Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. Assessing the Overall Validity of Randomised Controlled Trials.Alexander Krauss - 2021 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 34 (3):159-182.
    In the biomedical, behavioural and social sciences, the leading method used to estimate causal effects is commonly randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that are generally viewed as both the source and justification of the most valid evidence. In studying the foundation and theory behind RCTs, the existing literature analyses important single issues and biases in isolation that influence causal outcomes in trials (such as randomisation, statistical probabilities and placebos). The common account of biased causal inference is described in a general way (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Treatment effectiveness, generalizability, and the explanatory/pragmatic-trial distinction.Steven Tresker - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-29.
    The explanatory/pragmatic-trial distinction enjoys a burgeoning philosophical and medical literature and a significant contingent of support among philosophers and healthcare stakeholders as an important way to assess the design and results of randomized controlled trials. A major motivation has been the need to provide relevant, generalizable data to drive healthcare decisions. While talk of pragmatic and explanatory trials could be seen as convenient shorthand, the distinction can also be seen as harboring deeper issues related to inferential strategies used to evaluate (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Data quality, experimental artifacts, and the reactivity of the psychological subject matter.Uljana Feest - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (1):1-25.
    While the term “reactivity” has come to be associated with specific phenomena in the social sciences, having to do with subjects’ awareness of being studied, this paper takes a broader stance on this concept. I argue that reactivity is a ubiquitous feature of the psychological subject matter and that this fact is a precondition of experimental research, while also posing potential problems for the experimenter. The latter are connected to the worry about distorted data and experimental artifacts. But what are (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Anthropomorphism in the Context of Scientific Discovery: Implications for Comparative Cognition.Farshad Nemati - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-19.
    Mentalist view began to lose its standing among psychologists mainly during the first half of the twentieth century. As a result, the enthusiasm to build an objective science began to grow among behaviourists and ethologists. The rise of cognitive sciences around the 1960s, however, revived the debates over the importance of cognitive intervening variables in explaining behaviours that could not be explained by clinging solely to a pure behavioural approach. Nevertheless, even though cognitive functions in nonhuman animals have been identified (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Artificiality, Reactivity, and Demand Effects in Experimental Economics.Maria Jimenez-Buedo & Francesco Guala - 2016 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (1):3-23.
    A series of recent debates in experimental economics have associated demand effects with the artificiality of the experimental setting and have linked it to the problem of external validity. In this paper, we argue that these associations can be misleading, partly because of the ambiguity with which “artificiality” has been defined, but also because demand effects and external validity are related in complex ways. We argue that artificiality may be directly as well as inversely correlated with demand effects. We also (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Drawing Lessons From Case Studies by Enhancing Comparability.Attilia Ruzzene - 2012 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42 (1):99-120.
    External validity is typically regarded as the downside of case study research by methodologists and social scientists; case studies, however, are often aimed at drawing lessons that are generalizable to new contexts. The gap between the generalizability potential of case studies and the research goals demands closer scrutiny. I suggest that the conclusion that case study research is weak in external validity follows from a set of assumptions that I term the "traditional view," which are disputable at best. In this (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Using Case Studies in the Social Sciences: Methods, Inferences, Purposes.Attilia Ruzzene - 2015 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 8 (1):123.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Correlational Data, Causal Hypotheses, and Validity.Federica Russo - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (1):85 - 107.
    A shared problem across the sciences is to make sense of correlational data coming from observations and/or from experiments. Arguably, this means establishing when correlations are causal and when they are not. This is an old problem in philosophy. This paper, narrowing down the scope to quantitative causal analysis in social science, reformulates the problem in terms of the validity of statistical models. Two strategies to make sense of correlational data are presented: first, a 'structural strategy', the goal of which (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • Socioeconomic Processes as Open-Ended Results. Beyond Invariance Knowledge for Interventionist Purposes.Leonardo Ivarola - 2017 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 32 (2):211-229.
    In this paper a critique to philosophical approaches that presuppose invariant knowledge for policy purposes is carried out. It is shown that socioeconomic processes do not fit to the logic of stable causal factors, but they are more suited to the logic of "open-ended results". On the basis of this ontological variation it is argued that ex-ante interventions are not appropriate in the socioeconomic realm. On the contrary, they must be understood in a “dynamic” sense. Finally, derivational robustness analysis is (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Reliability and External Validity of Neurobiological Experiments.Wong Muk Yan - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):429-446.
    Reliability and external validity are two fundamental values that pose incompatible constraints on neurobiological experiments. The more reliability an experimental result achieves, the less external validity it earns, and vice versa. In this article, I propose an externalist interpretation of external validity: the external validity of an experimental result depends not only on how much complexity is built into an experimental design, but also on the relationship between the experimental result and other related experiments. This externalist interpretation, which explains how (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Conceptual Tools for Assessing Experiments: Some Well-Entrenched Confusions Regarding the Internal/External Validity Distinction.María Jiménez-Buedo - 2011 - Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (3):271-282.
    The notions of internal and external validity of an experiment, coined by Donald T. Campbell in the context of social scientific quasi-experimentation more than 50 years ago, are still central in the debates around the experimental method, both for practitioners and for philosophers of science. This paper points at the more problematic aspects of the distinction between the internal and external validity of experiments and, with a focus on the field of behavioural economics, traces the many misunderstandings that surround the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • The Impact of Individual Attitudinal and Organisational Variables on Workplace Environmentally Friendly Behaviours.Danae Manika, Victoria K. Wells, Diana Gregory-Smith & Michael Gentry - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):663-684.
    Although research on corporate social responsibility has grown steadily, little research has focused on CSR at the individual level. In addition, research on the role of environmental friendly organizational citizenship behaviors within CSR initiatives is scarce. In response to this gap and recent calls for further research on both individual and organizational variables of employees’ environmentally friendly, or green, behaviors, this article sheds light on the influence of these variables on three types of green employee behaviors simultaneously: recycling, energy savings, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations