Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. The Principle of the Primacy of the Human Subject and Minimal Risk in Non-Beneficial Paediatric Research.Joanna Różyńska - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (2):273-286.
    Non-beneficial paediatric research is vital to improving paediatric healthcare. Nevertheless, it is also ethically controversial. By definition, subjects of such studies are unable to give consent and they are exposed to risks only for the benefit of others, without obtaining any clinical benefits which could compensate those risks. This raises ethical concern that children participating in non-beneficial research are treated instrumentally; that they are reduced to mere instruments for the benefit of science and society. But this would make the research (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • The ethical anatomy of payment for research participants.Joanna Różyńska - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (3):449-464.
    In contrast to most publications on the ethics of paying research subjects, which start by identifying and analyzing major ethical concerns raised by the practice (in particular, risks of undue inducement and exploitation) and end with a set of—more or less well-justified—ethical recommendations for using payment schemes immune to these problems, this paper offers a systematic, principle-based ethical analysis of the practice. It argues that researchers have a prima facie moral obligation to offer payment to research subjects, which stems from (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Reconceptualising risk–benefit analyses: the case of HIV cure research.Robert Steel - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (3):212-219.
    Modern antiretroviral therapies are capable of suppressing HIV in the bloodstream to undetectable levels. Nonetheless, people living with HIV must maintain lifelong adherence to ART to avoid the re-emergence of the infection. So despite the existence and efficacy of ART, there is still substantial interest in development of a cure. But HIV cure trials can be risky, their success is as of yet unlikely, and the medical gain of being cured is limited against a baseline of ART access. The medical (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Blinds and Research Risks.Robert Steel & Marion Danis - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):70-71.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Justifying Public Health Surveillance: Basic Interests, Unreasonable Exercise, and Privacy.Alan Rubel - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (1):1-33.
    Surveillance plays a crucial role in public health, and for obvious reasons conflicts with individual privacy. This paper argues that the predominant approach to the conflict is problematic, and then offers an alternative. It outlines a Basic Interests Approach to public health measures, and the Unreasonable Exercise Argument, which sets forth conditions under which individuals may justifiably exercise individual privacy claims that conflict with public health goals. The view articulated is compatible with a broad range conceptions of the value of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Setting risk thresholds in biomedical research: lessons from the debate about minimal risk.Annette Rid - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (1-2):63-85.
    One of the fundamental ethical concerns about biomedical research is that it frequently exposes participants to risks for the benefit of others. To protect participants’ rights and interests in this context, research regulations and guidelines set out a mix of substantive and procedural requirements for research involving humans. Risk thresholds play an important role in formulating both types of requirements. First, risk thresholds serve to set upper risk limits in certain types of research. Second, risk thresholds serve to demarcate risk (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Limits on risks for healthy volunteers in biomedical research.David B. Resnik - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (2):137-149.
    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • The Scientific and Social Implications of Unblinding a Study Subject.Lynne M. Quittell - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):71-73.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Limits to research risks.F. G. Miller & S. Jofe - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (7):445-449.
    Risk–benefit assessment is a routine requirement for research ethics committees that review and oversee biomedical research with human subjects. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how to weigh and balance risks to research participants against the social benefits that flow from generating biomedical knowledge. In this article, we address the question of whether there are any reasonable criteria for defining the limit of permissible risks to individuals who provide informed consent for research participation. We argue against any a priori limit to permissible (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  • The moral foundations of equipoise and its role in international research.Alex John London - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):48 – 51.
  • Self-Defeating Codes of Medical Ethics and How to Fix Them: Failures in COVID-19 Response and Beyond.Alex John London - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):4-13.
    Statements of the core ethical and professional responsibilities of medical professionals are incomplete in ways that threaten fundamental goals of medicine. First, in the absence of explicit guida...
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  • Learning health systems, clinical equipoise and the ethics of response adaptive randomisation.Alex John London - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):409-415.
    To give substance to the rhetoric of ‘learning health systems’, a variety of novel trial designs are being explored to more seamlessly integrate research with medical practice, reduce study duration and reduce the number of participants allocated to ineffective interventions. Many of these designs rely on response adaptive randomisation. However, critics charge that RAR is unethical on the grounds that it violates the principle of equipoise. In this paper, I reconstruct critiques of RAR as holding that it is inconsistent with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Equipoise, Research Stalemates, and the Limits of New Data.Alex John London - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (2):10 - 12.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.David L. Evers, Carol B. Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason & Rebecca K. Mimnall - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (4):1049-1064.
    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Clinical Equipoise and Moral Leeway: An Epistemological Stance.Daniele Chiffi & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):447-456.
    Clinical equipoise has been proposed as an ethical principle relating uncertainty and moral leeway in clinical research. Although CE has traditionally been indicated as a necessary condition for a morally justified introduction of a new RCT, questions related to the interpretation of this principle remain woefully open. Recent proposals to rehabilitate CE have divided the bioethical community on its ethical merits. This paper presents a new argument that brings out the epistemological difficulties we encounter in justifying CE as a principle (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Pandemic ethics: the case for risky research.Richard Yetter Chappell & Peter Singer - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-8.
    There is too much that we do not know about COVID-19. The longer we take to find it out, the more lives will be lost. In this paper, we will defend a principle of risk parity: if it is permissible to expose some members of society (e.g. health workers or the economically vulnerable) to a certain level of ex ante risk in order to minimize overall harm from the virus, then it is permissible to expose fully informed volunteers to a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  • Are there three or four distinct types of medical practice?Howard Brody - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):51 – 53.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations