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  1. The Functional Model of Analysis as Middle Ground Meta-Ethics.Krzysztof Saja - 2019 - Diametros 17 (63):1-21.
    The main purpose of the paper is to present a new framework of meta-ethics which I call the Functional Model of Analysis. It presupposes that the most important meta-ethical question is not “What is the meaning of normative words, sentences and what is the ontological fabric of the moral world?” but “What should morality and ethics be for?”. It is a form of meta-ethics that focuses on finding theoretical resources that can be helpful in understanding ongoing ethical debates between disciples (...)
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  • Should You Save the More Useful? The Effect of Generality on Moral Judgments About Rescue and Indirect Effects.Lucius Caviola, Stefan Schubert & Andreas Mogensen - 2021 - Cognition 206:104501.
    Across eight experiments (N = 2310), we studied whether people would prioritize rescuing individuals who may be thought to contribute more to society. We found that participants were generally dismissive of general rules that prioritize more socially beneficial individuals, such as doctors instead of unemployed people. By contrast, participants were more supportive of one-off decisions to save the life of a more socially beneficial individual, even when such cases were the same as those covered by the rule. This generality effect (...)
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  • Parfit Und Kant Über Vernünftige Zustimmung ​.Martin Sticker - 2016 - Zeitschrift für Praktische Philosophie 3 (2):221-254.
    Nach Parfit konvergieren die systematisch stärksten Versionen von Kantianismus, Regel-Konsequentialismus und Kontraktualismus in einer Triple Theory. Ich konzentriere mich auf eine der zentralen Schwierigkeiten, Kantianismus und Konsequentialismus zusammenzubringen: die Rolle von Zustimmung, welche ihren deutlichsten Ausdruck in Kants Zweck-an-sich-Formel findet. Ich zeige zunächst, wie die Einführung unparteilicher, nichtmoralischer Gründe, auf der viel Gewicht in Parfits Zustimmungsprinzip liegt, in einigen Fällen die Zweck-an-sich-Formel zu dem intuitiv richtigen Ergebnis führen kann. Anschließend wende ich mich kritisch gegen Parfit. Ich diskutiere zwei Einwände gegen (...)
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  • El deber de beneficencia en Kant y Fichte.Vicente de Haro - 2020 - Ideas Y Valores 69 (174):123-141.
    Este artículo expone los argumentos de Kant y Fichte a favor del deber ético de la beneficencia. De manera concreta, se evalúan las razones para que este deber, en sus respectivos sistemas de deberes morales, obtenga un posicionamiento particular y requiera consideraciones aparte de los criterios que, en general, estructuran dichos sistemas. Además, se hacen comentarios comparativos respecto al papel que juega la facultad de juzgar ante el margen de latitud o de juego que, en particular, implica este deber ético (...)
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  • Review Essay.Roger Crisp - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (2):155–163.
    Essays on Bioethics by R.M. Hare. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
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  • Measuring Impartial Beneficence: A Kantian Perspective on the Oxford Utilitarianism Scale.Emilian Mihailov - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-16.
    To capture genuine utilitarian tendencies, developed the Oxford Utilitarianism Scale based on two subscales, which measure the commitment to impartial beneficence and the willingness to cause harm for the greater good. In this article, I argue that the impartial beneficence subscale, which breaks ground with previous research on utilitarian moral psychology, does not distinctively measure utilitarian moral judgment. I argue that Kantian ethics captures the all-encompassing impartial concern for the well-being of all human beings. The Oxford Utilitarianism Scale draws, in (...)
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  • Kant, Eudaimonism, Act-Consequentialism and the Fact of Reason.Martin Sticker - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (2):209-241.
    Kant considers eudaimonism as his main opponent and he assumes that his ethics is the only viable alternative to eudaimonism. He does not explicitly address theories differing from both eudaimonism and from his own. I argue that whilst Kant and Act-Consequentialists advocate different normative principles, their positions share the important abstract feature that they establish what is to be done from a rational principle and not based on what is in the self-interest of the respective agent, as Kant thinks eudaimonism (...)
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  • Value and Regulatory Foundations for Digital Transformation of Modern Social Relations: Theological and Conservative Legal Aspects.Alexey Mamychev, Elena Kazachanskaya & Anna Garashko - 2021 - Wisdom 1 (1):147-158.
    This paper examines the value-normative transformation of the modern social system and analyzes the impact of digitalization processes on social relations and their development. The content of the article substantively analyzes the key areas of digitalization of social relations; the authors mark out in each of these areas positive and negative effects on the sustainable development of the socio-cultural integrity of society. The empirical material used in this work includes expert assessments and analytical materials related to the digital transformation of (...)
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  • Douglas Seanor & N. Fotion (Eds.): Hare and Critics.Peter Sandøe - 1989 - Theoria 55 (3):211-224.
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  • Universal Practice and Universal Applicability Tests in Moral Philosophy.Scott Forschler - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (12):3041-3058.
    We can distinguish two kinds of moral universalization tests for practical principles. One requires that the universal practice of the principle, i.e., universal conformity to it by all agents in a given world, satisfies some condition. The other requires that conformity to the principle by any possible agent, in any situation and at any time, satisfies some condition. We can call these universal practice and universal applicability tests respectively. The logical distinction between these tests is rarely appreciated, and many philosophers (...)
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  • Are We Climbing the Same Mountain?: Moral Theories, Moral Concepts, Moral Questions.Roger Crisp - 2020 - Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie 3 (2):269-278.
    The paper begins by noting the widespread disagreement that has existed in philosophy from its very inception until now. It is claimed that Henry Sidgwick was right to see the main debate in ethics as between egoists, consequentialists, and deontologists. This raises the question whether the best approach might be to seek a position based on the different theories rather than one alone. Some clarification is then offered of the main questions asked in ethics, and it is claimed that the (...)
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  • Is There an Obligation to Abort? Act Utilitarianism and the Ethics of Procreation.Leonard Kahn - 2019 - Essays in Philosophy 20 (1):24-41.
    Most Act-Utilitarians, including Singer are Permissivists who claim that their theory usually permits abortion. In contrast, a minority, including Hare and Tännsjö, are Restrictionists who assert that Act-Utilitarianism usually limits abortion. I argue that both Permissivists and Restrictionists have misunderstood AU’s radical implications for abortion: AU entails that abortion is, in most cases in the economically developed world, morally obligatory. According to AU, it is morally obligatory for A to do F in circumstances C if and only if A’s doing (...)
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  • A Royal Road to Consequentialism?Martin Peterson - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (2):153-169.
    To consequentialise a moral theory means to account for moral phenomena usually described in nonconsequentialist terms, such as rights, duties, and virtues, in a consequentialist framework. This paper seeks to show that all moral theories can be consequentialised. The paper distinguishes between different interpretations of the consequentialiser’s thesis, and emphasises the need for a cardinal ranking of acts. The paper also offers a new answer as to why consequentialising moral theories is important: This yields crucial methodological insights about how to (...)
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  • Thinking by Drawing.Shelly Kagan - 2018 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):245-283.
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  • The Emergence of the Physical World From Information Processing.Brian Whitworth - 2010 - Quantum Biosystems 2 (1):221-249.
    This paper links the conjecture that the physical world is a virtual reality to the findings of modern physics. What is usually the subject of science fiction is here proposed as a scientific theory open to empirical evaluation. We know from physics how the world behaves, and from computing how information behaves, so whether the physical world arises from ongoing information processing is a question science can evaluate. A prima facie case for the virtual reality conjecture is presented. If a (...)
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  • How Not to Bridge the Gap: Cummiskey on Kantian Consequentialism.Daniel M. Weinstock - 2000 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):315-339.
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  • Kant's Moral Philosophy.Robert N. Johnson - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) argued that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI). Immorality thus involves a violation of the CI and is thereby irrational. Other philosophers, such as Locke and Hobbes, had also argued that moral requirements are based on standards of rationality. However, these standards were either desirebased instrumental principles of rationality or based on sui generis rational intuitions. Kant agreed with many of his predecessors that an analysis of practical reason (...)
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  • Review Essay.Roger Crisp - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (2):155-163.
    Essays on Bioethics by R.M. Hare. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
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  • The Ethics of Medical Involvement in Torture: Commentary.R. M. Hare - 1993 - Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (3):138-141.
    Torture does need to be defined if we are to know exactly what we are seeking to ban; but no single definition will do, because there are many possible ones, and we may want to treat different practices that might be called torture differently. Compare the case of homicide; we do not want to punish manslaughter as severely as murder, and may not want to punish killing in self-defence at all. There are degrees of torture as of murder. Unclarities simply (...)
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  • Resisting the Seductive Appeal of Consequentialism: Goals, Options, and Non-Quantitative Mattering: Robert Noggle.Robert Noggle - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (3):279-307.
    Impartially Optimizing Consequentialism requires agents to act so as to bring about the best outcome, as judged by a preference ordering which is impartial among the needs and interests of all persons. IOC may seem to be only rational response to the recognition that one is only one person among many others with equal intrinsic moral status. A person who adopts a less impartial deontological alternative to IOC may seem to fail to take seriously the fact that other persons matter (...)
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  • Kant's Theory of Punishment.Thom Brooks - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (2):206.
    The most widespread interpretation amongst contemporary theorists of Kant's theory of punishment is that it is retributivist. On the contrary, I will argue there are very different senses in which Kant discusses punishment. He endorses retribution for moral law transgressions and consequentialist considerations for positive law violations. When these standpoints are taken into consideration, Kant's theory of punishment is more coherent and unified than previously thought. This reading uncovers a new problem in Kant's theory of punishment. By assuming a potential (...)
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