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  1. The intractable problems with brain death and possible solutions.Ari R. Joffe, Gurpreet Khaira & Allan R. de Caen - 2021 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 16 (1):1-27.
    Brain death has been accepted worldwide medically and legally as the biological state of death of the organism. Nevertheless, the literature has described persistent problems with this acceptance ever since brain death was described. Many of these problems are not widely known or properly understood by much of the medical community. Here we aim to clarify these issues, based on the two intractable problems in the brain death debates. First, the metaphysical problem: there is no reason that withstands critical scrutiny (...)
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  • The Ethics of Limiting Informed Debate: Censorship of Select Medical Publications in the Interest of Organ Transplantation.Michael Potts, Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & David W. Evans - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):625-638.
    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for “responsible scholarship” in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which “responsible scholarship” is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public’s willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing (...)
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  • When Are You Dead Enough to Be a Donor? Can Any Feasible Protocol for the Determination of Death on Circulatory Criteria Respect the Dead Donor Rule?Govert den Hartogh - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (4):299-319.
    The basic question concerning the compatibility of donation after circulatory death protocols with the dead donor rule is whether such protocols can guarantee that the loss of relevant biological functions is truly irreversible. Which functions are the relevant ones? I argue that the answer to this question can be derived neither from a proper understanding of the meaning of the term “death” nor from a proper understanding of the nature of death as a biological phenomenon. The concept of death can (...)
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  • Revisiting the Persisting Tension Between Expert and Lay Views About Brain Death and Death Determination: A Proposal Inspired by Pragmatism.Eric Racine - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):623-631.
    Brain death or determination of death based on the neurological criterion has been an enduring source of controversy in academic and clinical circles. The controversy chiefly concerns how death is defined, and it also bears on the justification of the proposed criteria for death determination and their interpretation. Part of the controversy on brain death and death determination stems from disputed crucial medical facts, but in this paper I formulate another hypothesis about the nature of ongoing controversies. At stake is (...)
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  • Commentary on the Concept of Brain Death Within the Catholic Bioethical Framework.Joseph L. Verheijde & Michael Potts - 2010 - Christian Bioethics 16 (3):246-256.
    Since the introduction of the concept of brain death by the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death in 1968, the validity of this concept has been challenged by medical scientists, as well as by legal, philosophical, and religious scholars. In light of increased criticism of the concept of brain death, Stephen Napier, a staff ethicist at the National Catholic Bioethics Center, set out to prove that the whole-brain death criterion serves as (...)
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  • Good and Not so Good Medical Ethics.Rosamond Rhodes - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):71-74.
  • Depictions of 'Brain Death' in the Media: Medical and Ethical Implications.Ariane Daoust & Eric Racine - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (4):253-259.
    Background Debates and controversies have shaped the understanding and the practices related to death determined by neurological criterion . Confusion about DNC in the public domain could undermine this notion. This confusion could further jeopardise confidence in rigorous death determination procedures, and raise questions about the integrity, sustainability, and legitimacy of modern organ donation practices.Objective We examined the depictions of ‘brain death’ in major American and Canadian print media to gain insights into possible common sources of confusion about DNC and (...)
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  • The Moral Code in Islam and Organ Donation in Western Countries: Reinterpreting Religious Scriptures to Meet Utilitarian Medical Objectives.Mohamed Y. Rady & Joseph L. Verheijde - 2014 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9:11.
    End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: reinterpreting religious scriptures, reeducating faith leaders, and utilizing media (...)
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  • Brain-Dead Patients Are Not Cadavers: The Need to Revise the Definition of Death in Muslim Communities. [REVIEW]Mohamed Y. Rady & Joseph L. Verheijde - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (1):25-45.
    The utilitarian construct of two alternative criteria of human death increases the supply of transplantable organs at the end of life. Neither the neurological criterion (heart-beating donation) nor the circulatory criterion (non-heart-beating donation) is grounded in scientific evidence but based on philosophical reasoning. A utilitarian death definition can have unintended consequences for dying Muslim patients: (1) the expedited process of determining death for retrieval of transplantable organs can lead to diagnostic errors, (2) the equivalence of brain death with human death (...)
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  • Towards a Holistic Definition of Death: The Biological, Philosophical and Social Deficiencies of Brain Stem Death Criteria.Abigail Maguire - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (2):172-184.
    With no statutory definition of death, the accepted medical definition relies on brain stem death criteria as a definitive measure of diagnosing death. However, the use of brain stem death criteria in this way is precarious and causes widespread confusion amongst both medical and lay communities. Through critical analysis, this paper considers the insufficiencies of brain stem death. It concludes that brain stem death cannot be successfully equated with either biological death or the loss of integrated bodily function. The overemphasis (...)
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  • Clinical and Ethical Perspectives on Brain Death.Michael Nair-Collins - 2015 - Medicolegal and Bioethics 5:69-80.
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  • Brain Death, States of Impaired Consciousness, and Physician-Assisted Death for End-of-Life Organ Donation and Transplantation.Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):491-491.
  • Brain Death, States of Impaired Consciousness, and Physician-Assisted Death for End-of-Life Organ Donation and Transplantation.Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):409-421.
    In 1968, the Harvard criteria equated irreversible coma and apnea with human death and later, the Uniform Determination of Death Act was enacted permitting organ procurement from heart-beating donors. Since then, clinical studies have defined a spectrum of states of impaired consciousness in human beings: coma, akinetic mutism, minimally conscious state, vegetative state and brain death. In this article, we argue against the validity of the Harvard criteria for equating brain death with human death. Brain death does not disrupt somatic (...)
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