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  1. Bioconservatism, Bioenhancement and Backfiring.Tamara Kayali Browne & Steve Clarke - 2020 - Journal of Moral Education 49 (2):241-256.
    ABSTRACTThe prospect of enhancing ourselves through the use of new biotechnologies is for the most part, hypothetical. Nevertheless, the question of whether we should undertake such enhancement is worthy of discussion as it may become possible in the future. In this article, we consider one form of argument that conservative opponents of biotechnological means of enhancement deploy in opposition to the use of enhancement technologies—the backfiring objection. This is the objection that the use of such technologies is liable to go (...)
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  • Deep Brain Stimulation as a Probative Biology: Scientific Inquiry and the Mosaic Device.Joseph J. Fins - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (1):4-8.
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  • The Value and Pitfalls of Speculation About Science and Technology in Bioethics: The Case of Cognitive Enhancement.Eric Racine, Tristana Martin Rubio, Jennifer Chandler, Cynthia Forlini & Jayne Lucke - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):325-337.
    In the debate on the ethics of the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals for cognitive performance enhancement in healthy individuals there is a clear division between those who view “cognitive enhancement” as ethically unproblematic and those who see such practices as fraught with ethical problems. Yet another, more subtle issue, relates to the relevance and quality of the contribution of scholarly bioethics to this debate. More specifically, how have various forms of speculation, anticipatory ethics, and methods to predict scientific trends and (...)
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  • Does Amphetamine Enhance Your Health? On the Distinction Between Health and “Health-Like” Enhancements.Per-Anders Tengland - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):484-510.
    It is an imperative within health care, medicine, and public health to restore, preserve, and enhance health. Therefore, it is important to determine what kinds of enhancement are increases in health and what kinds are not. Taking as its point of departure two conceptions of health, namely, “manifest health” and “fundamental health,” the paper discusses various means used to enhance ability and well-being, and if those means, such as wheelchairs, implants, medicines, stimulants, or narcotics, enhance health. The fact that some (...)
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  • GM Crops: Patently Wrong? [REVIEW]James Wilson - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (3):261-283.
    This paper focuses on the ethical justifiability of patents on Genetically Modified (GM) crops. I argue that there are three distinguishing features of GM crops that make it unethical to grant patents on GM crops, even if we assume that the patent system is in general justified. The first half of the paper critiques David Resnik’s recent arguments in favor of patents on GM crops. Resnik argues that we should take a consequentialist approach to the issue, and that the best (...)
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  • “At Such a Good School, Everybody Needs It”: Contested Meanings of Prescription Stimulant Use in College Academics.Amy Cooper & Lisa McGee - 2017 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 45 (3):289-313.
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  • Does Kantian Ethics Condone Mood and Cognitive Enhancement?Robert R. Clewis - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):349-361.
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  • Neuroethics.Adina Roskies - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Intellectual Doping and Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement in Education: Some Ethical Questions.Zdenko Kodelja - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 55 (1):167-185.
    Journal of Philosophy of Education, EarlyView.
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  • Freedom of Thought at the Ethical Frontier of Law & Science.Marcus Moore - 2022 - Ethics and Behavior 32 (6):510-531.
    ABSTRACT Some of the most compelling contemporary ethical questions surround 21st Century neuroscientific technologies. Among these, neurocognitive intervention technologies allow an unprecedented ability to alter thought. Concerns exist about their impact on individual freedom, behavior and personhood. They could also distort society, eroding core values of dignity, equality, and diversity. Potent laws are needed to anchor regulation in this rising field. The article explores how the long-neglected human right of Freedom of Thought might protect the integrity of the mind at (...)
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  • Neuroenhancing Public Health.David Shaw - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics (6):2012-101300.
    One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE). The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of “cosmetic neurology”, where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to (as many as 25% of American students already use (...)
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  • Neuroenhancing Public Health.David Shaw - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (6):389-391.
    One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement. The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of ‘cosmetic neurology’, where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to. However, the potential for CE to improve public health has (...)
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  • Neuroenhancers, Addiction and Research Ethics.David Martin Shaw - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):605-608.
    In their recent paper in this journal, Heinz and colleagues accuse proponents of cognitive enhancement of making two unjustified assumptions. The first of these is the assumption that neuroenhancing drugs will be safe; the second is that research into cognitive enhancement does not pose particular ethical problems. Heinz and colleagues argue that both these assumptions are false. Here, I argue that these assumptions are in fact correct, and that Heinz and colleagues themselves make several assumptions that undermine their argument. Neuroenhancement (...)
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  • Technological Unemployment and Human Disenhancement.Michele Loi - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (3):201-210.
    This paper discusses the concept of “human disenhancement”, i.e. the worsening of human individual abilities and expectations through technology. The goal is provoking ethical reflection on technological innovation outside the biomedical realm, in particular the substitution of human work with computer-driven automation. According to some widely accepted economic theories, automatization and computerization are responsible for the disappearance of many middle-class jobs. I argue that, if that is the case, a technological innovation can be a cause of “human disenhancement”, globally, and (...)
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  • Mózg z moralnego punktu widzenia. Postulat neurobiologicznej „rekalibracji etyki”.Barbara Chyrowicz - 2020 - Diametros 17 (63):1-33.
    Z propozycją rekalibracji etyki i zastąpienia jej neuroetyką wystąpiła Patricia S. Churchland. Churchland twierdzi, że im bardziej rozumiemy szczegóły funkcjonowania naszego systemu nerwowego, tym bardziej jesteśmy przekonani co do tego, że przyjmowane przez nas standardy moralnego działania są uwarunkowane neurobiologicznie. Od roku 2002 termin „neuroetyka” funkcjonuje jako nazwa nowej subdyscypliny etyki. Wymienia się w niej dwa zasadnicze działy: etykę neuronauki i neuronaukę etyki. Pierwszy dotyczy zasadniczo moralnych problemów związanych z zastosowaniem osiągnięć neuronauk, przedmiotem drugiego: neuronauki etyki, jest wpływ, jaki wiedza (...)
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  • The Myth of Cognitive Enhancement Drugs.Hazem Zohny - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (3):257-269.
    There are a number of premises underlying much of the vigorous debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement. Among these are claims in the enhancement literature that such drugs exist and are effective among the cognitively normal. These drugs are deemed to enhance cognition specifically, as opposed to other non-cognitive facets of our psychology, such as mood and motivation. The focus on these drugs as cognitive enhancers also suggests that they raise particular ethical questions, or perhaps more pressing ones, compared to those (...)
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  • Neuroethics at 15: Keep the Kant but Add More Bacon.Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, Peter Zuk, Stacey Pereira, Kristin Kostick, Laura Torgerson, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Mary Majumder, J. Blumenthal-Barby, Eric A. Storch, Wayne K. Goodman & Amy L. McGuire - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):97-100.
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  • Neuroscience and Social Problems: The Case of Neuropunishment.Alena Buyx & David Birks - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):628-634.
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  • Moral Enhancement and Freedom.John Harris - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (2):102-111.
    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and (...)
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  • Overtreatment: Is a Solution Possible?Dieneke Hubbeling - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
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  • In Service to Others: A New Evolutionary Perspective on Human Enhancement.Hugh Desmond - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (6):33-43.
    In enhancement ethics, evolutionary theory has been largely perceived as supporting liberal views on enhancement, where decisions to enhance are predominantly regulated by the principle of individual autonomy. In this paper I critique this perception in light of recent scientific developments. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests a picture where individual interests are entangled with community interests, and this undermines the applicability of the principle of autonomy. This is particularly relevant for enhancement ethics, given how – I argue – decisions to enhance (...)
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  • Adderall for All: A Defense of Pediatric Neuroenhancement.Jessica Flanigan - 2013 - HEC Forum 25 (4):325-344.
    I argue that young patients should be able to access neuroenhancing drugs without a diagnosis of ADHD. The current framework of consent for pediatric patients can be adapted to accommodate neuroenhancement. After a brief overview of pediatric neuroenhancement, I develop three arguments in favor of greater acceptance of neuroenhancement for young patients. First, ADHD is not relevantly different from other disadvantages that could be treated with stimulant medication. Second, establishing a legitimate framework for pediatric neuroenhancement would mitigate the bad effects (...)
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  • The Implications of Methylphenidate Use by Healthy Medical Students and Doctors in South Africa.Chad Beyer, Ciara Staunton & Keymanthri Moodley - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):20.
    The use of medical stimulants to sustain attention, augment memory and enhance intellectual capacity is increasing in society. The use of Methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement is a subject that has received much attention in the literature and academic circles in recent times globally. Medical doctors and medical students appear to be equally involved in the off-label use of Methylphenidate. This presents a potential harm to society and the individual as the long-term side effect profile of this medication is unknown.
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  • Visions and Ethics in Current Discourse on Human Enhancement.Arianna Ferrari, Christopher Coenen & Armin Grunwald - 2012 - NanoEthics 6 (3):215-229.
    Since it is now broadly acknowledged that ethics should receive early consideration in discourse on emerging technologies, ethical debates tend to flourish even while new fields of technology are still in their infancy. Such debates often liberally mix existing applications with technologies in the pipeline and far-reaching visions. This paper analyses the problems associated with this use of ethics as “preparatory” research, taking discourse on human enhancement in general and on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement in particular as an example. The paper (...)
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  • Public Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancement.Nicholas S. Fitz, Roland Nadler, Praveena Manogaran, Eugene W. J. Chong & Peter B. Reiner - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):173-188.
    Vigorous debate over the moral propriety of cognitive enhancement exists, but the views of the public have been largely absent from the discussion. To address this gap in our knowledge, four experiments were carried out with contrastive vignettes in order to obtain quantitative data on public attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. The data collected suggest that the public is sensitive to and capable of understanding the four cardinal concerns identified by neuroethicists, and tend to cautiously accept cognitive enhancement even as they (...)
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  • Exploring Some Challenges of the Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement Discourse: Users and Policy Recommendations.Toni Pustovrh & Franc Mali - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):137-158.
    The article explores some of the issues that have arisen in the discourse on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE), that is, the use of stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate, amphetamine and modafinil by healthy individuals of various populations with the aim of improving cognitive performance. Specifically, we explore the presumed sizes of existing PCE user populations and the policy actions that have been proposed regarding the trend of PCE. We begin with an introductory examination of the academic stances and philosophical issues (...)
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  • Reining In the Pharmacological Enhancement Train: We Should Remain Vigilant About Regulatory Standards for Prescribing Controlled Substances.Katherine Drabiak-Syed - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):272-279.
    This article challenges recent assumptions that physicians may ethically and legally prescribe psychopharmacological enhancement drugs to patients and the counterintuitive notion that in some cases ingesting an enhancement drug constitutes the more ethical choice than forgoing this option. Enhancement proponents have touted modafinil as an ideal mechanism to improve concentration, alertness, and forgo sleep and keep pace with our society's demands. However, patients who use modafinil for these reasons risk potentially severe side effects and addiction, and face unintended consequences related (...)
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  • Are Better Workers Also Better Humans? On Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in the Workplace and Conflicting Societal Domains.Tony Pustovrh, Franc Mali & Simone Arnaldi - 2018 - NanoEthics 12 (3):301-313.
    The article investigates the sociocultural implications of the changing modern workplace and of pharmacological cognitive enhancement as a potential adaptive tool from the viewpoint of social niche construction. We will attempt to elucidate some of the sociocultural and technological trends that drive and influence the characteristics of this specific niche, and especially to identify the kind of capabilities and adaptations that are being promoted, and to ascertain the capabilities and potentialities that might become diminished as a result. In this context, (...)
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  • Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs, Behavioral Training and the Mechanism of Cognitive Enhancement.Emma Peng Chien - 2013 - In Elisabeth Hildt & Andreas G. Franke (eds.), Cognitive Enhancement: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 139-144.
    In this chapter, I propose the mechanism of cognitive enhancement based on studies of cognitive-enhancing drugs and behavioral training. I argue that there are mechanistic differences between cognitive-enhancing drugs and behavioral training due to their different enhancing effects. I also suggest possible mechanisms for cognitive-enhancing drugs and behavioral training and for the synergistic effects of their simultaneous application.
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  • Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.Laura Y. Cabrera & Bernice S. Elger - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):95-103.
    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical (...)
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  • Libertarianism, Legitimation, and the Problems of Regulating Cognition-Enhancing Drugs.Benjamin Capps - 2011 - Neuroethics 4 (2):119-128.
    Some libertarians tend to advocate the wide availability of cognition-enhancing drugs beyond their current prescription-only status. They suggest that certain kinds of drugs can be a component of a prudential conception of the ‘good life’—they enhance our opportunities and preferences; and therefore, if a person freely chooses to use them, then there is no justification for the kind of prejudicial, authoritative restrictions that are currently deployed in public policy. In particular, this libertarian idea signifies that if enhancements are a prudential (...)
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  • Ethical Underpinning and Implications of “Nootropic” Concept.Pranab Rudra - 2018 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Philosophica. Ethica-Aesthetica-Practica 32:31--45.
    The current generation paving the path for new research marks a milestone to attain the ancient goal of improving our cognition. To date, increased prevalence of cognitive enhancers by healthy people has raised the scientific community’s attention as well as media coverage. In particular, nootropics such as piracetam promise to offer modest improvements in cognitive performance. The long-lasting impetus of this “holistic enhancer” convinced scientists as well as ethicists to discuss its potential ethical implications and future directions. Moreover, there are (...)
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  • Limitless? Imaginaries of Cognitive Enhancement and the Labouring Body.Brian P. Bloomfield & Karen Dale - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (5):37-63.
    This article seeks to situate pharmacological cognitive enhancement as part of a broader relationship between cultural understandings of the body-brain and the political economy. It is the body of the worker that forms the intersection of this relationship and through which it comes to be enacted and experienced. In this article, we investigate the imaginaries that both inform and are reproduced by representations of pharmacological cognitive enhancement, drawing on cultural sources such as newspaper articles and films, policy documents, and pharmaceutical (...)
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  • The Biopolitical Embodiment of Work in the Era of Human Enhancement.Nicolas Le Dévédec - 2020 - Body and Society 26 (1):55-81.
    Human enhancement or the use of technoscientific and biomedical advances to improve human performance is a social phenomenon that has become increasingly significant in Western societies over the last 15 years or so, notably in the workplace. By focusing on the non-medical use of psychostimulants, and from a perspective that is both critical and exploratory, this article aims to show that human enhancement practices prefigure new forms of embodiment and interiorization of work that are contributing to a significant reconfiguration of (...)
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  • The Multiplicity of Memory Enhancement: Practical and Ethical Implications of the Diverse Neural Substrates Underlying Human Memory Systems.Kieran C. R. Fox, Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):375-388.
    The neural basis of human memory is incredibly complex. We argue that the diversity of neural systems underlying various forms of memory suggests that any discussion of enhancing ‘memory’ per se is too broad, thus obfuscating the biopolitical debate about human enhancement. Memory can be differentiated into at least four major systems with largely dissociable neural substrates. We outline each system, and discuss both the practical and the ethical implications of these diverse neural substrates. In practice, distinct neural bases imply (...)
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  • Eschatology and the Technologies of Human Enhancement.Ronald Cole-Turner - 2016 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 70 (1):21-33.
    Technology today offers to modify human beings in order to enhance intelligence or extend lifespans, perhaps even to create a new human species. How are we to think eschatologically about the short-term future that technology is fashioning? Christian eschatology must start to take human transformation via technology into account when it speaks of the last things and of the promise of God to unite all things in Christ.
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  • Reining in the Pharmacological Enhancement Train: We Should Remain Vigilant About Regulatory Standards for Prescribing Controlled Substances.Katherine Drabiak-Syed - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):272-279.
    In the March 2010 edition of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Drs. Rose and Curry declared that resident physicians have an ethical duty to reduce error during periods of fatigue. Problematically, however, they argued this means ingesting a stimulant for performance enhancement and sleep avoidance during a shift when a resident physician is experiencing fatigue as the more ethical choice than forgoing ingesting a stimulant. Rather than accepting enhancement as an unstoppable technological imperative, this article will examine the underlying motivations for enhancement (...)
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  • Why is Cognitive Enhancement Deemed Unacceptable? The Role of Fairness, Deservingness, and Hollow Achievements.Nadira S. Faber, Julian Savulescu & Thomas Douglas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    We ask why pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) is generally deemed morally unacceptable by lay people. Our approach to this question has two core elements. First, we employ an interdisciplinary perspective, using philosophical rationales as base for generating psychological models. Second, by testing these models we investigate how different normative judgments on PCE are related to each other. Based on an analysis of the relevant philosophical literature, we derive two psychological models that can potentially explain the judgment that PCE is unacceptable: (...)
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  • Die Aussagekraft wirklichkeitsferner Gedankenexperimente für Theorien personaler Identität.Marc Andree Weber - 2017 - In Andreas Oberprantacher & Anne Siegetsleitner (eds.), Mensch sein – Fundament, Imperativ oder Floskel Beiträge zum 10. Kongress der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Philosophie. Innsbruck, Austria: pp. 493-503.
  • Remaking Homo: Ethical Issues on Future Human Enhancement.A. Saniotis - 2013 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 13 (1):15-21.
  • Australian University Students’ Coping Strategies and Use of Pharmaceutical Stimulants as Cognitive Enhancers.Charmaine Jensen, Cynthia Forlini, Brad Partridge & Wayne Hall - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Developing Public Health Approaches to Cognitive Enhancement: An Analysis of Current Reports.S. M. Outram & E. Racine - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (1):93-105.
    In this article, we analyse content from two recent reports to examine how a public health framework to cognitive enhancement is emerging. We find that, in several areas, these reports provide population-level arguments both for and against the use of cognitive enhancers. In discussing these arguments, we look at how these reports are indicative of potentially innovative frameworks—epidemiological, risk/benefit and socio-historical—by which to explore the public health impact of cognitive enhancement. Finally, we argue that these reports are suggestive of both (...)
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  • Ethically Justified, Clinically Applicable Criteria for Physician Decision-Making in Psychopharmacological Enhancement.Matthis Synofzik - 2009 - Neuroethics 2 (2):89-102.
    Advances in psychopharmacology raise the prospects of enhancing neurocognitive functions of humans by improving attention, memory, or mood. While general ethical reflections on psychopharmacological enhancement have been increasingly published in the last years, ethical criteria characterizing physicians’ role in neurocognitive enhancement and guiding their decision-making still remain highly unclear. Here it will be argued that also in the medical domain the use of cognition-enhancing drugs is not intrinsically unethical and that, in fact, physicians should assume an important role in gating (...)
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  • The Neurotechnological Cerebral Subject: Persistence of Implicit and Explicit Gender Norms in a Network of Change. [REVIEW]Sigrid Schmitz - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (3):261-274.
    Abstract Under the realm of neurocultures the concept of the cerebral subject emerges as the central category to define the self, socio-cultural interaction and behaviour. The brain is the reference for explaining cognitive processes and behaviour but at the same time the plastic brain is situated in current paradigms of (self)optimization on the market of meritocracy by means of neurotechnologies. This paper explores whether neurotechnological apparatuses may—due to their hybridity and malleability—bear potentials for a change in gender based attributions that (...)
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  • The Need for Interdisciplinary Dialogue in Developing Ethical Approaches to Neuroeducational Research.Paul A. Howard-Jones & Kate D. Fenton - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (2):119-134.
    This paper argues that many ethical issues in neuroeducational research cannot be appropriately addressed using the principles and guidance available in one of these areas alone, or by applying these in simple combination. Instead, interdisciplinary and public dialogue will be required to develop appropriate normative principles. In developing this argument, it examines neuroscientific and educational perspectives within three broad categories of ethical issue arising at the interface of cognitive neuroscience and education: issues regarding the carrying out of interdisciplinary research, the (...)
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  • Social Justice Theories as the Basis for Public Policy on Psychopharmacological Cognitive Enhancement.Astrid Maria Elfferich - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    Psychopharmacological cognitive enhancements could lead to a higher quality of life of healthy individuals with lower cognitive capacities, but the current regulatory framework does not seem to enable access to this group. This article discusses why Sen’s Capability Approach could open up such access, while two other modern social justice theories – utilitarianism and Rawls’ Justice as Fairness – could not. In short, the utilitarian approach is proven to be inadequate, due to practical reasons and having a low chance of (...)
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  • Fooled by ‘Smart Drugs’ – Why Shouldn’T Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement Be Liberally Used in Education?Magen Inon - 2018 - Ethics and Education 14 (1):54-69.
    ABSTRACTResearch shows that various pharmaceuticals can offer modest cognition enhancing effects for healthy individuals. These finding have caused some academics to support liberal use of pharmacological cognitive enhancement in schools and universities. This approach partially arises from arguments implying there is little moral justification for regulating such drugs. In this paper, I argue against the liberal use of PCE on epistemic grounds. According to Charles Taylor, emotions and behaviour are epistemically valuable because they tell us meaningful things about reality. Hence, (...)
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  • Alcohol and Drug Testing of Health Professionals Following Preventable Adverse Events: A Bad Idea.John Banja - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (12):25-36.
    Various kinds of alcohol and drug testing, such as preemployment, routine, and for-cause testing, are commonly performed by employers. While healthcare organizations usually require preemployment drug testing, they vary on whether personnel will be subjected to further testing. Recently, a call has gone out for postincident testing among physicians who are involved in serious, preventable events, especially ones leading to a patient's death. This article will offer a number of counterarguments to that proposal and discuss an alternate approach: that health (...)
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  • Cognitive Enhancement: Unanswered Questions About Human Psychology and Social Behavior.Wren Boehlen, Sebastian Sattler & Eric Racine - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-25.
    Stimulant drugs, transcranial magnetic stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, and even genetic modifications are all discussed as forms of potential cognitive enhancement. Cognitive enhancement can be conceived as a benefit-seeking strategy used by healthy individuals to enhance cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention, or vigilance. This phenomenon is hotly debated in the public, professional, and scientific literature. Many of the statements favoring cognitive enhancement or opposing it rely on claims about human welfare and human flourishing. But with real-world evidence from the (...)
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  • Reasons for Comfort and Discomfort with Pharmacological Enhancement of Cognitive, Affective, and Social Domains.Laura Y. Cabrera, Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (2):93-106.
    The debate over the propriety of cognitive enhancement evokes both enthusiasm and worry. To gain further insight into the reasons that people may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological enhancement, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards PE of twelve cognitive, affective, and social domains. Participants from Canada and the United States were recruited using Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one vignette that described an individual who uses a pill to enhance a single domain. After (...)
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