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  1. Media Portrayal of a Landmark Neuroscience Experiment on Free Will.Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle & Veljko Dubljevic - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):989-1007.
    The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet’s et al.’s :623–642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted (...)
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  • Pain Perception in Disorders of Consciousness: Neuroscience, Clinical Care, and Ethics in Dialogue.Athina Demertzi, Eric Racine, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Didier Ledoux, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie Thonnard, Andrea Soddu, Gustave Moonen & Steven Laureys - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):37-50.
    Pain, suffering and positive emotions in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/uws) and minimally conscious states (MCS) pose clinical and ethical challenges. Clinically, we evaluate behavioural responses after painful stimulation and also emotionally-contingent behaviours (e.g., smiling). Using stimuli with emotional valence, neuroimaging and electrophysiology technologies can detect subclinical remnants of preserved capacities for pain which might influence decisions about treatment limitation. To date, no data exist as to how healthcare providers think about end-of-life options (e.g., withdrawal of artificial nutrition (...)
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  • Why Educational Neuroscience Needs Educational and School Psychology to Effectively Translate Neuroscience to Educational Practice.Gabrielle Wilcox, Laura M. Morett, Zachary Hawes & Eleanor J. Dommett - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The emerging discipline of educational neuroscience stands at a crossroads between those who see great promise in integrating neuroscience and education and those who see the disciplinary divide as insurmountable. However, such tension is at least partly due to the hitherto predominance of philosophy and theory over the establishment of concrete mechanisms and agents of change. If educational neuroscience is to move forward and emerge as a distinct discipline in its own right, the traditional boundaries and methods must be bridged, (...)
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  • The Limited Relevance of Neuroimaging in Insanity Evaluations. [REVIEW]Michael J. Vitacco, Emily Gottfried, Scott O. Lilienfeld & Ashley Batastini - 2019 - Neuroethics 13 (3):249-260.
    Forensic evaluations of insanity have recently borne witness to an influx of neuroimaging methods, especially structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, to assist in the development of explanations that help to excuse legal responsibility for criminal behavior. The results of these scanning methods have been increasingly introduced in legal settings to offer or support a clinical diagnosis that in turn suggests that an individual was incapable of knowing right from wrong, or to pinpoint brain dysfunction suggestive (...)
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  • The Limited Relevance of Neuroimaging in Insanity Evaluations. [REVIEW]Michael J. Vitacco, Emily Gottfried, Scott O. Lilienfeld & Ashley Batastini - 2019 - Neuroethics 13 (3):249-260.
    Forensic evaluations of insanity have recently borne witness to an influx of neuroimaging methods, especially structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, to assist in the development of explanations that help to excuse legal responsibility for criminal behavior. The results of these scanning methods have been increasingly introduced in legal settings to offer or support a clinical diagnosis that in turn suggests that an individual was incapable of knowing right from wrong, or to pinpoint brain dysfunction suggestive (...)
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  • The Limited Relevance of Neuroimaging in Insanity Evaluations. [REVIEW]Michael J. Vitacco, Emily Gottfried, Scott O. Lilienfeld & Ashley Batastini - 2019 - Neuroethics 13 (3):249-260.
    Forensic evaluations of insanity have recently borne witness to an influx of neuroimaging methods, especially structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, to assist in the development of explanations that help to excuse legal responsibility for criminal behavior. The results of these scanning methods have been increasingly introduced in legal settings to offer or support a clinical diagnosis that in turn suggests that an individual was incapable of knowing right from wrong, or to pinpoint brain dysfunction suggestive (...)
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  • Human Enhancement for the Common Good—Using Neurotechnologies to Improve Eyewitness Memory.Anton Vedder & Laura Klaming - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (3):22-33.
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  • The Persistence of Neuromyths in the Educational Settings: A Systematic Review.Marta Torrijos-Muelas, Sixto González-Víllora & Ana Rosa Bodoque-Osma - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Neuroscience influences education, and these two areas have converged in a new field denominated “Neuroeducation.” However, the growing interest in the education–brain relationship does not match the proper use of research findings. In 2007, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development warned of the misunderstandings about the brain among teachers, labeling them as neuromyths. The main objective here is to observe the prevalence of the neuromyths in educators over time. After two decades of publications of research on neuromyths among in-service (...)
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  • Children in non-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) studies give the scan experience a “thumbs up”.Moriah E. Thomason - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):25 – 27.
  • Considerations for pediatric neuroimaging at the translational coalface.N. J. Thai & J. B. Talcott - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):18 – 20.
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  • Critical Neuroscience and Socially Extended Minds.Jan Slaby & Shaun Gallagher - 2015 - Theory, Culture and Society 32 (1):33-59.
    The concept of a socially extended mind suggests that our cognitive processes are extended not simply by the various tools and technologies we use, but by other minds in our intersubjective interactions and, more systematically, by institutions that, like tools and technologies, enable and sometimes constitute our cognitive processes. In this article we explore the potential of this concept to facilitate the development of a critical neuroscience. We explicate the concept of cognitive institution and suggest that science itself is a (...)
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  • The neurotechnological cerebral subject: Persistence of implicit and explicit gender norms in a network of change. [REVIEW]Sigrid Schmitz - 2011 - Neuroethics 5 (3):261-274.
    Abstract Under the realm of neurocultures the concept of the cerebral subject emerges as the central category to define the self, socio-cultural interaction and behaviour. The brain is the reference for explaining cognitive processes and behaviour but at the same time the plastic brain is situated in current paradigms of (self)optimization on the market of meritocracy by means of neurotechnologies. This paper explores whether neurotechnological apparatuses may—due to their hybridity and malleability—bear potentials for a change in gender based attributions that (...)
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  • On Social Attribution: Implications of Recent Cognitive Neuroscience Research for Race, Law, and Politics.Darren Schreiber - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):557-566.
    Interpreting the world through a social lens is a central characteristic of human cognition. Humans ascribe intentions to the behaviors of other individuals and groups. Humans also make inferences about others’ emotional and mental states. This capacity for social attribution underlies many of the concepts at the core of legal and political systems. The developing scientific understanding of the neural mechanisms used in social attribution may alter many earlier suppositions. However, just as often, these new methods will lead back to (...)
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  • Neurofeminism and feminist neurosciences: a critical review of contemporary brain research.Sigrid Schmitz & Grit Hã¶Ppner - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • How Does Functional Neurodiagnostics Inform Surrogate Decision-Making for Patients with Disorders of Consciousness? A Qualitative Interview Study with Patients’ Next of Kin.Leah Schembs, Maria Ruhfass, Eric Racine, Ralf J. Jox, Andreas Bender, Martin Rosenfelder & Katja Kuehlmeyer - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (3):327-346.
    BackgroundFunctional neurodiagnostics could allow researchers and clinicians to distinguish more accurately between the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and the minimally conscious state. It remains unclear how it informs surrogate decision-making.ObjectiveTo explore how the next of kin of patients with disorders of consciousness interpret the results of a functional neurodiagnostics measure and how/why their interpretations influence their attitudes towards medical decisions.Methods and SampleWe conducted problem-centered interviews with seven next of kin of patients with DOC who had undergone a functional HD-EEG examination at (...)
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  • Fooled by the brain: re-examining the influence of neuroimages.N. J. Schweitzer, D. A. Baker & Evan F. Risko - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):501-511.
  • Neuroimages in court: less biasing than feared.Adina L. Roskies, N. J. Schweitzer & Michael J. Saks - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3):99-101.
  • Ethical Use of Neuroscience.Karen S. Rommelfanger & Paul Boshears - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (2):19-21.
    Levy’s essay (2011) claims that some intuitions leading to one’s moral judgments can be unreliable, and he proposes the use of a more reliable, third party, empirical measure. It is commendable that Levy attempts to work beyond traditional bounds; however, the author’s use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is questionable in supporting an argument about intentionality. As neuroscientists, we rely upon evidence-based thinking and conclusions to create generalizable knowledge, and while fMRI data can be informative in broad correlational (...)
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  • Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation.Gina Rippon, Rebecca Jordan-Young, Anelis Kaiser & Cordelia Fine - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • La diferencia sexual en las neurociencias y la neuroeducación.Sonial Medina-Vicent Reverter-Bañón - 2018 - Critica 50 (150):3-26.
    Los argumentos neurocientíficos focalizados en demostrar diferencias sexuales en el cerebro gozan de una gran popularidad. Algunas de las conclusiones de dichos experimentos han derivado en propuestas neuroeducativas que promueven la educación segregada por sexos. Estas propuestas carecen del rigor necesario para poder ser aplicadas. No sólo porque los estudios neurocientíficos están lejos de poder aseverar diferencias sexuales significativas en el cerebro, sino porque falta un diálogo crítico entre las ciencias que fundamente estrategias educativas adecuadas en el ámbito de las (...)
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  • Two Problematic Foundations of Neuroethics and Pragmatist Reconstructions.Eric Racine & Matthew Sample - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):566-577.
    Common understandings of neuroethics, i.e., of its distinctive nature, are premised on two distinct sets of claims: (1) neuroscience can change views about the nature of ethics itself and neuroethics is dedicated to reaping such an understanding of ethics; (2) neuroscience poses challenges distinct from other areas of medicine and science and neuroethics tackles those issues. Critiques have rightfully challenged both claims, stressing how the first may lead to problematic forms of reductionism while the second relies on debatable assumptions about (...)
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  • Responding Ethically to Patient and Public Expectations About Psychiatric DBS.Eric Racine & Emily Bell - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (1):21-29.
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  • Public Discourse on the Biology of Alcohol Addiction: Implications for Stigma, Self-Control, Essentialism, and Coercive Policies in Pregnancy.Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Natalie Zizzo & Courtney Green - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (2):177-186.
    International media have reported cases of pregnant women who have had their children apprehended by social services, or who were incarcerated or forced into treatment programs based on a history of substance use or lack of adherence to addiction treatment programs. Public discourse on the biology of addiction has been criticized for generating stigma and a diminished perception of self-control in individuals with an addiction, potentially contributing to coercive approaches and criminalization of women who misuse substances during pregnancy. We explored (...)
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  • Free Will and the Brain Disease Model of Addiction: The Not So Seductive Allure of Neuroscience and Its Modest Impact on the Attribution of Free Will to People with an Addiction.Racine Eric, Sattler Sebastian & Escande Alice - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  • Neuroscience and the soul: Competing explanations for the human experience.Jesse Lee Preston, Ryan S. Ritter & Justin Hepler - 2013 - Cognition 127 (1):31-37.
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  • Deterministic Attributions of Behavior: Brain versus Genes.Kevin R. Peters, Alena Kalinina, Nastassja M. Downer & Amy Van Elswyk - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (3):507-528.
    This research examined the influence of social-, genetic-, and brain-based explanations on attributions of others’ behaviors. Participants were university students in Studies 1, 2, and 3. Participants read a vignette about an individual who possessed several undesirable behaviors and answered related questions. The first two studies had within-subjects designs. Participants in Study 1 were provided with social-, genetic-, and brain-based explanations for the individual’s behavior. The order of the genetic- and brain-based explanations was reversed in Study 2. Study 3 used (...)
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  • Psychoneural reduction: a perspective from neural circuits.David Parker - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (4):44.
    Psychoneural reduction has been debated extensively in the philosophy of neuroscience. In this article I will evaluate metascientific approaches that claim direct molecular and cellular explanations of cognitive functions. I will initially consider the issues involved in linking cellular properties to behaviour from the general perspective of neural circuits. These circuits that integrate the molecular and cellular components underlying cognition and behaviour, making consideration of circuit properties relevant to reductionist debates. I will then apply this general perspective to specific systems (...)
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  • Kuhnian revolutions in neuroscience: the role of tool development.David Parker - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):17.
    The terms “paradigm” and “paradigm shift” originated in “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” by Thomas Kuhn. A paradigm can be defined as the generally accepted concepts and practices of a field, and a paradigm shift its replacement in a scientific revolution. A paradigm shift results from a crisis caused by anomalies in a paradigm that reduce its usefulness to a field. Claims of paradigm shifts and revolutions are made frequently in the neurosciences. In this article I will consider neuroscience paradigms, (...)
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  • Brain Knowledge and the Prevalence of Neuromyths among Prospective Teachers in Greece.Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Eleni Haliou & Filippos Vlachos - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • The Ethical Implications of Considering Neurolaw as a New Power.Daniel Pallarés-Dominguez & Elsa González Esteban - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (3):252-266.
    Caution is one of the orienting principles of neuroscience’s advance in different social spheres. This article shows the importance of maintaining caution in the area of neurolaw because of its risk of becoming a new power that is free from ethical discussion. The article’s objective is to note the principal ethical implications and limitations of neurolaw in light of six cases in which neuroscientific evidence was used in distinct ways. This study seeks to examine the precautions that should be taken (...)
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  • Neuroeducación en diálogo: neuromitos en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y en la educación moral.Daniel Pallarés-Domínguez - 2016 - Pensamiento 72 (273):941-958.
    Este trabajo se plantea como una breve revisión crítica sobre algunos de los temas actuales que se están estudiando en la intersección entre neurociencia, educación y ética. El primer objetivo es reflexionar sobre la relación que mantienen supuestos básicos que definen la conceptualización actual de la neuroeducación. Manteniendo un diálogo interdisciplinar, el segundo objetivo será analizar algunos de los neuromitos en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. El tercer objetivo es descubrir ciertos neuromitos en la educación moral, especialmente a partir de lo (...)
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  • Simulated thought insertion: Influencing the sense of agency using deception and magic.Jay A. Olson, Mathieu Landry, Krystèle Appourchaux & Amir Raz - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 43:11-26.
  • Ethical and Legal Considerations of Alternative Neurotherapies.Ashwini Nagappan, Louiza Kalokairinou & Anna Wexler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (4):257-269.
    Neurotherapies for diagnostics and treatment—such as electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback, single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging for neuropsychiatric evaluation, and off-label/experimental uses of brain stimulation—are continuously being offered to the public outside mainstream healthcare settings. Because these neurotherapies share many key features of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques—and meet the definition of CAM as set out in Kaptchuk and Eisenberg—here we refer to them as “alternative neurotherapies.” By explicitly linking these alternative neurotherapy practices under a common conceptual framework, this paper (...)
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  • Neurolaw and Neuroprediction: Potential Promises and Perils.Thomas Nadelhoffer & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):631-642.
    Neuroscience has been proposed for use in the legal system for purposes of mind reading, assessment of responsibility, and prediction of misconduct. Each of these uses has both promises and perils, and each raises issues regarding the admissibility of neuroscientific evidence.
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  • Brain Images as Legal Evidence.Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Adina Roskies, Teneille Brown & Emily Murphy - 2008 - Episteme 5 (3):359-373.
    This paper explores whether brain images may be admitted as evidence in criminal trials under Federal Rule of Evidence 403, which weighs probative value against the danger of being prejudicial, confusing, or misleading to fact finders. The paper summarizes and evaluates recent empirical research relevant to these issues. We argue that currently the probative value of neuroimages for criminal responsibility is minimal, and there is some evidence of their potential to be prejudicial or misleading. We also propose experiments that will (...)
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  • Does the Neuroscience Research on Early Stress Justify Responsive Childcare? Examining Interwoven Epistemological and Ethical Challenges.Bruce Maxwell & Eric Racine - 2011 - Neuroethics 5 (2):159-172.
    This paper examines interwoven ethical and epistemological issues raised by attempts to promote responsive childcare practices based on neuroscience evidence on the developmental effects of early stress. The first section presents this “neuroscience argument for responsive early childcare”. The second section introduces some evidential challenges posed by the use of evidence from developmental neuroscience as grounds for parental practice recommendations and then advances a set of observations about the limitations of the evidence typically cited. Section three highlights the ethical implications (...)
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  • Töne sehen? Zur Visualisierung Akustischer Phänomene in der Herzdiagnostik.Michael Martin & Heiner Fangerau - 2011 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 19 (3):299-327.
    During the nineteenth century physiologists and clinicians developed several graphical recording systems for the mechanical registration of heart sounds. However, none of these replaced traditional methods of auscultation. The paper describes criticism of the aural sense as one of the driving forces behind the development of phonocardiography and analyses its variants from a technological and clinical perspective. Against the background of the physiological “method of curves,” the parameters that prevented the implementation of phonocardiography against overwhelming odds are highlighted. Contemporaries denied (...)
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  • A Neuroskeptic's Guide to Neuroethics and National Security.Jonathan H. Marks - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (2):4-12.
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  • In Defense of Reverse Inference.Edouard Machery - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):251-267.
    Reverse inference is the most commonly used inferential strategy for bringing images of brain activation to bear on psychological hypotheses, but its inductive validity has recently been questioned. In this article, I show that, when it is analyzed in likelihoodist terms, reverse inference does not suffer from the problems highlighted in the recent literature, and I defend the appropriateness of treating reverse inference in these terms. 1 Introduction2 Reverse Inference3 Reverse Inference Defended3.1 Typical reverse inferences are fallacious3.2 No quick and (...)
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  • Not so fast. On some bold neuroscientific claims concerning human agency.Andrea Lavazza & Mario De Caro - 2009 - Neuroethics 3 (1):23-41.
    According to a widespread view, a complete explanatory reduction of all aspects of the human mind to the electro-chemical functioning of the brain is at hand and will certainly produce vast and positive cultural, political and social consequences. However, notwithstanding the astonishing advances generated by the neurosciences in recent years for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the brain, the application of these findings to the specific but crucial issue of human agency can be considered a “pre-paradigmatic science” (...)
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  • Explanatory relevance across disciplinary boundaries: the case of neuroeconomics.Jaakko Kuorikoski & Petri Ylikoski - 2010 - Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (2):219–228.
    Many of the arguments for neuroeconomics rely on mistaken assumptions about criteria of explanatory relevance across disciplinary boundaries and fail to distinguish between evidential and explanatory relevance. Building on recent philosophical work on mechanistic research programmes and the contrastive counterfactual theory of explanation, we argue that explaining an explanatory presupposition or providing a lower-level explanation does not necessarily constitute explanatory improvement. Neuroscientific findings have explanatory relevance only when they inform a causal and explanatory account of the psychology of human decision-making.
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  • Philosophical issues in neuroimaging.Colin Klein - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (2):186-198.
    Functional neuroimaging (NI) technologies like Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have revolutionized neuroscience, and provide crucial tools to link cognitive psychology and traditional neuroscientific models. A growing discipline of 'neurophilosophy' brings fMRI evidence to bear on traditional philosophical issues such as weakness of will, moral psychology, rational choice, social interaction, free will, and consciousness. NI has also attracted critical attention from psychologists and from philosophers of science. I review debates over the evidential status of fMRI, including (...)
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  • Images are not the evidence in neuroimaging.Colin Klein - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):265-278.
    fMRI promises to uncover the functional structure of the brain. I argue, however, that pictures of ‘brain activity' associated with fMRI experiments are poor evidence for functional claims. These neuroimages present the results of null hypothesis significance tests performed on fMRI data. Significance tests alone cannot provide evidence about the functional structure of causally dense systems, including the brain. Instead, neuroimages should be seen as indicating regions where further data analysis is warranted. This additional analysis rarely involves simple significance testing, (...)
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  • Ethical and Legal Implications of the Methodological Crisis in Neuroimaging.Philipp Kellmeyer - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (4):530-554.
    Currently, many scientific fields such as psychology or biomedicine face a methodological crisis concerning the reproducibility, replicability, and validity of their research. In neuroimaging, similar methodological concerns have taken hold of the field, and researchers are working frantically toward finding solutions for the methodological problems specific to neuroimaging. This article examines some ethical and legal implications of this methodological crisis in neuroimaging. With respect to ethical challenges, the article discusses the impact of flawed methods in neuroimaging research in cognitive and (...)
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  • From Disabled Students to Disabled Brains: The Medicalizing Power of Rhetorical Images in the Israeli Learning Disabilities Field.Ofer Katchergin - 2017 - Journal of Medical Humanities 38 (3):267-285.
    The neurocentric worldview that identifies the essence of the human being with the material brain has become a central paradigm in current academic discourse. Israeli researchers also seek to understand educational principles and processes via neuroscientific models. On this background, the article uncovers the central role that visual brain images play in the learning-disabilities field in Israel. It examines the place brain images have in the professional imagination of didactic-diagnosticians as well as their influence on the diagnosticians' clinical attitudes. It (...)
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  • On Neuroeducation: Why and How to Improve Neuroscientific Literacy in Educational Professionals.Jelle Jolles & Dietsje D. Jolles - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    New findings from the neurosciences receive much interest for use in the applied field of education. For the past 15 years, neuroeducation and the application of neuroscience knowledge were seen to have promise, but there is presently some lack of progress. The present paper states that this is due to several factors. Neuromyths are still prevalent, and there is a confusion of tongues between the many neurodisciplines and the domains of behavioral and educational sciences. Second, a focus upon cognitive neuroimaging (...)
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  • The seductive allure is a reductive allure: People prefer scientific explanations that contain logically irrelevant reductive information.Emily J. Hopkins, Deena Skolnick Weisberg & Jordan C. V. Taylor - 2016 - Cognition 155 (C):67-76.
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  • Neurosexism and Neurofeminism.Ginger A. Hoffman & Robyn Bluhm - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (11):716-729.
    As neuroscience has gained an increased ability to enchant the general public, it has become more and more common to appeal to it as an authority on a wide variety of questions about how humans do and should act. This is especially apparent with the question of gender roles. The term ‘neurosexism’ has been coined to describe the phenomenon of using neuroscientific practices and results to promote sexist conclusions; its feminist response is called ‘neurofeminism’. Here, our aim is to survey (...)
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  • Neuroscience, Neuropolitics and Neuroethics: The Complex Case of Crime, Deception and fMRI.Stuart Henry & Dena Plemmons - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):573-591.
    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the (...)
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  • Neuroethics, neuroeducation, and classroom teaching: Where the brain sciences meet pedagogy. [REVIEW]Mariale Hardiman, Luke Rinne, Emma Gregory & Julia Yarmolinskaya - 2011 - Neuroethics 5 (2):135-143.
    The popularization of neuroscientific ideas about learning—sometimes legitimate, sometimes merely commercial—poses a real challenge for classroom teachers who want to understand how children learn. Until teacher preparation programs are reconceived to incorporate relevant research from the neuro- and cognitive sciences, teachers need translation and guidance to effectively use information about the brain and cognition. Absent such guidance, teachers, schools, and school districts may waste time and money pursuing so called brain-based interventions that lack a firm basis in research. Meanwhile, the (...)
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