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  1. Sexual Selection and Sex Differences in Mathematical Abilities.David C. Geary - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):229-247.
    The principles of sexual selection were used as an organizing framework for interpreting cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematical abilities. Cross-national studies suggest that there are no sex differences in biologically primary mathematical abilities, that is, for those mathematical abilities that are found in all cultures as well as in nonhuman primates, and show moderate heritability estimates. Sex differences in several biologically secondary mathematical domains are found throughout the industrialized world. In particular, males consistently outperform females in the solving (...)
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  • Sex Differences in Mathematical Abllity: Genes, Environment, and Evolution.Jeffrey W. Gillger - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):255-256.
    Geary proposes a sociobiological hypothesis of how sex differences in math and spatial skills might have jointly arisen. His distinction between primary and secondary math skills is noteworthy, and in some ways analogous to the closed versus open systems postulated to exist for language. In this commentary issues concerning how genes might affect complex cognitive skills, the interpretation of heritability estimates, and prior research abilites are discussed.
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  • The Twain Shall Meet: Uniting the Analysis of Sex Differences and Within-Sex Variation.David C. Rowe - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):262-262.
    Spatial and mathematical abilities may be “sex-limited” traits. A sex-limited trait has the same determinants of variation within the sexes, but the genetic or environmental effects would be differentially expressed in males and females. New advances in structural equation modeling allow means and variation to be estimated simultaneously. When these statistical methods are combined with a genetically informative research design, it should be possible to demonstrate that the genes influencing spatial and mathematical abilities are sex-limited in their expression. This approach (...)
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  • On the Biology and Politics of Cognitive Sex Differences.David C. Geary - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):267-284.
    The male advantage in certain mathematical domains contributes to the difference in the numbers of males and females that enter math-intensive occupations, which in turn contributes to the sex difference in earnings. Understanding the nature and development of the sex difference in mathematical abilities is accordingly of social as well as scientific concern. A more complete understanding of the biological contributions to these differences can guide research on educational techniques that might someday produce more equal educational outcomes in mathematics and (...)
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  • Two Tests for the Value Unit Model: Multicell Recordings and Pointers.David Mumford - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):102-103.
  • CaMeRa: A Computational Model of Multiple Representations.Hermina J. M. Tabachneck-Schijf, Anthony M. Leonardo & Herbert A. Simon - 1997 - Cognitive Science 21 (3):305-350.
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  • Rotating With Rotated Text: A Natural Behavior Approach to Investigating Cognitive Offloading.Evan F. Risko, Srdan Medimorec, Joseph Chisholm & Alan Kingstone - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (3):537-564.
    Determining how we use our body to support cognition represents an important part of understanding the embodied and embedded nature of cognition. In the present investigation, we pursue this question in the context of a common perceptual task. Specifically, we report a series of experiments investigating head tilt (i.e., external normalization) as a strategy in letter naming and reading stimuli that are upright or rotated. We demonstrate that the frequency of this natural behavior is modulated by the cost of stimulus (...)
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  • Computational Imagery.Janice Glasgow & Dimitri Papadias - 1992 - Cognitive Science 16 (3):355-394.
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  • Spatial Cognition Through the Keyhole: How Studying a Real-World Domain Can Inform Basic Science—and Vice Versa.Madeleine Keehner - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (4):632-647.
    This paper discusses spatial cognition in the domain of minimally invasive surgery. It draws on studies from this domain to shed light on a range of spatial cognitive processes and to consider individual differences in performance. In relation to modeling, the aim is to identify potential opportunities for characterizing the complex interplay between perception, action, and cognition, and to consider how theoretical models of the relevant processes might prove valuable for addressing applied questions about surgical performance and training.
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  • What Am I Looking At? Interpreting Dynamic and Static Gaze Displays.Margot Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield & Tamara Gog - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):220-252.
    Displays of eye movements may convey information about cognitive processes but require interpretation. We investigated whether participants were able to interpret displays of their own or others' eye movements. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants observed an image under three different viewing instructions. Then they were shown static or dynamic gaze displays and had to judge whether it was their own or someone else's eye movements and what instruction was reflected. Participants were capable of recognizing the instruction reflected in their (...)
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  • What Am I Looking At? Interpreting Dynamic and Static Gaze Displays.Margot van Wermeskerken, Damien Litchfield & Tamara van Gog - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):220-252.
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  • What One Intelligence Test Measures: A Theoretical Account of the Processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test.Patricia A. Carpenter, Marcel A. Just & Peter Shell - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (3):404-431.
  • Mathematical Ability, Spatial Ability, and Remedial Training.Barbara Sanders - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):208-209.
  • Memory as a Computational Resource.Ishita Dasgupta & Samuel J. Gershman - 2021 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 25 (3):240-251.
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  • Sequential and Coordinative Processing Dynamics in Figural Transformations Across the Life Span.Ulrich Mayr, Reinhold Kliegl & Ralf T. Krampe - 1996 - Cognition 59 (1):61-90.
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  • How Do Young Children Determine Location? Evidence From Disorientation Tasks.Stella F. Lourenco & Janellen Huttenlocher - 2006 - Cognition 100 (3):511-529.
  • Scene-Based and Viewer-Centered Representations for Comparing Shapes.G. Hinton - 1988 - Cognition 30 (1):1-35.
  • Value, Variable, and Coarse Coding by Posterior Parietal Neurons.Richard A. Andersen - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):90-91.
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  • Genetic Influences on Sex Differences in Outstanding Mathematical Reasoning Ability.Ada H. Zohar - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):266-267.
    Sexual selection provides an adequate partial explanation for the difference in means between the distributions, but fails to explain the difference in variance, that is, the overrepresentation of both boys with outstanding mathematical reasoning ability and boys with mental retardation. Other genetic factors are probably at work. While spatial ability is correlated with OMRA, so are other cognitive abilities. OMRA is not reducible to spatial ability; hence selection for navigational skill is unlikely to be the only mechanism by which males (...)
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  • Sex Differences and Evolutionary by-Products.Thomas Wynn, Forrest Tierson & Craig Palmer - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):265-266.
    From the perspective of evolutionary theory, we believe it makes more sense to view the sex differences in spatial cognition as being an evolutionary by-product of selection for optimal rates of fetal development. Geary does not convince us that his proposed selective factors operated with “sufficient precision, economy, and efficiency.” Moreover, the archaeological evidence does not support his proposed evolutionary scenario.
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  • Between-Sex Differences Are Often Averaging Artifacts.Hoben Thomas - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):265-265.
    The central problem in Geary's theory is how differences are conceptualized. Recent research has shown that between-sex differences on certain tasks are a consequence of averaging within sex differences. A mixture distribution models between-sex differences on several tasks well and does not appear congenial to a sexual-selection perspective.
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  • Able Youths and Achievement Tests.Julian C. Stanley & Heinrich Stumpf - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):263-264.
    Achievement test differences between boys and girls and between young men and young women, mostly favoring males, extend far beyond mathematics. Such pervasive differences, illustrated here, may require an explanatory theory broader than Geary's.
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  • Spatial Visualization and Sex-Related Differences in Mathematical Problem Solving.Julia A. Sherman - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):262-263.
    Spatial visualization as a key variable in sex-related differences in mathematical problem solving and spatial aspects of geometry is traced to the 1960s. More recent relevant data are presented. The variability debate is traced to the latter part of the nineteenth century and an explanation for it is suggested. An idea is presented for further research to clarify sex-related brain laterality differences in solving spatial problems.
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  • The Logic of the Sociobiological Model Geary-Style.Diane Proudfoot - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):261-261.
    Geary's is the traditional view of the sexes. Yet each part of his argument – the move from sex differences in spatial ability and social preferences to a sex difference in mathematical ability, the claim that the former are biologically primary, and the sociobiological explanation of these differences – requires considerable further work. The notion of a biologically secondary ability is itself problematic.
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  • Sexual-Selection Accounts of Human Characteristics: Just So Stories or Scientific Hypotheses?Nora Newcombe & Mary Ann Baenninger - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):259-260.
    We evaluate three of Geary's claims, finding that there is little evidence for sex differences in object- vs. person-orientation; sex differences in competition, even if biologically caused, lead to sex differences in mathematics only given a certain style of teaching; and sex differences in mental rotation, though real, are not well explained in a sociobiological framework or by the proximate biological variables assumed by Geary.
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  • Resources Dimorphism Sexual Selection and Mathematics Achievement.Diana Eugenie Kornbrot - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):259-259.
    Geary's model is a worthy effort, but ambiguous on important issues. It ignores differential resource allocation, although this follows directly from sexual selection via differential parental investment. Dimorphism in primary traits is arbitrarily attributed to sexual selection via intramale competition, rather than direct evolutionary pressures. Dubious predictions are made about the consequences of raising mathematics achievement.
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  • Some Problematic Links Between Hunting and Geometry.Meredith M. Kimball - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):258-259.
    Geary's emphasis on hunting ignores the possible importance of other human activities, such as scavenging and gathering, in the evolution of spatial abilities. In addition, there is little evidence that links spatial abilities and math skills. Furthermore, such links have little practical importance given the small size of most differences and girls' superior performance in mathematics classrooms.
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  • A Critic with a Different Perspective.Lloyd G. Humphreys - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):257-258.
    To the extent that Geary's theory concerning biologically primary and secondary behaviors depends on factor analytic methods and findings, it is woefully weak. Factors have been mistakenly called primary mental abilities, but the adjective “primary” represents reification of a mathematical dimension defined by correlations. Fleshing out a factor beyond its mathematical properties requires much additional quantitative experimental and correlational research that goes far beyond mere factoring.
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  • Mating, Math Achievement, and Other Multiple Relationships.Diane F. Halpern - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):256-256.
    Although Geary's partitioning of mathematical abilities into those that are biologically primary and secondary is an advance over most sociobiological theories of cognitive sex differences, it remains untestable and ignores the spatial nature of women's traditional work. An alternative model based on underlying cognitive processes offers other advantages.
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  • Differences in Male and Female Cognitive Abilities: Sexual Selection or Division of Labor?Michael T. Ghiselin - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):254-255.
    In Darwinian terminology, “sexual selection” refers to purely reproductive competition and is conceptually distinct from natural selection as it affects reproduction generally. As natural selection may favor the evolution of sexual dimorphism by virtue of the division of labor between males and females, this possibility needs to be taken very seriously.
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  • Mary has More: Sex Differences, Autism, Coherence, and Theory of Mind.Uta Frith & Francesca Happé - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):253-254.
    We challenge the notion that differences in spatial ability are the best or only explanation for observed sex differences in mathematical word problems. We suggest two ideas from the study of autism: sex differences in theory of mind and in central coherence.
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  • Arithmetic and Old Lace.Jeffrey Foss - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):252-253.
    Geary's project faces the severe methodological difficulty of tracing the biological effects of gender on mathematical ability in a system that is massively open. Two methodological stratagems he uses are considered. The first is that pancultural sex differences are biological in nature, which is dubious in the domain of mathematics, since it is completely culture-bound. The second is that sociosexual differences are partly caused by biosexual differences, which renders his thesis unfalsifiable and empirically empty.
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  • On an Evolutionary Model of Sex Differences in Mathematics: Do the Data Support the Theory?Alan Feingold - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):252-252.
    The target article draws on evolutionary theory to formulate a biosocial model of sex differences in quantitative abilities. Unfortunately, the data do not support some of the crucial hypotheses. The male advantage in geometry is not appreciably greater than the male advantagi in algebra, and the greater male variability in mathematics cited by Gear is not cross-culturally invariant.
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  • Omissions Relevant to Gender-Linked Mathematical Abilities.Herman T. Epstein - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):251-252.
    Analyses of bodies of data usually omit some relevant studies. Geary omits some studies looking at functional correlates of basic biological data, studies of developmental implications for functioning, and the recent achievement of acceleration of cognitive development.
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  • How Important is Spatial Ability to Mathematics?Ann Dowker - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):251-251.
    This commentary focuses on one of the many issues raised in Geary's target article: the importance of gender differences in spatial ability to gender differences in mathematics. I argue that the evidence for the central role of spatial ability in mathematical ability, or in gender differences in it, is tenuous at best.
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  • Is There a Comparative Psychology of Implicit Mathematical Knowledge?Hank Davis - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):250-250.
    Geary suggests that implicit mathematical principles exist across human cultures and transcend sex differences. Is such knowledge present in animals as well, and is it sufficient to account for performance in all species, including our own? I attempt to trace the implications of Gearys target article for comparative psychology, questioning the exclusion of “subitizing” in describing human mathematical performance, and asking whether human researchers function as cultural agents with animals, elevating their implicit knowledge to secondary domains of numerical performance.
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  • Still Far Too Sexy a Topic.Susan F. Chipman - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):248-249.
    Geary is highly selective in his use of the literature on gender differences. His assumption of consistent female inferiority in mathematics is not necessarily supported by the facts.
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  • Do Gender Differences in Spatial Skills Mediate Gender Differences in Mathematics Among High-Ability Students?M. Beth Casey - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):247-248.
    Based on Geary's theory, intelligence may determine which males utilize innate spatial knowledge to inform their mathematical solutions. This may explain why math gender differences occur mainly with higher abilities. In support, we found that mental rotation ability served as a mediator of gender differences on the math Scholastic Assessment Test for two high-ability samples. Our research suggests, however, that environment and biology interact to influence mental rotation abilities.
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  • Value Units Make the Right Connections.Dana H. Ballard - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):107-120.
  • Connectionist Computing and Neural Machinery: Examining the Test of “Timing”.John K. Tsotsos - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):106-107.
  • What Does the Cortex Do?Mriganka Sur - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):105-105.
  • Computational Neuroscience.Terrence J. Sejnowski - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):104-105.
  • Old Dogmas and New Axioms in Brain Theory.Andràs J. Pellionisz - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):103-104.
  • The Gap From Sensation to Cognition.Michael S. Landy - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):101-102.
  • What's in the Term Connectionist?Christof Koch - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):100-101.
  • “Grandmother Networks” and Computational Economy.J. J. Hopfield - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):100-100.
  • Invariant and Programmable Neuropsychological Systems Are Fibrations.William C. Hoffman - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):99-100.
  • Does the Brain Compute?Erich Harth - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):98-99.
  • Brain Metaphors, Theories, and Facts.Stephen Grossberg - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):97-98.
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  • Cortical Architectures and Value Unit Encoding.Charles D. Gilbert - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):96-97.
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