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  1. Unconscious influences on decision making: A critical review.Ben R. Newell & David R. Shanks - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):1-19.
    To what extent do we know our own minds when making decisions? Variants of this question have preoccupied researchers in a wide range of domains, from mainstream experimental psychology to cognitive neuroscience and behavioral economics. A pervasive view places a heavy explanatory burden on an intelligent cognitive unconscious, with many theories assigning causally effective roles to unconscious influences. This article presents a novel framework for evaluating these claims and reviews evidence from three major bodies of research in which unconscious factors (...)
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  • The perspectival shift: how experiments on unconscious processing don't justify the claims made for them.Tom Stafford - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • How (not) to demonstrate unconscious priming: Overcoming issues with post-hoc data selection, low power, and frequentist statistics.Timo Stein, Simon van Gaal & Johannes J. Fahrenfort - 2024 - Consciousness and Cognition 119 (C):103669.
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  • Ontogeny and intentionality.Philip David Zelazo & J. Steven Reznick - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):631-632.
  • Feeling of knowing and phenomenal consciousness.Tiziana Zalla & Adriano P. Palma - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):271-272.
    In Feeling of Knowing cases, subjects have a form of consciousness about the presence of a content (such as an item of information) without having access to it. If this phenomenon can be correctly interpreted as having to do with consciousness, then there would be a P-conscious mental experience which is dissociated from access.
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  • More on prosopagnosia.Andrew W. Young - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):271-271.
    Some cases of prosopagnosia involve a highly circumscribed loss of A-consciousness. When seen in this way they offer further support for the arguments made in Block's target article.
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  • Closing the Cartesian Theatre.Andy Young - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):233-233.
  • Consciousness, historical inversion, and cognitive science.Andrew W. Young - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):630-631.
  • Reward learning and negative emotion during rapid attentional competition.Takemasa Yokoyama, Srikanth Padmala & Luiz Pessoa - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • The effects of emotion on attention: A review of attentional processing of emotional information. [REVIEW]Jenny Yiend - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (1):3-47.
  • On the use of continuous flash suppression for the study of visual processing outside of awareness.Eunice Yang, Jan Brascamp, Min-Suk Kang & Randolph Blake - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:91286.
    The interocular suppression technique termed continuous flash suppression (CFS) has become an immensely popular tool for investigating visual processing outside of awareness. The emerging picture from studies using CFS is that extensive processing of a visual stimulus, including its semantic and affective content, occurs despite suppression from awareness of that stimulus by CFS. However, the current implementation of CFS in many studies examining processing outside of awareness has several drawbacks that may be improved upon for future studies using CFS. In (...)
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  • Selective auditory attention: Complex processes and complex ERP generators.David L. Woods - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):260-261.
  • Pardon, your dualism is showing.Charles C. Wood - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):557-558.
  • Brain indices of nonconscious associative learning.Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, S. . Bunce & Shevrin . - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):519-544.
    Using a classical conditioning technique, this study investigated whether nonconscious associative learning could be indexed by event-related brain activity . There were three phases. In a preconditioning baseline phase, pleasant and unpleasant facial schematics were presented in awareness . A conditioning phase followed, in which stimuli were presented outside awareness , with an unpleasant face linked to an aversive shock and a pleasant face not linked to a shock. The third, postconditioning phase, involved stimulus presentations in awareness . Evidence for (...)
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  • Brain indices of nonconscious associative learning.Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, S. Bunce & H. Shevrin - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):519-544.
    Using a classical conditioning technique, this study investigated whether nonconscious associative learning could be indexed by event-related brain activity . There were three phases. In a preconditioning baseline phase, pleasant and unpleasant facial schematics were presented in awareness . A conditioning phase followed, in which stimuli were presented outside awareness , with an unpleasant face linked to an aversive shock and a pleasant face not linked to a shock. The third, postconditioning phase, involved stimulus presentations in awareness . Evidence for (...)
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  • Attentional influence on the mismatch negativity.Marty G. Woldorff & Steven A. Hillyard - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):258-260.
  • Subconscious detection of threat as reflected by an enhanced response bias.Sabine Windmann & Thomas Krüger - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (4):603-633.
    Neurobiological and cognitive models of unconscious information processing suggest that subconscious threat detection can lead to cognitive misinterpretations and false alarms, while conscious processing is assumed to be perceptually and conceptually accurate and unambiguous. Furthermore, clinical theories suggest that pathological anxiety results from a crude preattentive warning system predominating over more sophisticated and controlled modes of processing. We investigated the hypothesis that subconscious detection of threat in a cognitive task is reflected by enhanced ''false signal'' detection rather than by selectively (...)
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  • Semantic effects without awareness: Dichotic listening and dichoptic viewing.J. M. Wilding - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (4):767.
  • On the creation of classification systems of memory.Daniel B. Willingham - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):426-427.
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  • Consciousness: Limited but consequential.Timothy D. Wilson - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):701-701.
  • Subjective measures of consciousness in artificial grammar learning task.Michał Wierzchoń, Dariusz Asanowicz, Borysław Paulewicz & Axel Cleeremans - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1141-1153.
    Consciousness can be measured in various ways, but different measures often yield different conclusions about the extent to which awareness relates to performance. Here, we compare five different subjective measures of awareness in the context of an artificial grammar learning task. Participants expressed their subjective awareness of rules using one of five different scales: confidence ratings , post-decision wagering , feeling of warmth , rule awareness , and continuous scale . All scales were equally sensitive to conscious knowledge. PDW, however, (...)
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  • Different subjective awareness measures demonstrate the influence of visual identification on perceptual awareness ratings.Michał Wierzchoń, Borysław Paulewicz, Dariusz Asanowicz, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:109-120.
  • The mystery-mastery-imagery complex.H. T. A. Whiting & R. P. Ingvaldsen - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):228-229.
  • Masked emotional priming: A double dissociation between direct and indirect effects reveals non-conscious processing of emotional information beyond valence.Dirk Wentura, Michaela Rohr & Juliane Degner - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 49:203-214.
  • The psychoanatomy of consciousness: Neural integration occurs in single cells.Gerald S. Wasserman - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):232-233.
  • Neural/mental chronometry and chronotheology.Gerald S. Wasserman - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):556-557.
  • Should we continue to study consciousness?Richard M. Warren - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):270-271.
    Block has attempted to reduce the confusion and controversy concerning the term “consciousness” by suggesting that there are two forms or types of consciousness, each of which has several characteristics or properties. This suggestion appears to further becloud the topic, however. Perhaps consciousness cannot be defined adequately and should not be considered as a topic that can be studied scientifically.
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  • Global pattern perception and temporal order judgments.Richard M. Warren - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):230-231.
  • Potential disparities between imagining and preparing motor skills.Charles B. Walter & Stephan P. Swinnen - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):227-228.
  • No conscious or co-conscious?Graham F. Wagstaff - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):700-700.
  • Intentional action and unconscious reasons.Fred Vollmer - 1993 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 23 (3):315-326.
  • Imagery needs preparation too.Stefan Vogt - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):226-227.
  • Top-down fast-same, and acoustic perception.Rolf Verleger - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):257-258.
  • Näätänen's auditory model from a visual perspective.Marinus N. Verbaten - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):256-257.
  • Is the mind conscious, functional, or both?Max Velmans - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):629-630.
    What, in essence, characterizes the mind? According to Searle, the potential to be conscious provides the only definitive criterion. Thus, conscious states are unquestionably "mental"; "shallow unconscious" states are also "mental" by virtue of their capacity to be conscious (at least in principle); but there are no "deep unconscious mental states" - i.e. those rules and procedures without access to consciousness, inferred by cognitive science to characterize the operations of the unconscious mind are not mental at all. Indeed, according to (...)
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  • Is consciousness integrated?Max Velmans - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):229-230.
    In the visual system, the represented features of individual objects (shape, colour, movement, and so on) are distributed both in space and time within the brain. Representations of inner and outer event sequences arrive through different sense organs at different times, and are likewise distributed. Objects are nevertheless perceived as integrated wholes - and event sequences are experienced to form a coherent "consciousness stream." In their thoughtful article, Dennett & Kinsbourne ask how this is achieved.
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  • Is human information processing conscious?Max Velmans - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):651-69.
    Investigations of the function of consciousness in human information processing have focused mainly on two questions: (1) where does consciousness enter into the information processing sequence and (2) how does conscious processing differ from preconscious and unconscious processing. Input analysis is thought to be initially "preconscious," "pre-attentive," fast, involuntary, and automatic. This is followed by "conscious," "focal-attentive" analysis which is relatively slow, voluntary, and flexible. It is thought that simple, familiar stimuli can be identified preconsciously, but conscious processing is needed (...)
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  • Consciousness, causality and complementarity.Max Velmans - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):404-416.
    This reply to five continuing commentaries on my 1991 target article on “Is human information processing conscious” focuses on six related issues: 1) whether focal attentive processing replaces consciousness as a causal agent in third-person viewable human information processing, 2)whether consciousness can be dissociated from human information processing, 3) continuing disputes about definitions of "consciousness" and about what constitutes a “conscious process” , 4) how observer-relativity in psychology relates (and does not relate) to relativity in physics, 5) whether the first-person (...)
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  • Consciousness from a first-person perspective.Max Velmans - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):702-726.
    This paper replies to the first 36 commentaries on my target article on “Is human information processing conscious?” (Behavioral and Brain Sciences,1991, pp.651-669). The target article focused largely on experimental studies of how consciousness relates to human information processing, tracing their relation from input through to output, while discussion of the implications of the findings both for cognitive psychology and philosophy of mind was relatively brief. The commentaries reversed this emphasis, and so, correspondingly, did the reply. The sequence of topics (...)
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  • Time for more alternatives.Robert Van Gulick - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):228-229.
  • Nineteenth-century psychology and twentieth-century electrophysiology do not mix.C. H. Vanderwolf - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):555-555.
  • Conscious wants and self-awareness.Robert Van Gulick - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):555-556.
  • Consciousness is not a natural kind.J. van Brakel - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):269-270.
    Blocks distinction between “phenomenal feel” consciousness and “thought/cognition” consciousness is a cultural construction. Consciousness (and its “subspecies”) is not a natural kind. Some crosscultural data are presented to support this.
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  • Action and attention.A. H. C. Van der Heijden & Bruce Bridgeman - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):225-226.
  • Mind before matter?Geoffrey Underwood & Pekka Niemi - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):554-555.
  • Attention is necessary for word integration.Geoffrey Underwood - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):698-698.
  • Conscious and unconscious representation of aspectual shape in cognitive science.Geoffrey Underwood - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):628-629.
  • Attention and awareness: Using the to-be-ignored evidence.Geoffrey Underwood - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):256-256.
  • Sensory adaptation and mismatch negativity.P. Ullsperger & T. Baldeweg - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):255-256.
  • Unintended thought and nonconscious inferences exist.James S. Uleman & Jennifer K. Uleman - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):627-628.