisted death with limited access to palliative care.Joaquín Barutta & Jochen Vollmann - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (8):652-654.
  • Making a case for the inclusion of refractory and severe mental illness as a sole criterion for Canadians requesting medical assistance in dying (MAiD): a review.Anees Bahji & Nicholas Delva - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    BackgroundFollowing several landmark rulings and increasing public support for physician-assisted death, in 2016, Canada became one of a handful of countries legalising medical assistance in dying with Bill C-14. However, the revised Bill C-7 proposes the specific exclusion of MAiD where a mental disorder is the sole underlying medical condition.AimThis review explores how some persons with serious and persistent mental illness could meet sensible and just criteria for MAiD under the Canadian legislative framework.MethodsWe review the proposed Bill C-7 criteria as (...)
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  • Continuous Deep Sedation and Euthanasia in Pediatrics: Does One Really Exclude the Other for Terminally Ill Patients?Domnita O. Badarau, Eva De Clercq & Bernice S. Elger - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (1):50-70.
    Debates on morally acceptable and lawful end-of-life practices in pediatrics were reignited by the recent amendment in Belgian law to allow euthanasia for minors of any age who meet the criteria for capacity. Euthanasia and its legalization in pediatrics are often opposed based on the availability of aggressive palliative sedation. For terminally ill patients, this type of sedation is often identified as continuous and deep sedation until death. We demonstrate that this reasoning is based on flawed assumptions: CDS is a (...)
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  • Relational Autonomy, the Right to Reject Treatment, and Advance Directives in Japan.Anri Asagumo - 2021 - Asian Bioethics Review 14 (1):57-69.
    Although the patient’s right to decide what they want for themselves, which is encompassed in the notion of ‘patient-centred medicine’ and ‘informed consent’, is widely recognised and emphasised in Japan, there remain grave problems when it comes to respecting the wishes of the no-longer-competent when death is imminent. In general, it is believed that the concepts above do not include the right to refuse treatment when treatment withdrawal inevitably results in death, even when the patient previously expressed the wish to (...)
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