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  1. Objectivity in Science: New Perspectives From Science and Technology Studies.Flavia Padovani, Alan Richardson & Jonathan Y. Tsou (eds.) - 2015 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, vol. 310. Springer.
    This highly multidisciplinary collection discusses an increasingly important topic among scholars in science and technology studies: objectivity in science. It features eleven essays on scientific objectivity from a variety of perspectives, including philosophy of science, history of science, and feminist philosophy. Topics addressed in the book include the nature and value of scientific objectivity, the history of objectivity, and objectivity in scientific journals and communities. Taken individually, the essays supply new methodological tools for theorizing what is valuable in the pursuit (...)
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  • The “Medical Friendship” or the True Meaning of the Doctor-Patient Relationship From Two Complementary Perspectives: Goya and Laín.Roger Ruiz-Moral - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):111-117.
    This essay aims to broaden the understanding of the nature of the physician–patient relationship. To do so, the concept of medical philia that Pedro Laín Entralgo proposes is analysed and is considered taking into consideration the relational trait of the human being and the structure of human action as a story of the permanent tension that exists between freedom and truth, where the ontological foundation of the hermeneutic of the "Gift" and the analogy of “Love” as the central dynamic of (...)
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  • Chatbot Breakthrough in the 2020s? An Ethical Reflection on the Trend of Automated Consultations in Health Care.Jaana Parviainen & Juho Rantala - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):61-71.
    Many experts have emphasised that chatbots are not sufficiently mature to be able to technically diagnose patient conditions or replace the judgements of health professionals. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has significantly increased the utilisation of health-oriented chatbots, for instance, as a conversational interface to answer questions, recommend care options, check symptoms and complete tasks such as booking appointments. In this paper, we take a proactive approach and consider how the emergence of task-oriented chatbots as partially automated consulting systems can influence (...)
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  • Practical Wisdom in Complex Medical Practices: A Critical Proposal.C. M. M. L. Bontemps-Hommen, A. Baart & F. T. H. Vosman - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (1):95-105.
    In recent times, daily, ordinary medical practices have incontrovertibly been developing under the condition of complexity. Complexity jeopardizes the moral core of practicing medicine: helping people, with their illnesses and suffering, in a medically competent way. Practical wisdom has been proposed as part of the solution to navigate complexity, aiming at the provision of morally good care. Practical wisdom should help practitioners to maneuver in complexity, where the presupposed linear ways of operating prove to be insufficient. However, this solution is (...)
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  • Ethico-Political Aspects of Clinical Judgment in Opportunistic Screening for Cognitive Impairment: Arendtian and Aristotelian Perspectives.Martin Gunnarson & Kristin Zeiler - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
    This article examines a population-based opportunistic screening practice for cognitive impairment that takes place at a hospital in Sweden. At the hospital, there is a routine in place that stipulates that all patients over the age of 65 who are admitted to the ward will be offered testing for cognitive impairment, unless they have been tested within the last six months or have been diagnosed with any form of cognitive impairment. However, our analysis shows that this routine is not universally (...)
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  • Using Practical Wisdom to Facilitate Ethical Decision-Making: A Major Empirical Study of Phronesis in the Decision Narratives of Doctors.Chris Turner, Alan Brockie, Catherine Weir, Catherine Hale, Aisha Y. Malik & Mervyn Conroy - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundMedical ethics has recently seen a drive away from multiple prescriptive approaches, where physicians are inundated with guidelines and principles, towards alternative, less deontological perspectives. This represents a clear call for theory building that does not produce more guidelines. Phronesis offers an alternative approach for ethical decision-making based on an application of accumulated wisdom gained through previous practice dilemmas and decisions experienced by practitioners. Phronesis, as an ‘executive virtue’, offers a way to navigate the practice virtues for any given case (...)
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  • The Role of Experts in the Methodology of Economics.Carlo Martini - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (1):77-91.
    Is subjective expert judgment a source of evidence in economics? In this paper, I will argue that it is, on a par with other sources like modeling, statistics, experimental, etc. I will also argue that it is not derivative, that is, reducible to the previous ones. But what is exactly the role of experts in economics? The contribution to the current methodological debate that I propose not only takes the role of expertise in economics as indispensable, but also suggests a (...)
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  • Genetic Counseling, Professional Values, and Habitus: An Analysis of Disability Narratives in Textbooks.Amy R. Reed - 2018 - Journal of Medical Humanities 39 (4):515-533.
    This article analyzes narrative illustrations in genetic counseling textbooks as a way of understanding professional habitus--the dispositions that motivate professional behavior. In particular, this analysis shows that there are significant differences in how the textbooks' expository and narrative portions represent Down syndrome, genetic counseling practice, and patient behaviors. While the narrative portions of the text position the genetic counseling profession as working in service to the values of genetic medicine, the expository portions represent genetic counselors as neutral parties. Ultimately, this (...)
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  • Medical Ethics Education: An Interdisciplinary and Social Theoretical Perspective.Nathan Emmerich - 2013 - Springer.
    There is a diversity of ‘ethical practices’ within medicine as an institutionalised profession as well as a need for ethical specialists both in practice as well as in institutionalised roles. This Brief offers a social perspective on medical ethics education. It discusses a range of concepts relevant to educational theory and thus provides a basic illumination of the subject. Recent research in the sociology of medical education and the social theory of Pierre Bourdieu are covered. In the end, the themes (...)
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  • In-Verse Reflection: Structured Creative Writing Exercises to Promote Reflective Learning in Medical Students.David McLean, Neville Chiavaroli, Charlotte Denniston & Martin Richardson - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities:1-12.
    Medical educators recognize the value of reflection for medical students and the role creative writing can play in fostering this. However, direct creative writing tasks can be challenging for many students, particularly those with limited experience in the arts and humanities. An alternative strategy is to utilize an indirect approach, engaging students with structured tasks that obliquely encourage reflection. This paper reports one such approach. We refer to this approach as in-verse reflection, playing on both the structure of the writing (...)
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  • Beyond ‘Born Not Made’: Challenging Character, Emotions and Professionalism in Undergraduate Medical Education.Marie Allitt & Sally Frampton - forthcoming - Medical Humanities:medhum-2021-012365.
    In this article we explore the historical antecedents and ongoing perpetuation of the idea that medical professionals must adhere to a specific ‘character’. In the late nineteenth century, an ideal of the medical student as ‘born not made’ was substantiated through medical school opening addresses and other medical literature. An understanding prevailed that students would have a natural inclination that would suit them to medical work, which was predicated on class structures. As we move into the twentieth-century context, we see (...)
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  • Whose Social Values? Evaluating Canada’s ‘Death of Evidence’ Controversy.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (3):404-424.
    With twentieth- and twenty-first-century philosophy of science’s unfolding acceptance of the nature of scientific inquiry being value-laden, the persistent worry has been that there are no means for legitimate negotiation of the social or non-epistemic values that enter into science. The rejection of the value-free ideal in science has thereby been coupled with the spectres of indiscriminate relativism and bias in scientific inquiry. I challenge this view in the context of recently expressed concerns regarding Canada's death of evidence controversy. The (...)
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  • Clinical Decision-Making, Gender Bias, Virtue Epistemology, and Quality Healthcare.James A. Marcum - 2017 - Topoi 36 (3):501-508.
    Robust clinical decision-making depends on valid reasoning and sound judgment and is essential for delivering quality healthcare. It is often susceptible, however, to a clinician’s biases such as towards a patient’s age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Gender bias in particular has a deleterious impact, which frequently results in cognitive myopia so that a clinician is unable to make an accurate diagnosis because of a patient’s gender—especially for female patients. Virtue epistemology provides a means for confronting gender bias in clinical (...)
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  • Experiential Knowledge in Clinical Medicine: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Devora Shapiro - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (2):67-82.
    Within the evidence-based medicine construct, clinical expertise is acknowledged to be both derived from primary experience and necessary for optimal medical practice. Primary experience in medical practice, however, remains undervalued. Clinicians’ primary experience tends to be dismissed by EBM as unsystematic or anecdotal, a source of bias rather than knowledge, never serving as the “best” evidence to support a clinical decision. The position that clinical expertise is necessary but that primary experience is untrustworthy in clinical decision-making is epistemically incoherent. Here (...)
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  • Do We Need Another Discipline in Medicine? From Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine to Cognitive Medicine and Medical Thinking.Milos Jenicek - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):1028-1034.
  • The Medical Gap: Intuition in Medicine.Itai Adler - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
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  • Learning to Argue Like an Expert.Diana Lin Awad Scrocco - 2014 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 3 (3):231-258.
    Many scholars have argued that practicing medicine requires sophisticated rhetorical prowess. Although rhetorical theory can explain how novices learn to argue like experts, much work in the subfield of medical learning only implicitly draws on rhetorical notions. This study examines conversations between faculty physician preceptors and resident physician trainees in an internal medicine clinic to consider the role of persuasion in teaching novices to argue like experts. Using Aristoteliantopoi, I reveal how the common lines of argument underlying medical teaching and (...)
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  • Musings on Reflective Practice as a Grand Idea.Derek Sellman - 2010 - Nursing Philosophy 11 (3):149-150.
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  • An Epistemological Shift: From Evidence-Based Medicine to Epistemological Responsibility.Sophie van Baalen & Mieke Boon - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):433-439.
  • Models in the Balance: Evidence‐Based Medicine Versus Evidence‐Informed Individualized Care.Andrew Miles & Michael Loughlin - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):531-536.
  • Imperfection, Practice and Humility in Clinical Ethics.Kim Garchar - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1051-1056.
  • Rhetoric and Argumentation: How Clinical Practice Guidelines Think.Jonathan Fuller - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):433-441.
    Introduction: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are an important source of justification for clinical decisions in modern evidence-based practice. Yet, we have given little attention to how they argue their evidence. In particular, how do CPGs argue for treatment with long-term medications that are increasingly prescribed to older patients? Approach and rationale: I selected six disease-specific guidelines recommending treatment with five of the medication classes most commonly prescribed for seniors in Ontario, Canada. I considered the stated aims of these CPGs and (...)
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  • Clinical Judgement and the Medical Profession.Gunver S. Kienle & Helmut Kiene - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):621-627.
  • Robot Decisions: On the Importance of Virtuous Judgment in Clinical Decision Making.Petra Gelhaus - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):883-887.
  • Polanyi's Tacit Knowing and the Relevance of Epistemology to Clinical Medicine.Stephen G. Henry - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):292-297.
    Most clinicians take for granted a simple, reductionist understanding of medical knowledge that is at odds with how they actually practice medicine; routine medical decisions incorporate more complicated kinds of information than most standard accounts of medical reasoning suggest. A better understanding of the structure and function of knowledge in medicine can lead to practical improvements in clinical medicine. This understanding requires some familiarity with epistemology, the study of knowledge and its structure, in medicine. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowing (...)
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  • On a Medicine of the Whole Person: Away From Scientistic Reductionism and Towards the Embrace of the Complex in Clinical Practice.Andrew Miles - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):941-949.
  • On the Interface Between Science, Medicine, Faith and Values in the Individualization of Clinical Practice: A Review and Analysis of 'Medicine of the Person' Cox, J., Campbell, A. V. & Fulford, K. W. M., Eds (2007). [REVIEW]Andrew Miles - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1000-1024.
  • Medicine and Evidence: Knowledge and Action in Clinical Practice.Andrew Miles, Michael Loughlin & Andreas Polychronis - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):481-503.
  • Evidence for Practice and the Authority of Experts: There Can Be No Former Without the Latter: A Commentary an Nunn (2008).Andrew Miles - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):679-681.
  • Evidence‐Based Healthcare, Clinical Knowledge and the Rise of Personalised Medicine.Andrew Miles, Michael Loughlin & Andreas Polychronis - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):621-649.
  • Science: A Limited Source of Knowledge and Authority in the Care of Patients*. A Review and Analysis Of: ‘How Doctors Think. Clinical Judgement and the Practice of Medicine.’Montgomery, K. [REVIEW]Andrew Miles - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):545-563.
  • Towards an Evidence‐Based 'Medicine of the Person': The Contribution of Psychiatry to Health Care Provision.John L. Cox - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):694-698.
  • Continuing the Evidence‐Based Health Care Debate in 2006. The Progress and Price of EBM.Andrew Miles & Michael Loughlin - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):385-398.
  • Institutional Futility Policies Are Inherently Unfair.Philip M. Rosoff - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (3):191-209.
    For many years a debate has raged over what constitutes futile medical care, if patients have a right to demand what doctors label as futile, and whether physicians should be obliged to provide treatments that they think are inappropriate. More recently, the argument has shifted away from the difficult project of definitions, to outlining institutional policies and procedures that take a measured and patient-by-patient approach to deciding if an existing or desired intervention is futile. The prototype is the Texas Advance (...)
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  • Teaching by (Bad) Example: What a Confused Attempt to “Advance” EBM Reveals About its Underlying Problems: Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2015) Do We Need Another Discipline in Medicine? From Epidemiology and Evidence Based Medicine to Cognitive Medicine and Medical Thinking.Michael Loughlin, Peter Wyer & Sandra Tanenbaum - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (4):628-633.
    Professor Jenicek's paper is confused, in that his proposal to “integrate” what he means by “evidence-based scientific theory and cognitive approaches to medical thinking” actually embodies a contradiction. But, although confused, he succeeds in teaching us more about the EBM debate than those who seem keen to forge ahead without addressing the underlying epistemological problems that Jenicek brings to our attention. Fundamental questions about the relationship between evidence, knowledge and reason still require resolution if we are to see a genuine (...)
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  • Patients' Substantialization of Disease, the Hybrid Symptom and Meta Physical Care.Alexandra Pârvan - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):380-388.
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  • Borrowed Philosophy: Bedside Physicalism and the Need for a Sui Generis Metaphysic of Medicine.Shawn D. Whatley - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):961-964.
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  • The Quantified Self: Closing the Gap Between General Knowledge and Particular Case?Eline Thornquist & Anna Luise Kirkengen - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):398-403.
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  • Historical Thinking in Clinical Medicine: Lessons From R.G. Collingwood's Philosophy of History.Benjamin H. Chin-Yee & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):448-454.
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  • The Physician as Friend to the Patient.Nir Ben-Moshe - forthcoming - In The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Friendship.
    My question in the chapter is this: could (and should) the role of the physician be construed as that of a friend to the patient? I begin by briefly discussing the “friendship model” of the physician-patient relationship—according to which physicians and patients could, and perhaps should, be friends—as well as its history and limitations. Given these limitations, I focus on the more one-sided idea that the physician could, and perhaps should, be a friend to the patient (a “physician-qua-friend model” of (...)
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  • ‘How Do You Know What Aunt Martha Looks Like?’ A Video Elicitation Study Exploring Tacit Clues in Doctor-Patient Interactions.Stephen G. Henry, Jane H. Forman & Michael D. Fetters - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):933-939.
  • The Lived Body as a Medical Topic: An Argument for an Ethically Informed Epistemology.Anna Luise Kirkengen & Eline Thornquist - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1095-1101.
  • Professional Medical Discourse and the Emergence of Practical Wisdom in Everyday Practices: Analysis of a Keyhole Case.Marij Bontemps-Hommen, Andries Baart & Frans Vosman - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 28 (2):137-157.
    Recent publications have argued that practical wisdom is increasingly important for medical practices, particularly in complex contexts, to stay focused on giving good care in a moral sense to each individual patient. Our empirical investigation into an ordinary medical practice was aimed at exploring whether the practice would reveal practical wisdom, or, instead, adherence to conventional frames such as guidelines, routines and the dominant professional discourse. We performed a thematic analysis both of the medical files of a complex patient and (...)
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  • Psychopathy: Morally Incapacitated Persons.Heidi Maibom - 2017 - In Thomas Schramme & Steven Edwards (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1109-1129.
    After describing the disorder of psychopathy, I examine the theories and the evidence concerning the psychopaths’ deficient moral capacities. I first examine whether or not psychopaths can pass tests of moral knowledge. Most of the evidence suggests that they can. If there is a lack of moral understanding, then it has to be due to an incapacity that affects not their declarative knowledge of moral norms, but their deeper understanding of them. I then examine two suggestions: it is their deficient (...)
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  • “Personal Knowledge” in Medicine and the Epistemic Shortcomings of Scientism.Hugh Marshall McHugh & Simon Thomas Walker - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):577-585.
    In this paper, we outline a framework for understanding the different kinds of knowledge required for medical practice and use this framework to show how scientism undermines aspects of this knowledge. The framework is based on Michael Polanyi’s claim that knowledge is primarily the product of the contemplations and convictions of persons and yet at the same time carries a sense of universality because it grasps at reality. Building on Polanyi’s ideas, we propose that knowledge can be described along two (...)
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  • Understanding Medical Symptoms: A Conceptual Review and Analysis.Kirsti Malterud, Ann Dorrit Guassora, Anette Hauskov Graungaard & Susanne Reventlow - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (6):411-424.
    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom understanding proceeds from an initial subliminal awareness by way of attribution of meaning and subsequent management, with and without professional involvement. We introduce theoretical perspectives from phenomenology, semiotics, social interactionism, and discourse analysis. Drew (...)
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  • Phronesis as an Ideal in Professional Medical Ethics: Some Preliminary Positionings and Problematics.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (5):299-320.
    Phronesis has become a buzzword in contemporary medical ethics. Yet, the use of this single term conceals a number of significant conceptual controversies based on divergent philosophical assumptions. This paper explores three of them: on phronesis as universalist or relativist, generalist or particularist, and natural/painless or painful/ambivalent. It also reveals tensions between Alasdair MacIntyre’s take on phronesis, typically drawn upon in professional ethics discourses, and Aristotle’s original concept. The paper offers these four binaries as a possible analytical framework for classifying (...)
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  • Evidence and the End of Medicine.Keld Thorgaard & Uffe Juul Jensen - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (3):273-280.
    Fifty years ago, in 1961, Feinstein published his first path-breaking articles leading to his seminal work Clinical Judgement and to the establishment of clinical epidemiology. Feinstein had an Aristotelian approach to scientific method: methods must be adapted to the material examined. Feinstein died 10 years ago and few years before his death he concluded that efforts to promote a person-oriented medicine had failed. He criticised medicine for not having recognized that only persons can suitably observe, evaluate and rate their own (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence and Patient-Centered Decision-Making.Jens Christian Bjerring & Jacob Busch - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):349-371.
    Advanced AI systems are rapidly making their way into medical research and practice, and, arguably, it is only a matter of time before they will surpass human practitioners in terms of accuracy, reliability, and knowledge. If this is true, practitioners will have a prima facie epistemic and professional obligation to align their medical verdicts with those of advanced AI systems. However, in light of their complexity, these AI systems will often function as black boxes: the details of their contents, calculations, (...)
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  • Introduction: Evidence, Expertise and Argumentation in Evidence-Based Medicine.Fabrizio Macagno & Carlo Martini - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):295-298.
    [1st paragraph] A philosophical discussion on evidence-based medicine (EBM) can be probably perceived almost as an oxymoron. How can “the process of systematically finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions” (Jenicek 2012: 23) be compatible with the critical and systematic examination of fundamental problems such as the nature of being, reality, thinking, values and perception? How can a scientific field focused mainly on the search and evaluation of evidence and aimed at solid quantifications of (...)
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