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  1. Confucian Virtue Ethics and Ethical Leadership in Modern China.Li Yuan, Robert Chia & Jonathan Gosling - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.
    Research on ethical leadership in organizations has been largely based on Western philosophical traditions and has tended to focus on Western corporate experiences. Insights gained from such studies may however not be universally applicable in other cultural contexts. This paper examines the normative grounds for an alternative Confucian virtue-based ethics of leadership in China. As with Western corporations, organizational practices in China are profoundly shaped by their own cultural history and philosophical outlook. The ethical norms guiding both the practice and (...)
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  • Trouble with Korean Confucianism: Scholar-Official Between Ideal and Reality.Kim Sungmoon - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (1):29-48.
    This essay attempts a philosophical reflection of the Confucian ideal of “scholar-official” in Joseon Korea’s neo-Confucian context. It explores why this noble ideal of a Confucian public being had to suffer many moral-political problems in reality. It argues first that because the institution of Confucian scholar-official was actually a modus-operandi compromise between Confucianism and Legalism, the Confucian scholar-officials were torn between their ethical commitment to Confucianism and their political commitment to the state; and second, that because the Cheng-Zhu neo-Confucianism vigorously (...)
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  • Self-Transformation and Civil Society: Lockean Vs. Confucian.Kim Sungmoon - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (4):383-401.
    Although contemporary Confucianists tend to view Western liberalism as pitting the individual against society, recent liberal scholarship has vigorously claimed that liberal polity is indeed grounded in the self-transformation that produces “liberal virtues.” To meet this challenge, this essay presents a sophisticated Confucian critique of liberalism by arguing that there is an appreciable contrast between liberal and Confucian self-transformation and between liberal and Confucian virtues. By contrasting Locke and Confucius, key representatives of each tradition, this essay shows that both liberalism (...)
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  • From Desire to Civility: Is Xunzi a Hobbesian?Kim Sungmoon - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (3):291-309.
    This article argues that, contrary to conventional wisdom, Xunzi’s and Hobbes’s understandings of human nature are qualitatively different, which is responsible for the difference in their respective normative political theory of a civil polity. This article has two main theses: first, where Hobbes’s deepest concern was with human beings’ unsocial passions, Xunzi was most concerned with human beings’ appetitive desires ( yu 欲), material self-interest, and resulting social strife; second, as a result, where Hobbes strove to transform the pathological (anti-)politics (...)
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  • What's Wrong with Unhelpful Comments? Conversational Helpfulness and Unhelpfulness and Why They Matter.Seth Robertson - 2022 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 8 (3):512-530.
    It is common to criticize certain comments as ‘unhelpful’. This criticism is richer than it might first appear. In this paper, I sketch an account of conversational helpfulness and unhelpfulness, the reasons why they matter, and the utility of calling out comments as helpful or unhelpful. First, some unhelpful comments are or easily could be demoralizing for proponents of projects, and criticizing them as such can diminish, deflect, or defend against that demoralization. Second, some unhelpful comments redirect or derail conversations (...)
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  • Power, Situation, and Character: A Confucian-Inspired Response to Indirect Situationist Critiques.Seth Robertson - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (2):341-358.
    Indirect situationist critiques of virtue ethics grant that virtue exists and is possible to acquire, but contend that given the low probability of success in acquiring it, a person genuinely interested in behaving as morally as possible would do better to rely on situationist strategies - or, in other words, strategies of environmental or ecological engineering or control. In this paper, I develop a partial answer to this critique drawn from work in early Confucian ethics and in contemporary philosophy and (...)
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  • Nunchi, Ritual, and Early Confucian Ethics.Seth Robertson - 2019 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 18 (1):23-40.
    A central challenge for early Confucian ethics, which relies heavily on the moral rules, scripts, and instructions of ritual, is to provide an account of how best to deviate from ritual when unexpected circumstances demand that one must do so. Many commentators have explored ways in which the Confucian tradition can meet this challenge, and one particularly interesting line of response to it focuses on “mind-reading”—the ability to infer others’ mental states from their behavior. In this article, I introduce nunchi (...)
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  • Li (Ritual) in Early Confucianism.Thomas Radice - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (10):e12463.
    Li 禮 (translated variously as “ritual”, “etiquette”, or “propriety”) plays a central role in early Confucianism, but its complexity is not always fully understood. At first glance, it may seem as if li behaviors are merely attempts to promote conservative practices from the idealized Chinese past. However, by examining the nature and function of li, as described the Analects (Lunyu 論語) and the Xunzi 荀子 (two key texts in the early Confucian tradition), it becomes overwhelmingly apparent that li is a (...)
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  • Business Ethics, Confucianism and the Different Faces of Ritual.Chris Provis - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 165 (2):191-204.
    Confucianism has attracted some attention in business ethics, in particular as a form of virtue ethics. This paper develops ideas about Confucianism in business ethics by extending discussion about Confucian ideas of ritual. Ritual has figured in literature about organisational culture, but Confucian accounts can offer additional ideas about developing ethically desirable organisational cultures. Confucian ritual practice has diverged from doctrine and from the classical emphasis on requirements for concern and respect as parts of ritual. Despite some differences of emphasis (...)
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  • Situationism and Confucian Virtue Ethics.Deborah S. Mower - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):113-137.
    Situationist research in social psychology focuses on the situational factors that influence behavior. Doris and Harman argue that this research has powerful implications for ethics, and virtue ethics in particular. First, they claim that situationist research presents an empirical challenge to the moral psychology presumed within virtue ethics. Second, they argue that situationist research supports a theoretical challenge to virtue ethics as a foundation for ethical behavior and moral development. I offer a response from moral psychology using an interpretation of (...)
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  • Ziran and Wuwei in the Daodejing : An Ethical Assessment.Karyn Lai - 2007 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 6 (4):325-337.
    In Daoist philosophy, the self is understood as an individual interdependent with others, and situated within a broader environment. Within this framework, the concept ziran is frequently understood in terms of naturalness or nature while wuwei is explained in terms of non-oppressive government. In many existing accounts, little is done to connect these two key Daoist concepts. Here, I suggest that wuwei and ziran are correlated, ethical, concepts. Together, they provide a unifying ethical framework for understanding the philosophy of the (...)
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  • Knowing to Act in the Moment: Examples From Confucius ’Analects‘.Karyn L. Lai - 2012 - Asian Philosophy 22 (4):347-364.
    Many scholars note that the Analects, and Confucian philosophy more generally, hold a conception of knowing that more closely approximates ‘knowing-how’ than ‘knowing-that’. However, I argue that this description is not sufficiently sensitive to the concerns of the early Confucians and their focus on self-cultivation. I propose that a particular conception of knowing—knowing to act in the moment—is better suited to capturing the Analects’ emphasis on exemplary lives in actual contexts. These investigations might also contribute to discussions on know-how in (...)
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  • Judgment in Confucian Ethics. [REVIEW]Karyn L. Lai - 2009 - Sophia 48 (1):77-84.
  • From Wife to Moral Teacher: Kang Chŏngildang on Neo-Confucian Self-Cultivation.Sungmoon Kim - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (1):28-47.
    This paper aims to investigate the philosophical thought and moral practice of a Korean neo-Confucian female scholar named Kang Chŏngildang 姜靜一堂, who not only believed in moral equality between men and women and the possibility of female sagehood but actually empowered herself to become a moral paragon. Furthermore, Chŏngildang’s strong faith in moral equality between men and women enabled her to engage in social criticism of the existing educational system and social norms which discriminated against women, not by overcoming neo-Confucianism, (...)
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  • Before and After Ritual: Two Accounts of Li as Virtue in Early Confucianism. [REVIEW]Sungmoon Kim - 2012 - Sophia 51 (2):195-210.
    In this article, I probe the nature of Confucian virtue with special focus on ritual propriety (li). I examine two classic, mutually competing accounts of li—as moral virtue and as civic virtue—in early Confucianism by investigating the thoughts of Mencius and Xunzi. My primary aim in this article is to demonstrate how their different accounts of human nature and equally different understandings of the natural state (that is, the pre-li state) led them to the development of two distinctive political theories (...)
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  • The Taciturn Exemplar.Nai-Yi Hsu - 2022 - Journal of Religious Ethics 50 (1):60-83.
    Journal of Religious Ethics, Volume 50, Issue 1, Page 60-83, March 2022.
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  • Practising to Know: Practicalism and Confucian Philosophy.Stephen Hetherington & Karyn Lai - 2012 - Philosophy 87 (3):375-393.
    For a while now, there has been much conceptual discussion about the respective natures of knowledge-that and knowledge-how, along with the intellectualist idea that knowledge-how is really a kind of knowledge-that. Gilbert Ryle put in place most of the terms that have so far been distinctive of that debate, when he argued for knowledge-how's conceptual distinctness from knowledge-that. But maybe those terms should be supplemented, expanding the debate. In that spirit, the conceptual option of practicalism has recently entered the fray. (...)
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  • The Propriety of Confucius: A Sense-of-Ritual.Kurtis Hagen - 2010 - Asian Philosophy 20 (1):1 – 25.
    In the philosophy of Confucius, the concept _li_ is both central and elusive. While it is often translated 'ritual' or 'the rites,' I argue that there are numerous significant ways in which _li_ is as much an internal property of individuals as it is an external set of rules or norms. I discuss _li_ as deference, as developed dispositions, as embodied intelligence, and as personalized exemplary conduct. Finally, reflecting on the work of Fingarette, and Hall and Ames, as well as (...)
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  • The Comic Character of Confucius.Katrin Froese - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (4):295-312.
    This article examines the comic portrayal of Confucius in the Analects and the Zhuangzi, maintaining that there is a humorous aspect to the character of Confucius that is often overlooked. Conventional interpretations of the Analects downplay the pranks and mocking comments that are sprinkled throughout them. Many of the humorous words Confucius utters are directed at ritualistic behaviour which has become mechanistic, suggesting that in order to take ritual seriously, we must also be prepared to take it in jest. Furthermore, (...)
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  • Care Ethics and Confucianism: Caring Through Li.Kelly M. Epley - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (4):881-896.
    The role of li, or ritual, in Confucianism is a perceived impediment to interpreting Confucianism to share a similar ethical framework with care ethics because care ethics is a form of moral particularism. I argue that this perception is false. The form of moral particularism promoted by care ethicists does not entail the abandonment of social conventions such as li. On the contrary, providing good care often requires employing systems of readily recognizable norms in order to ensure that care is (...)
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  • Confucianism and Daoism: On the Relationship Between the Analects, Laozi, and Zhuangzi, Part II.Paul J. D'Ambrosio - 2020 - Philosophy Compass 15 (9):1-11.
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  • Confucianism and Daoism: On the Relationship Between the Analects, Laozi, and Zhuangzi, Part I.Paul J. D'Ambrosio - 2020 - Philosophy Compass 15 (9):1-11.
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  • Handbook of Philosophy of Management.Cristina Neesham & Steven Segal (eds.) - 2019
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  • Daoism and Confucianism.Karyn L. Lai - 2014 - In Xiaogan Liu (ed.), Dao Companion to Daoist Philosophy. Springer. pp. 489-511.
  • Ritual and Rightness in the Analects.Hagop Sarkissian - 2013 - In Amy Olberding (ed.), Dao Companion to the Analects. pp. 95-116.
    Li (禮) and yi (義) are two central moral concepts in the Analects. Li has a broad semantic range, referring to formal ceremonial rituals on the one hand, and basic rules of personal decorum on the other. What is similar across the range of referents is that the li comprise strictures of correct behavior. The li are a distinguishing characteristic of Confucian approaches to ethics and socio-political thought, a set of rules and protocols that were thought to constitute the wise (...)
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  • Li and Filipino Behavioural Propriety.Ranie Villaver - 2020 - International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies 16 (2):85-115.
    This paper takes behavioural propriety as the source of ritual or the ritualistic in indigenous philosophy in the Philippines. Filipino understanding of behavioural propriety is seen in what have been identified as elements or features of indigenous philosophy in the country. These features are stored in pre-hispanic era (pre-16th century CE) maxims or proverbs and myths. In this paper, I engage conception of behavioural propriety in Filipino philosophy with that in Confucian philosophy. In Confucian philosophy, it is “li” 禮 which (...)
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