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  1. Would I Really Make a Difference? Moral Typecasting Theory and its Implications for Helping Ethical Leaders.Kai Chi Yam, Ryan Fehr, Tyler C. Burch, Yajun Zhang & Kurt Gray - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 160 (3):675-692.
    Ethical leadership research has primarily relied on social learning and social exchange theories. Although these theories have been generative, additional theoretical perspectives hold the potential to broaden scholars’ understanding of ethical leadership’s effects. In this paper, we examine moral typecasting theory and its unique implications for followers’ leader-directed citizenship behavior. Across two studies employing both survey-based and experimental methods, we offer support for three key predictions consistent with this theory. First, the effect of ethical leadership on leader-directed citizenship behavior is (...)
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  • Preserving Employee Dignity During the Termination Interview: An Empirical Examination.Matthew S. Wood & Steven J. Karau - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (4):519-534.
    Despite the ongoing need for managers to fire employees and the wide prevalence of downsizing and layoffs, little research has examined how the conduct of termination interviews affects employee reactions. The current research was designed to explore reactions to several commonly used termination interview practices. Two scenario-based experiments examined the effectiveness of having a third party (an HR manager or a security guard) present, mentioning the employee's positive characteristics and contributions, and using alone, discrete escort, or public escort modes of (...)
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  • Disgusted or Happy, It is not so Bad: Emotional Mini-Max in Unethical Judgments.Karen Page Winterich, Andrea C. Morales & Vikas Mittal - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (2):343-360.
    Although prior work on ethical decision-making has examined the direct impact of magnitude of consequences as well as the direct impact of emotions on ethical judgments, the current research examines the interaction of these two constructs. Building on previous research finding disgust to have a varying impact on ethical judgments depending on the specific behavior being evaluated, we investigate how disgust, as well as happiness and sadness, moderates the effect of magnitude of consequences on an individual’s judgments of another person’s (...)
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  • Circles of Ethics: The Impact of Proximity on Moral Reasoning.Cristina Wildermuth, Carlos A. De Mello E. Souza & Timothy Kozitza - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (1):17-42.
    We report the results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of psychological proximity—proxied by awareness of pain and friendship—on moral reasoning. Our study tests the hypotheses that a moral agent’s emphasis on justice decreases with proximity, while his/her emphasis on care increases. Our study further examines how personality, gender, and managerial status affect the importance of care and justice in moral reasoning. We find support for the main hypotheses. We also find that care should be split into two (...)
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  • The Antecedents of Moral Imagination in the Workplace: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective. [REVIEW]Brian G. Whitaker & Lindsey N. Godwin - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):61-73.
    As corporate scandals proliferate, organizational researchers and practitioners have made calls for research providing guidance for those wishing to influence positive moral decision-making and behavior in the workplace. This study incorporates social cognitive theory and a vignette-based cognitive measure for moral imagination to examine (a) moral attentiveness and employee creativity as important antecedents of moral imagination and (b) creativity as a moderator of the positive relationship between moral attentiveness and moral imagination. Based on the results from supervisor–subordinate dyadic data (N (...)
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  • Using the analytical hierarchy process (ahp) to construct a measure of the magnitude of consequences component of moral intensity.Eric W. Stein & Norita Ahmad - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):391 - 407.
    The purpose of this work is to elaborate an empirically grounded mathematical model of the magnitude of consequences component of “moral intensity” (Jones, Academy of Management Review 16 (2),366, 1991) that can be used to evaluate different ethical situations. The model is built using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) (Saaty, The Analytic Hierarchy Process , 1980) and empirical data from the legal profession. One contribution of our work is that it illustrates how AHP can be applied in the field of (...)
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  • Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process to Construct a Measure of the Magnitude of Consequences Component of Moral Intensity.Eric W. Stein & Norita Ahmad - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):391-407.
    The purpose of this work is to elaborate an empirically grounded mathematical model of the magnitude of consequences component of "moral intensity", 366, 1991) that can be used to evaluate different ethical situations. The model is built using the analytical hierarchy process and empirical data from the legal profession. One contribution of our work is that it illustrates how AHP can be applied in the field of ethics. Following a review of the literature, we discuss the development of the model. (...)
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  • Ethical decision-making interrupted: Can cognitive tools improve decision-making following an interruption?Cheryl Stenmark, Katherine Riley & Crystal Kreitler - 2020 - Ethics and Behavior 30 (8):557-580.
    ABSTRACT This study examined the effects of interruptions and the use of cognitive decision-making tools on ethical decision-making. Participants completed a structured cognitive tool, an unstructured decision-making technique, or no decision-making technique, and half of the participants were interrupted during the decision-making task, whereas half were allowed to complete the decision-making task without interruption. Results revealed that 1) participants who completed the structured cognitive tool performed better on a number of markers of ethical decision-making, 2) interruptions reduced participants’ plan quality, (...)
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  • Judgment Difficulty and the Moral Intensity of Unethical Acts: A Cognitive Response Analysis of Dual Process Ethical Judgment Formation.John R. Sparks & Jennifer Christie Siemens - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (2):151-163.
    This study analyzes cognitive responses to explore a dual processing perspective of ethical judgment formation. Specifically, the study investigates how two factors, judgment task difficulty and moral intensity, influence the extent of deontological and teleological processing and their effects on ethical judgments. A single experiment on 110 undergraduate research participants found that judgment task difficulty affected the extent of deontological and teleological processing. Although moral intensity affected ethical judgments, it did not produce effects on either deontological or teleological cognitive responses. (...)
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  • Ethical Judgments in Business Ethics Research: Definition, and Research Agenda.John R. Sparks & Yue Pan - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (3):405-418.
    Decades of empirical and theoretical research has produced an extensive literature on the ethical judgments construct. Given its importance to understanding people’s ethical choices, future research should explore the psychological processes that produce ethical judgments. In this paper, the authors discuss two steps needed to advance this effort. First, they note that the business ethics literature lacks a single, generally accepted definition of ethical judgments. After reviewing several extant definitions, the authors offer a definition of the construct and discuss its (...)
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  • The Impact of Moral Intensity and Desire for Control on Scaling Decisions in Social Entrepreneurship.Brett R. Smith, Geoffrey M. Kistruck & Benedetto Cannatelli - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (4):677-689.
    While research has focused on why certain entrepreneurs elect to create innovative solutions to social problems, very little is known about why some social entrepreneurs choose to scale their solutions while others do not. Research on scaling has generally focused on organizational characteristics often overlooking factors at the individual level that may affect scaling decisions. Drawing on the multidimensional construct of moral intensity, we propose a theoretical model of ethical decision making to explain why a social entrepreneur’s perception of moral (...)
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  • Research Note and Review of the Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: Boundary Conditions and Extensions.Nitish Singh, Yung-Hwal Park & Kevin Lehnert - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (1):195-219.
    In business ethics, there is a large body of literature focusing on the conditions, factors, and influences in the ethical decision-making processes. This work builds upon the past critical reviews by updating and extending the literature review found in Craft’s :221–259, 2013) study, extending her literature review to include a total of 141 articles. Since past reviews have focused on categorizing results based upon various independent variables, we instead synthesize and look at the trends of these based upon the four (...)
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  • Influence of ethical ideology on job stress.Abhishek Shukla & Rajeev Srivastava - 2017 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):233-254.
    The relationship between ethical ideology and job stress appears to be complex. This study is based on a model presented by Forsyth, showing two dimensions that play an important role in ethical evaluation and behavior. Based on a survey of 561 employees of hotel industry in India, ethical ideologies were found to be negatively associated with job stress. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and multiple regressions. The result showed that relativism is negatively correlated with job stress. Further, it (...)
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  • Investigating moral ideology, ethical beliefs, and moral intensity among consumers of Pakistan.Syed Afzal Moshadi Shah & Shehla Amjad - 2017 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):153-187.
    The purpose of the study is to empirically examine moral ideology, ethical beliefs, and moral intensity in the context of Pakistan. Jones, 366–395, 1991) model and Muncy and Vitell have extensively been investigated and validated in west for examining ethical decision-making process. This study examines and validates these models in a collectivist cultural settings, i.e., Pakistan. A self-administered online survey technique using convenience sampling technique was used to gather data from a sample of 1000 consumers in Pakistan. Final analysis was (...)
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  • Ethical Decision-Making Theory: An Integrated Approach.Mark S. Schwartz - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (4):755-776.
    Ethical decision-making descriptive theoretical models often conflict with each other and typically lack comprehensiveness. To address this deficiency, a revised EDM model is proposed that consolidates and attempts to bridge together the varying and sometimes directly conflicting propositions and perspectives that have been advanced. To do so, the paper is organized as follows. First, a review of the various theoretical models of EDM is provided. These models can generally be divided into rationalist-based ; and non-rationalist-based. Second, the proposed model, called (...)
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  • Using Social Identity Theory to Predict Managers' Emphases on Ethical and Legal Values in Judging Business Issues.John A. Pearce - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):497-514.
    The need to fill three gaps in ethics research in a business context sparked the current study. First, the distinction between the concepts of “ethical” and “legal” needs to be incorporated into theory building and empiricism. Second, a unifying theory is needed that can explain the variables that influence managers to emphasize ethics and legality in their judgments. Third, empirical evidence is needed to confirm the predictive power of the unifying theory, the discernable influence of personal and organizational variables, and (...)
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  • Moral Intensity, Perceived Impacts, and Task Motivation: Evidence From Volunteers.Akwasi Opoku-Dakwa - 2022 - Business and Society 61 (7):1881-1918.
    Although work tasks often address substantive social issues, the effects of issue characteristics on task motivation are little understood. This study explores this topic by examining how the moral characteristics of an issue (moral intensity) affect motivation in tasks intended to address the issue (task motivation). Adopting the lens of work design theory, I hypothesize that moral intensity increases task motivation through the mediation of perceived task impacts on the community (perceived community impacts), and that this effect will occur after (...)
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  • The Influence of Unethical Peer Behavior on Observers' Unethical Behavior: A Social Cognitive Perspective. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):117-131.
    The relationship between unethical peer behavior and observers’ unethical behavior traditionally has been examined from a social learning perspective. We employ two additional theoretical lenses, social identity theory and social comparison theory, each of which offers additional insight into this relationship. Data from 600 undergraduate business students in two universities provide support for all the three perspectives, suggesting that unethical behavior is influenced by social learning, social identity, and social comparison processes. Implications for managers and future research are discussed.
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  • The Role of Individual Variables, Organizational Variables and Moral Intensity Dimensions in Libyan Management Accountants’ Ethical Decision Making.Ahmed Musbah, Christopher J. Cowton & David Tyfa - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (3):335-358.
    This study investigates the association of a broad set of variables with the ethical decision making of management accountants in Libya. Adopting a cross-sectional methodology, a questionnaire including four different ethical scenarios was used to gather data from 229 participants. For each scenario, ethical decision making was examined in terms of the recognition, judgment and intention stages of Rest’s model. A significant relationship was found between ethical recognition and ethical judgment and also between ethical judgment and ethical intention, but ethical (...)
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  • Ethical Judgments: What Do We Know, Where Do We Go? [REVIEW]Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):575-597.
    Investigations into ethical judgments generally seem fuzzy as to the relevant research domain. We first attempted to clarify the construct and determine domain parameters. This attempt required addressing difficulties associated with pinpointing relevant literature, most notably the varied nomenclature used to refer to ethical judgments (individual evaluations of actions’ ethicality). Given this variation in construct nomenclature and the difficulties it presented in identifying pertinent focal studies, we elected to focus on research that cited papers featuring prominent and often-used measures of (...)
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  • Whistleblowing Intentions Among Public Accountants in Indonesia: Testing for the Moderation Effects.Hengky Latan, Christian M. Ringle & Charbel Jose Chiappetta Jabbour - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 152 (2):573-588.
    Our study contributes by providing new insights into the relationship between the individual levels of the antecedents and how the intention of whistleblowing is moderated by perceived organizational support, team norms, and perceived moral intensity. In this paper, we argue that the intention of both internal and external whistleblowing depends on the individual-level antecedents [attitudes toward whistleblowing, perceived behavioral control, independence commitment, personal responsibility for reporting, and personal cost of reporting ] and is moderated by POS, TNs, and PMI. The (...)
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  • Ethical Awareness, Ethical Judgment and Whistleblowing: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.Hengky Latan, Charbel Jose Chiappetta Jabbour & Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (1):289-304.
    This study aims to examine the ethical decision-making model proposed by Schwartz, where we consider the factors of non-rationality and aspects that affect ethical judgments of auditors to make the decision to blow the whistle. In this paper, we argue that the intention of whistleblowing depends on ethical awareness and ethical judgment as well as there is a mediation–moderation due to emotion and perceived moral intensity of auditors. Data were collected using an online survey with 162 external auditors who worked (...)
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  • The Impact of Locus of Control, Moral Intensity, and the Microsocial Ethical Environment on Purchasing-Related Ethical Reasoning.Jocelyn Husser, Jean-Marc Andre & Véronique Lespinet-Najib - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (1):243-261.
    This study uses a sample of 242 European professional purchasers to examine the six characteristics of the decision-making process developed by Jones. The illustration mobilizes six original scenarios reproducing typical purchasing situations. Two versions of each scenario were used, one representing low moral intensity and the other showing high moral intensity. Two populations were sampled: one of 120 purchasers responding to the first version of the questionnaire and a second of 122 different purchasers responding to version two. Each version contained (...)
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  • The Ethical Aftermath of a Values Revolution: Theoretical Bases of Change, Recalibration, and Principalization. [REVIEW]Robert A. Giacalone, Carole L. Jurkiewicz & Stephen B. Knouse - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (3):333-343.
    Profound and wide-ranging values shifts among industrialized nations, first noted following World War II and measured on an ongoing basis since, have affected individual decision making in political, social, and institutional settings across the globe. Consequently, the adoption of this set of expansive values is having pronounced and measurable effects on organizational missions, standards, and activities. This change is particularly notable in terms of accountability practices, moral responsibility, and the distinction between ethical and unethical decision making. This article documents this (...)
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  • Ethical Decision Making: Special or No Different? [REVIEW]Dawn R. Elm & Tara J. Radin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):313-329.
    Theories of ethical decision making assume it is a process that is special, or different in some regard, from typical individual decision making. Empirical results of the most widely known theories in the field of business ethics contain numerous inconsistencies and contradictions. In an attempt to assess why we continue to lack understanding of how individuals make ethical decisions at work, an inductive study of ethical decision making was conducted. The results of this preliminary study suggest that ethical decision making (...)
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  • Immoral Entrenchment: How Crisis Reverses the Ethical Effects of Moral Intensity.Miranda J. Welbourne Eleazar - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 180 (1):71-89.
    Moral intensity theory is used to explain how characteristics of moral issues affect ethical decision-making. According to moral intensity theory, individuals and firms will make more ethical decisions when moral intensity is present, such as greater negative consequences, including harm to customers. However, evidence suggests this does not always happen in crisis situations. For example, Fisher Price waited until 30 babies died before recalling its Rock’n Play Sleeper in 2019. In this article, the concept of immoral entrenchment is introduced to (...)
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  • Who are these people? Personality traits and judgments about trade secret misappropriation in post‐employment activities.Hélène Delerue & Mariam Hamid - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (3):315-331.
    Trade secret theft is a problem that almost all organizations face. The greatest threat is employee mobility and potential unethical post-employment behavior. This study investigates the role of individual personality traits in judgments about trade secret misappropriation. Our hypotheses were tested in three studies addressing three different situational contexts: current employees, employees about to be laid off, and students who had quit their job. Relationships were estimated with robust regression. The results show that some personality traits predict judgment about another (...)
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  • The Differential Influence of Identification on Ethical Judgment: The Role of Brand Love.M. Deniz Dalman, Mari W. Buche & Junhong Min - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (3):875-891.
    As negative information about companies becomes widely available and spreads rapidly through digital communications, understanding consumer reactions to these events and how human perceptions are shaped becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate how consumers’ identification with brands and their love for them affect their support for the brand during extremely unethical situations. The results indicate that brand identification both decreases and increases consumers’ ethical judgment following extremely unethical events. Moreover, we find that consumers who are in a love (...)
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  • Do You Need a Receipt? Exploring Consumer Participation in Consumption Tax Evasion as an Ethical Dilemma.Barbara Culiberg & Domen Bajde - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):1-12.
    The paper focuses on the consumer side of consumption tax evasion (CTE), a subcategory of the shadow economy. The ethical dimensions of tax evasion have been effectively captured by the existent literature on tax morale, yet it fails to address the role consumers can play in CTE. Further, there is a shortage of tax morale studies that explore ethical decision making as a process composed of multiple steps and determinants. To bridge these gaps, we turned to the consumer ethics literature (...)
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  • Common Thread: The Impact of Mission on Ethical Business Culture. A Case Study.Jana Craft - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (1):127-145.
    What is the impact of mission on ethical business culture? This question was analyzed through a qualitative case study of a large nonprofit organization in the human services industry with a solid history of ethical business practices and consistent use of a values-based decision-making model. This research explored ethical decision making, ethical business culture, and congruence between enacted and espoused institutional values. Institutional values were identified, and the following pair of research questions was examined: To what extent were incongruent values (...)
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  • A Review of the Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 2004–2011. [REVIEW]Jana L. Craft - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):221-259.
    This review summarizes the research on ethical decision-making from 2004 to 2011. Eighty-four articles were published during this period, resulting in 357 findings. Individual findings are categorized by their application to individual variables, organizational variables, or the concept of moral intensity as developed by Jones :366–395, 1991). Rest’s four-step model for ethical decision-making is used to summarize findings by dependent variable—awareness, intent, judgment, and behavior. A discussion of findings in each category is provided in order to uncover trends in the (...)
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  • Moral disengagement and moral judgment: the roles of moral endorsement, shareholder-value orientation, and intensity of moral issues.Nancy Yi-Feng Chen, Fuan Li, Shan Feng & Sixue Zhang - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (5):365-380.
    Previous research demonstrates the critical role moral disengagement plays in unethical decision-making. This study investigates the relationships among moral endorsement, shareholder-value orientation, moral disengagement, and moral judgment on issues of different moral intensities. The results of a scenario-based survey conducted in China confirm the negative (positive) impact of moral disengagement (moral intensity) on moral judgment. The findings reveal that both moral endorsement and shareholder-value orientation of decision-makers significantly influence moral judgment and that moral intensity moderates the relationships between moral endorsement (...)
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  • What Would I Do? Civilians' Ethical Decision Making in Response to Military Dilemmas.Ann-Renée Blais & Megan M. Thompson - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (3):237-249.
    This research explored the ethical decision-making process of civilians in response to real-world military dilemmas. Results revealed the complexity of these dilemmas, with about equal proportions of civilians choosing each of two response options. The moral intensity dimension of social consensus significantly predicted moral judgment in both dilemmas, whereas that of magnitude of consequences did so in only one dilemma, partially supporting our hypothesis. Both dimensions were significant predictors of moral intent in both dilemmas as was moral judgment, also supporting (...)
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  • Subjective probability assessments of the incidence of unethical behavior: the importance of scenario-respondent fit.Darlene Bay & Alexey Nikitkov - 2011 - Business Ethics: A European Review 20 (1):1-11.
  • Subjective probability assessments of the incidence of unethical behavior: the importance of scenario–respondent fit.Darlene Bay & Alexey Nikitkov - 2011 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 20 (1):1-11.
    Largely due to the difficulty of observing behavior, empirical business ethics research relies heavily on the scenario methodology. While not disputing the usefulness of the technique, this paper highlights the importance of a careful assessment of the fit between the context of the situation described in the scenario and the knowledge and experience of the respondents. Based on a study of online auctions, we provide evidence that even respondents who have direct knowledge of the situation portrayed in the scenario may (...)
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  • Wisdom and responsible leadership: Aesthetic sensibility, moral imagination, and systems thinking.Sandra Waddock - forthcoming - Aesthetics and Business Ethics.
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