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  1. Indirect Illusory Inferences From Disjunction: A New Bridge Between Deductive Inference and Representativeness.Mathias Sablé-Meyer & Salvador Mascarenhas - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (3):567-592.
    We provide a new link between deductive and probabilistic reasoning fallacies. Illusory inferences from disjunction are a broad class of deductive fallacies traditionally explained by recourse to a matching procedure that looks for content overlap between premises. In two behavioral experiments, we show that this phenomenon is instead sensitive to real-world causal dependencies and not to exact content overlap. A group of participants rated the strength of the causal dependence between pairs of sentences. This measure is a near perfect predictor (...)
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  • Fictionalism of Anticipation.Raimundas Vidunas - forthcoming - Biosemiotics:1-17.
    A promising recent approach for understanding complex phenomena is recognition of anticipatory behavior of living organisms and social organizations. The anticipatory, predictive action permits learning, novelty seeking, rich experiential existence. I argue that the established frameworks of anticipation, adaptation or learning imply overly passive roles of anticipatory agents, and that a fictionalist standpoint reflects the core of anticipatory behavior better than representational or future references. Cognizing beings enact not just their models of the world, but own make-believe existential agendas as (...)
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  • Optimism Where There is None: Asymmetric Belief Updating Observed with Valence-Neutral Life Events.Jason W. Burton, Adam J. L. Harris, Punit Shah & Ulrike Hahn - 2022 - Cognition 218 (C):104939.
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  • Human and Nonhuman Systems Are Adaptive in a Different Sense.Tamás Zétényi - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):507-508.
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  • Clarifying the Relationship Between Coherence and Accuracy in Probability Judgments.Jian-Qiao Zhu, Philip W. S. Newall, Joakim Sundh, Nick Chater & Adam N. Sanborn - 2022 - Cognition 223 (C):105022.
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  • Unphilosophical Probability.Sandy L. Zabell - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):358-359.
  • Does Financial Literacy Affect Household Financial Behavior? The Role of Limited Attention.Shulin Xu, Zhen Yang, Syed Tauseef Ali, Yunfeng Li & Jingwen Cui - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Financial literacy is essential for every individual concerned with public welfare and household portfolio choices. In this study, we investigate the impact of household financial literacy on individuals’ financial behavior using the China Household Financial Survey Data of 2015 and 2017. The results show that financial knowledge has significant current, long-term, and dynamic effects on financial behavior. This finding suggests that financial literacy is an important factor in shaping and improving financial behavior. Second, financial literacy can improve residents’ limited attention, (...)
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  • Base Rates Do Not Constrain Nonprobability Judgments.Paul D. Windschitl & Gary L. Wells - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):40-41.
  • The Shadows and Shallows of Explanation.Robert A. Wilson & Frank Keil - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (1):137-159.
    We introduce two notions–the shadows and the shallows of explanation–in opening up explanation to broader, interdisciplinary investigation. The shadows of explanation refer to past philosophical efforts to provide either a conceptual analysis of explanation or in some other way to pinpoint the essence of explanation. The shallows of explanation refer to the phenomenon of having surprisingly limited everyday, individual cognitive abilities when it comes to explanation. Explanations are ubiquitous, but they typically are not accompanied by the depth that we might, (...)
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  • Reasoning, Robots, and Navigation: Dual Roles for Deductive and Abductive Reasoning.Janet Wiles - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):92-92.
    Mercier & Sperber (M&S) argue for their argumentative theory in terms of communicative abilities. Insights can be gained by extending the discussion beyond human reasoning to rodent and robot navigation. The selection of arguments and conclusions that are mutually reinforcing can be cast as a form of abductive reasoning that I argue underlies the construction of cognitive maps in navigation tasks.
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  • Combining Argumentation and Bayesian Nets for Breast Cancer Prognosis.Matt Williams & Jon Williamson - 2006 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (1-2):155-178.
    We present a new framework for combining logic with probability, and demonstrate the application of this framework to breast cancer prognosis. Background knowledge concerning breast cancer prognosis is represented using logical arguments. This background knowledge and a database are used to build a Bayesian net that captures the probabilistic relationships amongst the variables. Causal hypotheses gleaned from the Bayesian net in turn generate new arguments. The Bayesian net can be queried to help decide when one argument attacks another. The Bayesian (...)
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  • Cohen on Contraposition.N. E. Wetherick - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):358-358.
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  • No Surprises.Ian Wells - 2021 - Erkenntnis 86 (2):389-406.
    The surprise exam paradox is an apparently sound argument to the apparently absurd conclusion that a surprise exam cannot be given within a finite exam period. A closer look at the logic of the paradox shows the argument breaking down immediately. So why do the beginning stages of the argument appear sound in the first place? This paper presents an account of the paradox on which its allure is rooted in a common probabilistic mistake: the base rate fallacy. The account (...)
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  • The Credibility of Miracles.Ruth Weintraub - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 82 (3):359 - 375.
    Hume’s famous argument against the credibility of testimony about miracles invokes two premises: 1) The reliability of the witness (the extent to which he is informed and truthful) must be compared with the intrinsic probability of the miracle. 2) The initial probability of a miracle is always small enough to outweigh the improbability that the testimony is false (even when the witness is assumed to be reliable). I defend the first premise of the argument, showing that Hume’s argument can be (...)
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  • Competence, Performance, and Ignorance.Robert W. Weisberg - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):356-358.
  • The Importance of Cognitive Illusions.Peter Wason - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):356-356.
  • Gigerenzer's Normative Critique of Kahneman and Tversky.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2000 - Cognition 76 (3):179-193.
  • The Rare Preference Effect: Statistical Information Influences Social Affiliation Judgments.Natalia Vélez, Sophie Bridgers & Hyowon Gweon - 2019 - Cognition 192 (C):103994.
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  • Independent Forebrain and Brainstem Controls for Arousal and Sleep.Jaime R. Villablanca - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):494-496.
  • The Perils of Reconstructive Remembering and the Value of Representative Design.Kim J. Vicente - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):40-40.
  • Naturalism, Tractability and the Adaptive Toolbox.Iris van Rooij, Todd Wareham, Marieke Sweers, Maria Otworowska, Ronald de Haan, Mark Blokpoel & Patricia Rich - 2019 - Synthese 198 (6):5749-5784.
    Many compelling examples have recently been provided in which people can achieve impressive epistemic success, e.g. draw highly accurate inferences, by using simple heuristics and very little information. This is possible by taking advantage of the features of the environment. The examples suggest an easy and appealing naturalization of rationality: on the one hand, people clearly can apply simple heuristics, and on the other hand, they intuitively ought do so when this brings them high accuracy at little cost.. The ‘ought-can’ (...)
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  • It Depends: Partisan Evaluation of Conditional Probability Importance.Leaf Van Boven, Jairo Ramos, Ronit Montal-Rosenberg, Tehila Kogut, David K. Sherman & Paul Slovic - 2019 - Cognition 188 (C):51-63.
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  • Bridging Psychology and Game Theory Yields Interdependence Theory.Paul A. M. Van Lange & Marcello Gallucci - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):177-178.
    This commentary focuses on the parts of psychological game theory dealing with preference, as illustrated by team reasoning, and supports the conclusion that these theoretical notions do not contribute above and beyond existing theory in understanding social interaction. In particular, psychology and games are already bridged by a comprehensive, formal, and inherently psychological theory, interdependence theory (Kelley & Thibaut 1978; Kelley et al. 2003), which has been demonstrated to account for a wide variety of social interaction phenomena.
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  • Is Economic Rationality in the Head?Kevin Vallier - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (4):339-360.
    Many economic theorists hold that social institutions can lead otherwise irrational agents to approximate the predictions of traditional rational choice theory. But there is little consensus on how institutions do so. I defend an economic internalist account of the institution-actor relationship by explaining economic rationality as a feature of individuals whose decision-making is aided by institutional structures. This approach, known as the subjective transaction costs theory, represents apparently irrational behavior as a rational response to high subjective transaction costs of thinking (...)
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  • Psychology and the Foundations of Rational Belief.Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):262-263.
  • Narratives of Space, Time, and Life.Barbara Tversky - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (4):380–392.
    The mind constructs narratives from what would otherwise be chaos. Narratives viewed minimally—at least two temporally ordered events—are revealed in the way people talk about space and time. Narratives replete with a voice, causality, and emotion are reflected in the stories people tell about their own lives, stories that, as acknowledged by their tellers, distort the details around 60% of the time, but, according to their tellers, distort the 'truth' far less often.
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  • L. J. Cohen, Again: On the Evaluation of Inductive Intuitions.Amos Tversky - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):354-356.
  • Emotion-Based Learning: Insights From the Iowa Gambling Task.Oliver H. Turnbull, Caroline H. Bowman, Shanti Shanker & Julie L. Davies - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Computational Resources Do Constrain Behavior.John K. Tsotsos - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):506-507.
  • Robustness and Integrative Survival in Significance Testing: The World's Contribution to Rationality.J. D. Trout - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1):1-15.
    Significance testing is the primary method for establishing causal relationships in psychology. Meehl [1978, 1990a, 1990b] and Faust [1984] argue that significance tests and their interpretation are subject to actuarial and psychological biases, making continued adherence to these practices irrational, and even partially responsible for the slow progress of the ‘soft’ areas of psychology. I contend that familiar standards of testing and literature review, along with recently developed meta-analytic techniques, are able to correct the proposed actuarial and psychological biases. In (...)
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  • Précis of Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we (...)
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  • The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency as Metacognitive Cues for Initiating Analytic Thinking.Valerie A. Thompson, Jamie A. Prowse Turner, Gordon Pennycook, Linden J. Ball, Hannah Brack, Yael Ophir & Rakefet Ackerman - 2013 - Cognition 128 (2):237-251.
    Although widely studied in other domains, relatively little is known about the metacognitive processes that monitor and control behaviour during reasoning and decision-making. In this paper, we examined the conditions under which two fluency cues are used to monitor initial reasoning: answer fluency, or the speed with which the initial, intuitive answer is produced, and perceptual fluency, or the ease with which problems can be read. The first two experiments demonstrated that answer fluency reliably predicted Feeling of Rightness judgments to (...)
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  • Throwing Out the Baby with the Bathwater? Let's Not Overstate the Overselling of the Base Rate Fallacy.Cynthia J. Thomsen & Eugene Borgida - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):39-40.
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  • Normativism Versus Mechanism.Valerie A. Thompson - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):272-273.
    Using normative correctness as a diagnostic tool reduces the outcome of complex cognitive functions to a binary classification (normative or non-normative). It also focuses attention on outcomes, rather than processes, impeding the development of good cognitive theories. Given that both normative and non-normative responses may be produced by the same process, normativity is a poor indicator of underlying processes.
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  • Rationality and Charity.Paul Thagard & Richard E. Nisbett - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (2):250-267.
    Quine and others have recommended principles of charity which discourage judgments of irrationality. Such principles have been proposed to govern translation, psychology, and economics. After comparing principles of charity of different degrees of severity, we argue that the stronger principles are likely to block understanding of human behavior and impede progress toward improving it. We support a moderate principle of charity which leaves room for empirically justified judgments of irrationality.
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  • Waiting for the Bus: When Base-Rates Refuse to Be Neglected.Karl Halvor Teigen & Gideon Keren - 2007 - Cognition 103 (3):337-357.
  • An Explanatory Heuristic Gives Rise to the Belief That Words Are Well Suited for Their Referents.Shelbie L. Sutherland & Andrei Cimpian - 2015 - Cognition 143 (C):228-240.
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  • The Chronometrics of Confirmation Bias: Evidence for the Inhibition of Intuitive Judgements.Edward Jn Stupple & Linden J. Ball - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):89-90.
    Mercier & Sperber (M&S) claim that the phenomenon of belief bias provides fundamental support for their argumentative theory and its basis in intuitive judgement. We propose that chronometric evidence necessitates a more nuanced account of belief bias that is not readily captured by argumentative theory.
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  • The Collapsing Choice Theory: Dissociating Choice and Judgment in Decision Making. [REVIEW]Jeffrey M. Stibel, Itiel E. Dror & Talia Ben-Zeev - 2009 - Theory and Decision 66 (2):149-179.
    Decision making theory in general, and mental models in particular, associate judgment and choice. Decision choice follows probability estimates and errors in choice derive mainly from errors in judgment. In the studies reported here we use the Monty Hall dilemma to illustrate that judgment and choice do not always go together, and that such a dissociation can lead to better decision-making. Specifically, we demonstrate that in certain decision problems, exceeding working memory limitations can actually improve decision choice. We show across (...)
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  • Inferential Competence: Right You Are, If You Think You Are.Stephen P. Stich - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):353-354.
  • Some Questions Regarding the Rationality of a Demonstration of Human Rationality.Robert J. Sternberg - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):352-353.
  • On the Generality and Cognitive Basis of Base-Rate Neglect.Elina Stengård, Peter Juslin, Ulrike Hahn & Ronald van den Berg - 2022 - Cognition 226 (C):105160.
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  • Where Do You Stand on the Base Rate Issue?Douglas Stalker - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):38-39.
  • Decentered Thought and Consequentialist Decision Making.Keith E. Stanovich - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):323-324.
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  • Kyburg on Ignoring Base Rates.Stephen Spielman - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):261-262.
  • Why Do Humans Reason? Arguments for an Argumentative Theory.Dan Sperber - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):57.
    Short abstract (98 words). Reasoning is generally seen as a means to improve knowledge and make better decisions. However, much evidence shows that reasoning often leads to epistemic distortions and poor decisions. This suggests that the function of reasoning should be rethought. Our hypothesis is that the function of reasoning is argumentative. It is to devise and evaluate arguments intended to persuade. Reasoning so conceived is adaptive given humans’ exceptional dependence on communication and vulnerability to misinformation. A wide range of (...)
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  • The Implicit Use of Base Rates in Experiential and Ecologically Valid Tasks.Barbara A. Spellman - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):38-38.
  • Rationality and Irrationality: Still Fighting Words.Paul Snow - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):505-506.
  • A Bayesian Theory of Thought.Howard Smokler - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):505-505.
  • The Case for Rules in Reasoning.Edward E. Smith, Christopher Langston & Richard E. Nisbett - 1992 - Cognitive Science 16 (1):1-40.
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