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  1. Causes and Consequences of Mind Perception.Adam Waytz, Kurt Gray, Nicholas Epley & Daniel M. Wegner - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):383-388.
    Perceiving others? minds is a crucial component of social life. People do not, however, always ascribe minds to other people, and sometimes ascribe minds to non-people. This article reviews when mind perception occurs, when it does not, and why mind perception is important. Causes of mind perception stem both from the perceiver and perceived, and include the need for social connection and a similarity to oneself. Mind perception also has profound consequences for both the perceiver and perceived. Ascribing mind confers (...)
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  • Sex Robots: Are We Ready for Them? An Exploration of the Psychological Mechanisms Underlying People’s Receptiveness of Sex Robots.Junzhao Ma, Dewi Tojib & Yelena Tsarenko - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 178 (4):1091-1107.
    Artificial Intelligence -powered products have started to permeate various spheres of our lives. One of the most controversial of such products is the sex robot, an application of the AI-integrated robotic technology in the domain of human sexual gratification. The aim of this research is to understand the general public’s receptiveness towards this controversial new invention. Drawing upon the social intuitionist model, we find that the fear of AI, emblematic of the broader anxiety of technology’s encroachment on the human sphere, (...)
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  • A Moral Theory of Public Service Motivation.Tse-Min Wang, Arjen van Witteloostuijn & Florian Heine - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Morality constructs the relationship between the self and others, providing a sense of appropriateness that facilitates and coordinates social behaviors. We start from Moral Foundation Theory (MFT), and argue that multiple moral domains can shape the meaning of public service and engender Public Service Motivation (PSM). From the lens of cognitive science, we develop a causal map for PSM by understanding the social cognition process underlying PSM, focusing on five innate moralities as the potential antecedents of PSM: Care, Fairness, Authority, (...)
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  • The Effects of Spirituality and Religiosity on the Ethical Judgment in Organizations.Faisal Alshehri, Marianna Fotaki & Saleema Kauser - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 174 (3):567-593.
    Despite the obvious link between spirituality, religiosity and ethical judgment, a definition for the nature of this relationship remains elusive due to conceptual and methodological limitations. To address these, we propose an integrative Spiritual-based model derived from categories presumed to be universal across religions and cultural contexts, to guide future business ethics research on religiosity. This article aims to empirically test in the context of Islam. It examines how different Muslims' views of God influence their ethical judgments in organizations, and (...)
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  • Dostoevsky, Confession, and the Evolutionary Origins of Conscience.Tom Dolack - 2020 - Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 4 (2):19-32.
    Fyodor Dostoevsky is renowned as one of the greatest psychologists in world literature, but what we know about the origins and the workings of the human mind has changed drasti­cally since the late nineteenth century. If Dostoevsky was such a sensitive reader of the human condition, do his insights hold up to modern research? To judge just by the issue of the psychology of confession, the answer appears to be: yes. The work of Michael Tomasel­lo indicates that the human conscience (...)
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  • Development and Validation of the Purity Orientation–Pollution Avoidance Scale: A Study With Japanese Sample.Hideya Kitamura & Akiko Matsuo - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The moral foundations theory (MFT) proposes that there are five moral foundations that work as the standard to make moral judgments. Among them, the purity foundation is a complex concept. It is considered to be a distinctive foundation compared with the other ones partly because it involves religious beliefs. The assumption underlying the purity foundation is Christian beliefs, so the MFT was developed and made prevalent mostly in the Western cultures. However, because of that assumption, cultural differences in perceiving the (...)
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  • When ignorance is no excuse: Different roles for intent across moral domains.Liane Young & Rebecca Saxe - 2011 - Cognition 120 (2):202-214.
  • Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social.Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta & Agnieszka Wykowska - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  • Synchronous rituals and social bonding: Revitalizing conceptions of individual personhood in the evolution of religion.Léon Turner - 2021 - Zygon 56 (4):898-921.
    Zygon®, Volume 56, Issue 4, Page 898-921, December 2021.
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  • Emotional bonds: Bridging the gap between evolutionary and humanistic accounts of religious belief.Léon Turner - 2020 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 42 (1):6-28.
    Recent years have seen a growing willingness in the evolutionary cognitive science of religion to embrace an inclusive, theoretically pluralistic approach and the emergence of a broad consensus around some key themes that collectively constitute a central theoretical core of the field. Nevertheless, ECSR still raises serious problems for some in the humanities. In exploring the reasons for the perception of conflict between humanistic and cognitive evolutionary approaches to religion, I suggest that both ECSR’s default account of the origins of (...)
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  • The Common-Core/Diversity Dilemma: Revisions of Humean thought, New Empirical Research, and the Limits of Rational Religious Belief.Branden Thornhill-Miller & Peter Millican - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (1):1--49.
    This paper is the product of an interdisciplinary, interreligious dialogue aiming to outline some of the possibilities and rational limits of supernatural religious belief, in the light of a critique of David Hume’s familiar sceptical arguments -- including a rejection of his famous Maxim on miracles -- combined with a range of striking recent empirical research. The Humean nexus leads us to the formulation of a new ”Common-Core/Diversity Dilemma’, which suggests that the contradictions between different religious belief systems, in conjunction (...)
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  • Muslim Faith in Pakistan: A Faith-Development View on Fundamentalist to Mature Orientations.Amina Hanif Tarar, Syeda Salma Hassan & Barbara Keller - 2017 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 39 (1):27-60.
    Faith development theory has evolved as a prominent theoretical perspective during the past three decades to explain different ways of relating to religious beliefs and worldviews. Recent revisions of the theory have elaborated on these characteristic ways as religious styles namely the fundamentalist, mutual, individuative-systemic, and dialogical. The present study developed an Urdu version of its principal measure, i.e., Faith Development Interview, to analyze twelve cases of Muslims of various religious affiliations within Islam in Pakistan. Four case studies representative of (...)
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  • Managerial Ethics: Managing the Psychology of Morality, ed. Marshall Schminke.Isaac H. Smith & Arthur P. Brief - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (2):456-463.
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  • Social and Individual Religious Orientations Exist Within Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religiosity.Lloyd Sloan, Jamie Barden & Debbie Van Camp - 2016 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 38 (1):22-46.
    This research presents the development of a measure of religiosity that includes social intrinsic religiosity as distinct from extrinsic religiosity and from the typical conceptualization of intrinsic religiosity as an individual orientation. Study 1 developed the measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis; the results confirmed two intrinsic identity factors and two extrinsic benefit factors. Correlations with previously established religiosity measures demonstrate the scales construct validity and that social intrinsic religiosity is independent from extrinsic religiosity. In Study 2, differential responding (...)
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  • Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence.Peter Richerson, Ryan Baldini, Adrian V. Bell, Kathryn Demps, Karl Frost, Vicken Hillis, Sarah Mathew, Emily K. Newton, Nicole Naar, Lesley Newson, Cody Ross, Paul E. Smaldino, Timothy M. Waring & Matthew Zefferman - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-71.
    Human cooperation is highly unusual. We live in large groups composed mostly of non-relatives. Evolutionists have proposed a number of explanations for this pattern, including cultural group selection and extensions of more general processes such as reciprocity, kin selection, and multi-level selection acting on genes. Evolutionary processes are consilient; they affect several different empirical domains, such as patterns of behavior and the proximal drivers of that behavior. In this target article, we sketch the evidence from five domains that bear on (...)
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  • Global Citizenship Identification and Religiosity.Stephen Reysen, Iva Katzarska-Miller & Carole A. Barnsley - 2014 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 36 (3):344-367.
    In four studies we examine the associations between religiosity, global citizenship identification, and various kinds of values. Across the studies, general trends emerged showing that religiosity is unrelated to global citizenship identification, and positively related to exclusionary values. However, examination of the varied motivations to be religious showed that quest religious motivation is positively related to global citizenship identification, as well as inclusionary and prosocial values. Furthermore, quest religious motivation was found to positively influence the antecedents and outcomes of global (...)
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  • Religion as an Evolutionary Byproduct: A Critique of the Standard Model.Russell Powell & Steve Clarke - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):457-486.
    The dominant view in the cognitive science of religion (the ‘Standard Model’) is that religious belief and behaviour are not adaptive traits but rather incidental byproducts of the cognitive architecture of mind. Because evidence for the Standard Model is inconclusive, the case for it depends crucially on its alleged methodological superiority to selectionist alternatives. However, we show that the Standard Model has both methodological and evidential disadvantages when compared with selectionist alternatives. We also consider a pluralistic approach, which holds that (...)
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  • The role of analytic thinking in moral judgements and values.Gordon Pennycook, James Allan Cheyne, Nathaniel Barr, Derek J. Koehler & Jonathan A. Fugelsang - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):188-214.
    While individual differences in the willingness and ability to engage analytic processing have long informed research in reasoning and decision making, the implications of such differences have not yet had a strong influence in other domains of psychological research. We claim that analytic thinking is not limited to problems that have a normative basis and, as an extension of this, predict that individual differences in analytic thinking will be influential in determining beliefs and values. Along with assessments of cognitive ability (...)
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  • The cultural evolution of prosocial religions.Ara Norenzayan, Azim F. Shariff, Will M. Gervais, Aiyana K. Willard, Rita A. McNamara, Edward Slingerland & Joseph Henrich - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-86.
    We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10–12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other (...)
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  • Judgments of Religiosity Following Minimal Interaction.Benjamin R. Meagher - 2016 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 38 (1):1-21.
    In the current study, unacquainted groups of both religious Christians and nonreligious atheists/agnostics rated themselves and each other on a number of attributes, including religiosity and morality. A Social Relations analysis revealed small, but statistically significant levels of consensus for impressions of religiosity. Subsequent correlations indicated that groups relied on the target's gender and race to reach consensus. Analyses of participants’ idiosyncratic ratings revealed similarity between religious and non-religious perceivers in terms of their association of high morality with religiousness. Religious (...)
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  • Religiosity and Group-Binding Moral Concerns.Jordan P. LaBouff, Matthew Humphreys & Megan Johnson Shen - 2017 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 39 (3):263-282.
    _ Source: _Page Count 20 Research by Graham and Haidt suggests that beliefs, rituals, and other social aspects of religion establish moral communities. As such, they suggest religion is most strongly associated with the group-focused “binding” moral foundations of ingroup/loyalty, authority/respect, and purity/sanctity. Two studies tested this hypothesis, investigating the role of political orientation in these relationships. These studies supported our hypothesis that general religiosity is positively associated with each of the group-focused moral foundations, even when controlling for the role (...)
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  • Personality and Social Integration Factors Distinguishing Nonreligious from Religious Groups: The Importance of Controlling for Attendance and Demographics.Jim Kloet & Luke W. Galen - 2011 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 33 (2):205-228.
    Previous studies linking personality and social integration with religiosity conflate the weakly religious with the completely nonreligious, and religious belief with group membership, leading to spurious associations. The present study characterizes the growing nonreligious population by comparing church and secular group members on personality characteristics and social integration. Although church members were higher in Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and perceived social support, these differences were largely eliminated when controlling for demographics and group attendance. Secular group members were higher on Intellect/Openness. Many previously (...)
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  • The Influence of Multiple Group Identities on Moral Foundations.Saera R. Khan & Michael Nick Stagnaro - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (3):194-214.
    Moral foundations theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding the universal and societal aspects of morality. The focus thus far has been on understanding the influence of group categories on moral foundations by controlling for relevant factors and then examining the unique contribution of a single factor. Although this type of analysis was critical to demonstrate the efficacy of the Moral Foundations Theory and Moral Foundations Questionnaire, the current study examines moral responses from the intersection of culture, ethnic identity and (...)
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  • Explaining effervescence: Investigating the relationship between shared social identity and positive experience in crowds.Nick Hopkins, Stephen D. Reicher, Sammyh S. Khan, Shruti Tewari, Narayanan Srinivasan & Clifford Stevenson - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 30 (1):20-32.
  • Ideology, shared moral narratives, and the dark side of collective rationalization.Jesse Graham - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    This commentary extends the target article's useful concepts to consider collective instances of representational exchange. When groups collectively rationalize their actions, entire networks of beliefs and desires can be created and maintained in the form of shared moral narratives and system-justifying ideologies. These collective rationalization cases illustrate how adaptive advantages can come at the expense of the truth.
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  • Secular Examination of Spirituality-Prosociality Association.Mengchen Dong, Song Wu, Yijie Zhu, Shenghua Jin & Yanjun Zhang - 2017 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 39 (1):61-81.
    Religious beliefs in Chinese cultural background, especially in Chinese secular society, have rarely been systematically investigated. The nonreligious-based population in China endorses certain supernatural beliefs or has related transcendent experience, even though they usually claim themselves as non-believers. Therefore, the current research examined the spirituality-prosociality association in Chinese secular background, demonstrating how spiritual connection with the transcendence related to individual secular social life. A total of 440 Chinese participants completed our questionnaires in three survey studies. The results showed that: 1) (...)
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  • Persuasive ethical appeals and climate messaging: A survey of religious Americans’ philosophical preferences.Victoria DePalma - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-32.
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  • Bonding During the Night of the Churches Converging and Differing Experiences of Churchgoers and Non-Churchgoers.Elpine M. de Boer & Henk de Roest - 2016 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 38 (1):47-71.
    How should we understand the paradoxical phenomenon that people are showing substantial interest in new events organized by the church in a western-European society that is characterized by dwindling church attendance? An explorative questionnaire study among churchgoers and non-churchgoers was conducted who chose to attend the so-called Night of the Churches in the Netherlands. The majority of the respondents indicated that they experience the Night of the Churches to be a qualitatively different phenomenon from other festivals. Our data suggest that (...)
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  • Opposing Abortion, Gay Adoption, Euthanasia, and Suicide.Csilla Deak & Vassilis Saroglou - 2015 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 37 (3):267-294.
    In secularized modern Western societies, moral opposition to the liberalization of abortion, gay adoption, euthanasia, and suicide often relies on justifications based on other-oriented motives. Moreover, some argue that the truly open-minded people may be those who, against the stream, oppose the established dominant liberal values in modern societies. We investigated whether moral and religious opposition to, vs. the acceptance of, the above four issues, as well as the endorsement of respective con vs. pro arguments reflect “compassionate openness”, “compassionate conservatism”, (...)
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  • Straight out of Durkheim? Haidt’s Neo-Durkheimian Account of Religion and the Cognitive Science of Religion.Steve Clarke - 2018 - Sophia:1-14.
    Jon Haidt, a leading figure in contemporary moral psychology, advocates a participation-centric view of religion, according to which participation in religious communal activity is significantly more important than belief in explaining religious behaviour and commitment. He describes the participation-centric view as ‘Straight out of Durkheim’. I argue that this is a misreading of Durkheim, who held that religious behaviour and commitment are the joint products of belief and participation, with neither belief nor participation being considered more important than the other. (...)
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  • Straight out of Durkheim? Haidt’s Neo-Durkheimian Account of Religion and the Cognitive Science of Religion.Steve Clarke - 2020 - Sophia 59 (2):197-210.
    Jon Haidt, a leading figure in contemporary moral psychology, advocates a participation-centric view of religion, according to which participation in religious communal activity is significantly more important than belief in explaining religious behaviour and commitment. He describes the participation-centric view as ‘Straight out of Durkheim’. I argue that this is a misreading of Durkheim, who held that religious behaviour and commitment are the joint products of belief and participation, with neither belief nor participation being considered more important than the other. (...)
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  • Religiosity and Voluntary Simplicity: The Mediating Role of Spiritual Well-Being.Rafi Chowdhury - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 152 (1):149-174.
    Although there has been considerable theoretical support outlining a positive relationship between religiosity and voluntary simplicity, there is limited empirical evidence validating this relationship. This study examines the relationships among religious orientations :432–443, 1967) and voluntary simplicity in a sample of Australian consumers. The results demonstrate that intrinsic religiosity is positively related to voluntary simplicity; however, there is no relationship between extrinsic religiosity and voluntary simplicity. Furthermore, this research investigates the processes through which intrinsic religiosity affects voluntary simplicity. The relationship (...)
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  • Christians and Buddhists Are Comparably Happy on Twitter: A Large-Scale Linguistic Analysis of Religious Differences in Social, Cognitive, and Emotional Tendencies.Chih-Yu Chen & Tsung-Ren Huang - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Satisfaction of Spiritual Needs and Self-Rated Health among Churchgoers.Deborah Bruce †, Neal Krause, Cynthia Woolever & R. David Hayward - 2014 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 36 (1):86-104.
    Research indicates that greater involvement in religion may be associated with better physical health. The purpose of this study is to see if the satisfaction of spiritual needs is associated with health. This model that contains the following core hypotheses: Individuals who attend church more often are more likely to receive spiritual support from fellow church members than people who attend worship services less frequently ; receiving more spiritual support is associated with stronger feelings of belonging in a congregation; individuals (...)
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  • Exploring the relationship between church worship, social bonding and moral values.Jennifer E. Brown, Valerie van Mulukom, Jonathan Jong, Fraser Watts & Miguel Farias - 2022 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 44 (1):3-22.
    Religion is often understood to play a positive role in shaping moral attitudes among believers. We assessed the relationship between church members’ levels of felt connectedness to their respective congregations and perceived similarity in personal and congregational moral values, and whether there was a relationship between these and the amount of time spent in synchronous movement or singing during worship. The similarity between personal and perceived congregational moral importance was correlated with feelings of closeness to one’s congregation but not by (...)
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  • Religious But Not Ethical: The Effects of Extrinsic Religiosity, Ethnocentrism and Self-righteousness on Consumers’ Ethical Judgments.Denni Arli, Felix Septianto & Rafi M. M. I. Chowdhury - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 171 (2):295-316.
    The current research investigates how religiosity can influence unethicality in a consumption context. In particular, considering the link between extrinsic religious orientations and unethicality, this research clarifies why and when extrinsic religiosity leads to unethical decisions. Across two studies, findings show that ethnocentrism is both a mediator and a moderator of the effects of extrinsic religiosity on consumers’ ethical judgments. This is because extrinsic religiosity leads to ethnocentrism, and in-group loyalty manifested through ethnocentrism increases support for unethical consumer actions, thus (...)
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  • Religious Expression and Crowdfunded Microfinance Success: Insights from Role Congruity Theory.Aaron H. Anglin, Hana Milanov & Jeremy C. Short - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-30.
    Crowdfunded microfinance provides financial resources to impoverished entrepreneurs across the globe based on online appeals describing the entrepreneur’s values and venture potential and is considered a key player in the ethical finance movement. Despite knowledge that the content of the appeals impacts funding success, little is known regarding the role of religious expression, which is common and consequential in socially-oriented contexts. We leverage role congruity theory to address a theoretical tension concerning the effects of religious expression on crowdfunded microfinance funding (...)
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  • Muslims’ View of God as a Predictor of Ethical Behaviour in Organisations: Scale Development and Validation.Marianna Fotaki, Saleema Kauser & Faisal Alshehri - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (4):1009-1027.
    While there is a widespread acceptance of the link between religiosity and ethics, there is less certainty how this influence occurs exactly, necessitating further research into these issues. A main roadblock to our understanding of this influence from an Islamic perspective is the absence of a validated measurement tool. The purpose of this study therefore is to develop a Scale of Muslims’ Views of Allah. This article discusses how the SMVA was developed through the following five steps: establishment of content (...)
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  • Intuitive And Reflective Responses In Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Colorado
    Cognitive scientists have revealed systematic errors in human reasoning. There is disagreement about what these errors indicate about human rationality, but one upshot seems clear: human reasoning does not seem to fit traditional views of human rationality. This concern about rationality has made its way through various fields and has recently caught the attention of philosophers. The concern is that if philosophers are prone to systematic errors in reasoning, then the integrity of philosophy would be threatened. In this paper, I (...)
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  • The Challenge of Evolution to Religion.Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz - 2020 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element focuses on three challenges of evolution to religion: teleology, human origins, and the evolution of religion itself. First, religious worldviews tend to presuppose a teleological understanding of the origins of living things, but scientists mostly understand evolution as non-teleological. Second, religious and scientific accounts of human origins do not align in a straightforward sense. Third, evolutionary explanations of religion, including religious beliefs and practices, may cast doubt on their justification. We show how these tensions arise and offer potential (...)
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  • Religion and reducing prejudice.Joanna Burch-Brown & William Baker - 2016 - Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 19 (6):784 - 807.
    Drawing on findings from the study of prejudice and prejudice reduction, we identify a number of mechanisms through which religious communities may influence the intergroup attitudes of their members. We hypothesize that religious participation could in principle either reduce or promote prejudice with respect to any given target group. A religious community’s influence on intergroup attitudes will depend upon the specific beliefs, attitudes, and practices found within the community, as well as on interactions between the religious community and the larger (...)
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  • Religiosity as self-enhancement: a meta-analysis of the relation between socially desirable responding and religiosity.Constantine Sedikides & Jochen E. Gebauer - unknown
    In a meta-analysis, the authors test the theoretical formulation that religiosity is a means for self-enhancement. The authors operationalized self-enhancement as socially desirable responding (SDR) and focused on three facets of religiosity: intrinsic,extrinsic, and religion-as-quest. Importantly, they assessed two moderators of the relation between SDR and religiosity. Macrolevel culture reflected countries that varied in degree of religiosity (from high to low: United States, Canada, United Kingdom). Micro-level culture reflected U.S. universities high (christian) versus low (secular) on religiosity. The results were (...)
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  • Morality and Religion: A Psychological Perspective.Anca Mustea, Oana Negru & Adrian Opre - 2010 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 9 (26):18-35.
    The present article investigates how psychological theories of morality approach the relation between morality and religion, debating the role religion plays in human moral development in contemporary societies. Firstly, we critically discuss how the major approaches of morality in psychological theory and research view human moral conduct and moral reasoning. Secondly, we appraise cultural psychology conceptualizations of morality, depicting how they fit religion in a relativist approach on what is moral. Thirdly, capitalizing on the findings of cross-cultural research regarding the (...)
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