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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

University of Chicago Press (1962)

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  1. Ritual, Imitation and Education in R. S. Peters.Bryan R. Warnick - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (Supplement s1):57-74.
    This article reconstructs R. S. Peters' underlying theory of ritual in education, highlighting his proposed link between ritual and the imitation of teachers. Rituals set the stage for the imitation of teachers and they invite students to experience practices whose value is not easily discernable from the outside. For Peters, rituals facilitate the transmission of values across time, create unity in schools, and affirm authority relations. There is a tension, however, between this view of ritual and imitation, on the one (...)
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  • Arguing From the Evidence: The Correct Approach to Intelligent Design’s Challenge in the U.S. Courts.Brian A. Thomasson - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (4):495-534.
    In Kitzmiller v. Dover, the only U.S. federal case on teaching Intelligent Design in public schools, the plaintiffs used the same argument as in the creation-science trials of the 1980s: Intelligent Design is religion, not science, because it invokes the supernatural; thus teaching it violates the Constitution. Although the plaintiffs won, this strategy is unwise because it is based on problematic definitions of religion and science, leads to multiple truths in society, and is unlikely to succeed before the present right-leaning (...)
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  • Foundational Paradigms of Social Sciences.Shiping Tang - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):211-249.
    When stripped to the bare bone, there are only 11 foundational paradigms in social sciences. These foundational paradigms are like flashlights that can be utilized to shed light on different aspects of human society, but each of them can only shed light on a limited area of human society. Different schools in social science result from different but often incomplete combinations of these foundational paradigms. To adequately understand human society and its history, we need to deploy all 11 foundational paradigms, (...)
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  • Radykalny konwencjonalizm współcześnie.Trela Renata - 2014 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 4 (2):325-340.
    Inthisarticle,IreconstructKazimierzAjdukiewicz’sviewthathecalledradical conventiona‐ l i s m (as opposed to moderate conventionalism developed by Henri Poincaré and Pierre Duhem). then, I recall little‐known criticism of this approach developed by Stefan Amsterdamski. Finally, I demonstrate, contrary to the conception of the originator’s declarations, that a radical conventio‐ nalism is not a ‘paper ction’. On the other hand, the standpoint of radical conventionalism is useful due to the precision of expressions provided to it by Ajdukiewicz; it shows the di culties that have to (...)
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  • Epistemology Contextualized: Social-Scientific Knowledge in a Postpositivist Era.Isaac Ariail Reed - 2010 - Sociological Theory 28 (1):20-39.
    In the production of knowledge about social life, two social contexts come together: the context of investigation, consisting of the social world of the investigator, and the context of explanation, consisting of the social world of the actors who are the subject of study. The nature of, and relationship between, these contexts is imagined in philosophy; managed, rewarded, and sanctioned in graduate seminars, journal reviews, and tenure cases; and practiced in research. Positivism proposed to produce objective knowledge by suppressing the (...)
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  • Grupy religijne jako kolektywy myślowe. Próba zastosowania teorii Ludwika Flecka w socjologii religii.Magda RADWAŃSKA - 2016 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 6 (1):209-222.
    In his theory of thought style and thought collective, Ludwik Fleck states that every act of cognition is associated with the past of a given eld of science and de‐ eply rooted in the cultural context. He also points out that the way of thinking of all exploring individuals is determined by their past and the past of the eld of knowledge, which is the object of cognition. The individuals are not autonomous; they constitute a part of a certain thought (...)
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  • Radical Constructivism and its Failings: Anti‐Realism and Individualism.Mark Olssen - 1996 - British Journal of Educational Studies 44 (3):275-295.
    Radical constructivism has had a major influence on present-day education, especially in the teaching of science and mathematics. The article provides an epistemological profile of constructivism and considers its strengths and weaknesses from the standpoint of its educational implications. It is argued that there are two central problems with constructivism: anti- realism and individualism which, in turn, lead to difficulties associated with idealism and relativism which, together, prove fatal for the theory.
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  • “Integration” and Social Science.P. W. Musgrave - 1975 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 7 (1):27-40.
  • Managing Ethics in Higher Education: Implementing a Code or Embedding Virtue?Geoff Moore - 2006 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 15 (4):407-418.
    This paper reviews a publication entitled ‘Ethics Matters. Managing Ethical Issues in Higher Education’, which was distributed to all UK universities and equivalent in October 2005. The publication proposed that HEIs should put in place an institution‐wide ethical policy framework, well beyond the customary focus on research ethics, together with the mechanisms necessary to ensure its implementation. Having summarised the processes that led to the publication and the publication itself, the paper then considers whether following the now commonplace corporate practice (...)
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  • The Many Encounters of Thomas Kuhn and French Epistemology.Simons Massimiliano - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 61:41-50.
    The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or ‘French epistemology’. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors (...)
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  • Examining Biological Explanations in Chinese Preschool Children: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.C. H. Legare, H. M. Wellman & L. Zhu - 2013 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 13 (1-2):67-93.
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  • Interdisciplinary Confusion and Resolution in the Context of Moral Machines.Jakob Stenseke - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (3):1-17.
    Recent advancements in artificial intelligence have fueled widespread academic discourse on the ethics of AI within and across a diverse set of disciplines. One notable subfield of AI ethics is machine ethics, which seeks to implement ethical considerations into AI systems. However, since different research efforts within machine ethics have discipline-specific concepts, practices, and goals, the resulting body of work is pestered with conflict and confusion as opposed to fruitful synergies. The aim of this paper is to explore ways to (...)
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  • Listening to the Birds: A Pragmatic Proposal for Forestry.Nicole Klenk - 2008 - Environmental Values 17 (3):331-351.
    Recently, natural scientists have begun to support an interpretive turn in ecology. Yet the ethical implications of interpreting nature have not been sufficiently addressed. In this essay, I use different interpretations of nature to make three distinct but related points relevant to forestry : ecological narratives should be evaluated on the basis of ethical norms, the choice of which interpretations of nature and ethical norms to use in environmental policy should be conducted by a process of public deliberation, and scientific (...)
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  • Errors in Science and Their Treatment in Teaching Science.Nahum Kipnis - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (7-8):655-685.
    This paper analyses the real origin and nature of scientific errors against claims of science critics, by examining a number of examples from the history of electricity and optics. This analysis leads to a conclusion that errors are a natural and unavoidable part of scientific process. If made available to students, through their science teachers, such a knowledge, would give students a deeper insight into the scientific process and remove their fear of making errors in their own laboratory work.
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  • The Nature of Appearance in Kant’s Transcendentalism: A Seman- Tico-Cognitive Analysis.Sergey L. Katrechko - 2018 - Kantian Journal 37 (3):41-55.
  • Revolutions in a Revolution.József Illy - 1981 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 12 (3):175.
  • Meaning-Preserving Translations of Non-classical Logics into Classical Logic: Between Pluralism and Monism.Gerhard Schurz - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (1):27-55.
    In order to prove the validity of logical rules, one has to assume these rules in the metalogic. However, rule-circular ‘justifications’ are demonstrably without epistemic value. Is a non-circular justification of a logical system possible? This question attains particular importance in view of lasting controversies about classical versus non-classical logics. In this paper the question is answered positively, based on meaning-preserving translations between logical systems. It is demonstrated that major systems of non-classical logic, including multi-valued, paraconsistent, intuitionistic and quantum logics, (...)
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  • Commentary and Criticism on Scientific Positivism.Penny J. Gilmer - 1995 - Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (1):71-72.
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  • Dissolution of Hypotheses in Biochemistry: Three Case Studies.Michael Fry - 2016 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (4).
    The history of biochemistry and molecular biology is replete with examples of erroneous theories that persisted for considerable lengths of time before they were rejected. This paper examines patterns of dissolution of three such erroneous hypotheses: The idea that nucleic acids are tetrads of the four nucleobases (‘the tetranucleotide hypothesis’); the notion that proteins are collinear with their encoding genes in all branches of life; and the hypothesis that proteins are synthesized by reverse action of proteolytic enzymes. Analysis of these (...)
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  • Does Meaning Evolove?Mark D. Roberts - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
    A common method of improving how well understood a theory is, is by comparing it to another theory which has been better developed. Radical interpretation is a theory which attempts to explain how communication has meaning. Radical interpretation is treated as another time dependent theory and compared to the time dependent theory of biological evolution. Several similarities and differences are uncovered. Biological evolution can be gradual or punctuated. Whether radical interpretation is gradual or punctuated depends on how the question is (...)
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  • Managing Technology: Some Ethical Preliminaries.Peter W. F. Davies - 1995 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 4 (3):130-130.
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  • Physicians and Obligatory Social Activism.T. Forcht Dagi - 1988 - Journal of Medical Humanities 9 (1):50-59.
    This essay examines the claim that physicians have a special obligation to engage in social and political activism. Four ethical paradigms are considered. Two paradigms, the preventive medicine and the social medicine models, embody a limited professional obligation to advocate the priority of health in society; the justification for a more aggressive stance is limited by the failings of paternalism. The radical model and the heroic model speak to issues of personal virtue rather than professional obligation; they are not strictly (...)
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  • Kraepelin’s psychiatry in the pragmatic age.David Rattray - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (1):1-35.
    The movement of a pendulum is often used as a metaphor to represent the history of twentieth century American psychiatry. On this view, American psychiatry evolved by swinging back and forth between two schools of thought in constant competition: somatic accounts of mental illness and psychodynamic ones. I argue that this narrative partly misrepresents the actual development of American psychiatry. I suggest that there were some important exchanges of ideas and practices in the transition from German biological approaches to American (...)
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  • Risk, Trust and 'The Beyond' of the Environment: A Brief Look at the Recent Case of Mad Cow Disease in the United States.Michael S. Carolan - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (2):233-252.
    The epistemologically distant nature of many of today's environmental risks greatly problematises conventional risk analyses that emphasise objectivity, materiality, factual specificity and certainty. Such analyses fail to problematise issues of ontology and epistemology, assuming a reality that is readily 'readable' and a corresponding knowledge of that reality that is asocial, objective and certain. Under the weight of modern, invisible, manufactured environmental risks, however, these assumptions begin to crack, revealing their tenuous nature. As this paper argues, statements of risk are ultimately (...)
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  • In Truth We Trust: Discourse, Phenomenology, and the Social Relations of Knowledge in an Environmental Dispute.Michael S. Carolan & Michael M. Bell - 2003 - Environmental Values 12 (2):225-245.
    In this age of debate it is not news that what constitutes 'truth' is often at issue in environmental debates. But what is often missed is an insight that the speakers of Middle English understood a millennium ago: that truth comes from trust, which, is the central theoretical position of this paper. Our point is that truth depends essentially on social relations – relations that involve power and knowledge, to be sure, but also identity. Thus, challenges to what constitutes the (...)
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  • The Peikovian Doctrine of the Arbitrary Assertion.Robert L. Campbell - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (1):85-170.
    The doctrine of the arbitrary assertion is a key part of Objectivist epistemology as elaborated by Leonard Peikoff. For Peikoff, assertions unsupported by evidence are neither true nor false; they have no context or place in the hierarchy of conceptual knowledge; they are meaningless and paralyze rational cognition; their production is proof of irrationality. A thorough examination of the doctrine reveals worrisomely unclear standards of evidence and a jumble of contradictory claims about which assertions are arbitrary, when they are arbitrary, (...)
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  • The Meaning of 'Theory'.Gabriel Abend - 2008 - Sociological Theory 26 (2):173-199.
    'Theory' is one of the most important words in the lexicon of contemporary sociology. Yet, their ubiquity notwithstanding, it is quite unclear what sociologists mean by the words 'theory,' 'theoretical,' and 'theorize.' I argue that confusions about the meaning of 'theory' have brought about undesirable consequences, including conceptual muddles and even downright miscommunication. In this paper I tackle two questions: what does 'theory' mean in the sociological language?; and what ought 'theory' to mean in the sociological language? I proceed in (...)
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  • Epistemological and educational issues in teaching practice-oriented scientific research: roles for philosophers of science.Mieke Boon, Mariana Orozco & Kishore Sivakumar - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (1):1-23.
    The complex societal challenges of the twenty-first Century require scientific researchers and academically educated professionals capable of conducting scientific research in complex problem contexts. Our central claim is that educational approaches inspired by a traditional empiricist epistemology insufficiently foster the required deep conceptual understanding and higher-order thinking skills necessary for epistemic tasks in scientific research. Conversely, we argue that constructivist epistemologies provide better guidance to educational approaches to promote research skills. We also argue that teachers adopting a constructivist learning theory (...)
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  • Incommensurability and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: taking Kuhn seriously.Juan Gefaell & Cristian Saborido - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (2):1-25.
    In this paper, we analyze the debate between the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis in light of the concept of incommensurability developed by Thomas Kuhn. In order to do so, first we briefly present both the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Then, we clarify the meaning and interpretations of incommensurability throughout Kuhn’s works, concluding that the version of this concept deployed in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is the best suited to the analysis of scientific disputes. (...)
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  • Familiarity inferences, subjective attitudes and counterstance contingency: towards a pragmatic theory of subjective meaning.Christopher Kennedy & Malte Willer - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-51.
    Subjective predicates have two interpretive and distributional characteristics that have resisted a comprehensive analysis. First, the use of a subjective predicate to describe an object is in general felicitous only when the speaker has a particular kind of familiarity with relevant features of the object; characterizing an object as tasty, for example, implies that the speaker has experience of its taste. Second, subjective predicates differ from objective predicates in their distribution under certain types of propositional attitude verbs. The goal of (...)
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  • Properties, Concepts and Empirical Identity.Nicholas Unwin - 2022 - Acta Analytica 37 (2):159-171.
    Properties and concepts are similar kinds of thing in so far as they are both typically understood to be whatever it is that predicates stand for. However, they are generally supposed to have different identity criteria: for example, heat is the same property as molecular kinetic energy, whereas the concept of heat is different from the concept of molecular kinetic energy. This paper examines whether this discrepancy is really defensible, and concludes that matters are more complex than is generally thought. (...)
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  • Summary Lecture as a Delay Organizer of Cultural Content Knowledge.Igal Galili & Ehud Goren - forthcoming - Science & Education.
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  • Genome Informatics: The Role of DNA in Cellular Computations.James A. Shapiro - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (3):288-301.
    Cells are cognitive entities possessing great computational power. DNA serves as a multivalent information storage medium for these computations at various time scales. Information is stored in sequences, epigenetic modifications, and rapidly changing nucleoprotein complexes. Because DNA must operate through complexes formed with other molecules in the cell, genome functions are inherently interactive and involve two-way communication with various cellular compartments. Both coding sequences and repetitive sequences contribute to the hierarchical systemic organization of the genome. By virtue of nucleoprotein complexes, (...)
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  • From the "Science of Disease" to the "Understanding of Those Who Suffer": The Cultivation of an Interpretive Understanding of "Behaviour Problems" in Children.Christopher Matthew Gilham - 2012 - Journal of Applied Hermeneutics 2012 (1).
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  • Revisiting Generality in Biology: Systems Biology and the Quest for Design Principles.Sara Green - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (5):629-652.
    Due to the variation, contingency and complexity of living systems, biology is often taken to be a science without fundamental theories, laws or general principles. I revisit this question in light of the quest for design principles in systems biology and show that different views can be reconciled if we distinguish between different types of generality. The philosophical literature has primarily focused on generality of specific models or explanations, or on the heuristic role of abstraction. This paper takes a different (...)
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  • Teaching Philosophy of Science to Science Students: An Alternative Approach.Ragnar Fjelland - 2022 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 41 (2):243-258.
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  • Pragmatist Themes in Van Fraassen’s Stances and Hegel’s Forms of Consciousness.Paul Giladi - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (1):95-111.
    The aim of this paper is to establish a substantial positive philosophical connection between Bas van Fraassen and Hegel, by focusing on their respective notions of ‘stance’ and ‘form of consciousness’. In Section I, I run through five ways of understanding van Fraassen’s idea of a stance. I argue that a ‘stance’ is best understood as an intellectual disposition. This, in turn, means that the criteria for assessing a stance are ones which ask whether or not a stance adequately makes (...)
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  • Metaphysics, Deep Pluralism, and Paradoxes of Informal Logic.Jeremy Barris - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 23 (1):59-84.
    The paper argues that metaphysical thought, or thought in whose context our general framework of sense is under scrutiny, involves, legitimates, and requires a variety of informal analogues of the ‘true contradictions’ supported in some paraconsistent formal logics. These are what we can call informal ‘legitimate logical inadequacies’. These paradoxical logical structures also occur in deeply pluralist contexts, where more than one, conflicting general framework for sense is relevant. The paper argues further that these legitimate logical inadequacies are real or (...)
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  • Great Philosophy: Discovery, Invention, and the Uses of Error.Christopher Norris - 2014 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (3):349-379.
    In this essay I consider what is meant by the description ‘great’ philosophy and then offer some broadly applicable criteria by which to assess candidate thinkers or works. On the one hand are philosophers in whose case the epithet, even if contested, is not grossly misconceived or merely the product of doctrinal adherence on the part of those who apply it. On the other are those – however gifted, acute, or technically adroit – to whom its application is inappropriate because (...)
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  • Interpreting Thomas Kuhn as a Response-Dependence Theorist.Nathaniel Goldberg - 2011 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 19 (5):729 - 752.
    Abstract Thomas Kuhn is the most famous historian and philosopher of science of the last century. He is also among the most controversial. Since Kuhn's death, his corpus has been interpreted, systematized, and defended. Here I add to this endeavor in a novel way by arguing that Kuhn can be interpreted as a global response-dependence theorist. He can be understood as connecting all concepts and terms in an a priori manner to responses of suitably situated subjects to objects in the (...)
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  • The Need for “Gentle Medicine” in a Post Covid-19 World. [REVIEW]Gabriel Andrade & Maria Campo Redondo - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):475-486.
    As it has historically been the case with many pandemics, the Covid-19 experience will induce many philosophers to reconsider the value of medical practice. This should be a good opportunity to critically scrutinize the way medical research and medical interventions are carried out. For much of its history, medicine has been very inefficient. But, even in its contemporary forms, a review of common protocols in medical research and medical interventions reveal many shortcomings, especially related to methodological flaws, and more importantly, (...)
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  • Knowledge Repositories. In Digital Knowledge We Trust.Tsjalling Swierstra & Sophia Efstathiou - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):543-547.
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  • From Art to Science: A New Epistemological Status for Medicine? On Expectations Regarding Personalized Medicine.Urban Wiesing - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):457-466.
    Personalized medicine plays an important role in the development of current medicine. Among the numerous statements regarding the future of personalized medicine, some can be found that accord medicine a new scientific status. Medicine will be transformed from an art to a science due to personalized medicine. This prognosis is supported by references to models of historical developments. The article examines what is meant by this prognosis, what consequences it entails, and how feasible it is. It refers to the long (...)
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  • E-Health Beyond Technology: Analyzing the Paradigm Shift That Lies Beneath.Tania Moerenhout, Ignaas Devisch & Gustaaf C. Cornelis - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (1):31-41.
    Information and computer technology has come to play an increasingly important role in medicine, to the extent that e-health has been described as a disruptive innovation or revolution in healthcare. The attention is very much focused on the technology itself, and advances that have been made in genetics and biology. This leads to the question: What is changing in medicine today concerning e-health? To what degree could these changes be characterized as a ‘revolution’? We will apply the work of Thomas (...)
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  • Between Hype and Hope: What is Really at Stake with Personalized Medicine?Camille Abettan - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (3):423-430.
    Over the last decade, personalized medicine has become a buzz word, which covers a broad spectrum of meanings and generates many different opinions. The purpose of this article is to achieve a better understanding of the reasons why personalized medicine gives rise to such conflicting opinions. We show that a major issue of personalized medicine is the gap existing between its claims and its reality. We then present and analyze different possible reasons for this gap. We propose an hypothesis inspired (...)
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  • Against Culturally Sensitive Bioethics.Tomislav Bracanovic - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):647-652.
    This article discusses the view that bioethics should become ‘‘culturally sensitive’’ and give more weight to various cultural traditions and their respective moral beliefs. It is argued that this view is implausible for the following three reasons: it renders the disciplinary boundaries of bioethics too flexible and inconsistent with metaphysical commitments of Western biomedical sciences, it is normatively useless because it approaches cultural phenomena in a predominantly descriptive and selective way, and it tends to justify certain types of discrimination.
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  • The Epigenetic Turn: Some Notes About the Epistemological Change of Perspective in Biosciences.Guido Nicolosi & Guido Ruivenkamp - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):309-319.
    This article compares two different bodies of theories concerning the role of the genome in life processes. The first group of theories can be indicated as referring to the gene-centric paradigm. Dominated by an informational myth and a mechanistic Cartesian body/mind and form/substance dualism, this considers the genome as an ensemble of discrete units of information governing human body and behavior, and remains hegemonic in life sciences and in the public imagination. The second body of theories employs the principle of (...)
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  • Emmanuel Levinas’s Epistemology: From Justification to Justice.Abi Doukhan - 2013 - Philosophy Today 57 (1):28-41.
    This article explores Levinas' critique of Western epistemology as centered on justification (i.e. a strictly rational, argumentative approach), thereby ignoring the permeable, open and inter-subjective element of the quest for knowledge. In a masterful play on words, Levinas proposes rather a shift from justification to justice, from argumentation to permeability to exteriority, and sets this shift at the foundation of any genuine journey to knowledge.
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  • Science, Scholarship, and Intellectual Virtues: A Guide to What Higher Education Should Be Like.Barry Schwartz - 2022 - Journal of Moral Education 51 (1):61-72.
    ABSTRACT Many thinkers are accustomed to separating facts and values—knowledge and morality. They believe that morality enters into the choices scientists and scholars make about what is worth studying, but after that, the cold logic of evidence assessment takes over. This sells science and scholarship short. I will suggest that science and scholarship, done right, are the best exemplars we have of a set of intellectual virtues that are essential if we are to be moral individuals living in a moral (...)
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  • Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education Through Lakatos’s Philosophy of Science.Hyemin Han - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (1):32-53.
    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of science, this article mainly utilizes the perspectives of Lakatos’s research program. In particular, the article considers the relations and interactions between different fields, including moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. Finally, the potential (...)
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