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  1. Thoughts Unlocked by Technology—a Survey in Germany About Brain-Computer Interfaces.J. R. Schmid, O. Friedrich, S. Kessner & R. J. Jox - 2021 - NanoEthics 15 (3):303-313.
    A brain-computer interface is a rapidly evolving neurotechnology connecting the human brain with a computer. In its classic form, brain activity is recorded and used to control external devices like protheses or wheelchairs. Thus, BCI users act with the power of their thoughts. While the initial development has focused on medical uses of BCIs, non-medical applications have recently been gaining more attention, for example in automobiles, airplanes, and the entertainment context. However, the attitudes of the general public towards BCIs have (...)
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  • Brain Computer Interfaces and Communication Disabilities: Ethical, Legal, and Social Aspects of Decoding Speech From the Brain.Jennifer A. Chandler, Kiah I. Van der Loos, Susan Boehnke, Jonas S. Beaudry, Daniel Z. Buchman & Judy Illes - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    A brain-computer interface technology that can decode the neural signals associated with attempted but unarticulated speech could offer a future efficient means of communication for people with severe motor impairments. Recent demonstrations have validated this approach. Here we assume that it will be possible in future to decode imagined speech in people with severe motor impairments, and we consider the characteristics that could maximize the social utility of a BCI for communication. As a social interaction, communication involves the needs and (...)
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  • What It Takes to Be a Pioneer: Ability Expectations From Brain-Computer Interface Users.Johannes Kögel & Gregor Wolbring - 2020 - NanoEthics 14 (3):227-239.
    Brain-computer interfaces are envisioned to enable new abilities of action. This potential can be fruitful in particular when it comes to restoring lost motion or communication abilities or to implementing new possibilities of action. However, BCIs do not come without presuppositions. Applying the concept of ability expectations to BCIs, a wide range of requirements on the side of the users becomes apparent. We examined these ability expectations by taking the example of therapeutic BCI users who got enrolled into BCI research (...)
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  • What is It Like to Use a BCI? – Insights From an Interview Study with Brain-Computer Interface Users.Johannes Kögel, Ralf J. Jox & Orsolya Friedrich - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-14.
    Background The neurotechnology behind brain-computer interfaces raises various ethical questions. The ethical literature has pinpointed several issues concerning safety, autonomy, responsibility and accountability, psychosocial identity, consent, privacy and data security. This study aims to assess BCI users’ experiences, self-observations and attitudes in their own right and looks for social and ethical implications. Methods We conducted nine semi-structured interviews with BCI users, who used the technology for medical reasons. The transcribed interviews were analyzed according to the Grounded Theory coding method. Results (...)
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