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  1. Concerns About Psychiatric Neurosurgery and How They Can Be Overcome: Recommendations for Responsible Research.Sabine Müller, Ansel van Oosterhout, Chris Bervoets, Markus Christen, Roberto Martínez-Álvarez & Merlin Bittlinger - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-26.
    BackgroundPsychiatric neurosurgery is experiencing a revival. Beside deep brain stimulation, several ablative neurosurgical procedures are currently in use. Each approach has a different profile of advantages and disadvantages. However, many psychiatrists, ethicists, and laypeople are sceptical about psychiatric neurosurgery.MethodsWe identify the main concerns against psychiatric neurosurgery, and discuss the extent to which they are justified and how they might be overcome. We review the evidence for the effectiveness, efficacy and safety of each approach, and discuss how this could be improved. (...)
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  • Memory Modification and Authenticity: A Narrative Approach.Muriel Leuenberger - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-19.
    The potential of memory modification techniques has raised concerns and sparked a debate in neuroethics, particularly in the context of identity and authenticity. This paper addresses the question whether and how MMTs influence authenticity. I proceed by drawing two distinctions within the received views on authenticity. From this, I conclude that an analysis of MMTs based on a dual-basis, process view of authenticity is warranted, which implies that the influence of MMTs on authenticity crucially depends on the specifics of how (...)
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  • Experimental Philosophical Bioethics of Personal Identity.Brian D. Earp, Jonathan Lewis, J. Skorburg, Ivar Hannikainen & Jim A. C. Everett - forthcoming - In Kevin P. Tobia (ed.), Experimental Philosophy of Identity and the Self. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 183-202.
    The question of what makes someone the same person through time and change has long been a preoccupation of philosophers. In recent years, the question of what makes ordinary or lay people (that is, individuals from a wide range of backgrounds, including non-philosophers) judge that someone is – or isn’t – the same person has caught the interest of experimental psychologists. These latter, empirically oriented researchers have sought to understand the cognitive processes and eliciting factors that shape ordinary people’s judgments (...)
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  • Losing Meaning: Philosophical Reflections on Neural Interventions and Their Influence on Narrative Identity.Muriel Leuenberger - 2021 - Neuroethics (3):491-505.
    The profound changes in personality, mood, and other features of the self that neural interventions can induce can be disconcerting to patients, their families, and caregivers. In the neuroethical debate, these concerns are often addressed in the context of possible threats to the narrative self. In this paper, I argue that it is necessary to consider a dimension of impacts on the narrative self which has so far been neglected: neural interventions can lead to a loss of meaning of actions, (...)
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  • Self-Implant Ambiguity? Understanding Self-Related Changes in Deep Brain Stimulation.Robyn Bluhm & Laura Y. Cabrera - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations:1-19.
    Deep brain stimulation uses electrodes implanted in the brain to modulate dysregulated brain activity related to a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. A number of people who u...
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  • Researcher Views on Changes in Personality, Mood, and Behavior in Next-Generation Deep Brain Stimulation.Peter Zuk, Clarissa E. Sanchez, Kristin Kostick-Quenet, Katrina A. Muñoz, Lavina Kalwani, Richa Lavingia, Laura Torgerson, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Jill O. Robinson, Stacey Pereira, Simon Outram, Barbara A. Koenig, Amy L. McGuire & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience:1-13.
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  • What we (Should) Talk about when we Talk about Deep Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity.Robyn Bluhm, Laura Cabrera & Rachel McKenzie - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (3):289-301.
    A number of reports have suggested that patients who undergo deep brain stimulation may experience changes to their personality or sense of self. These reports have attracted great philosophical interest. This paper surveys the philosophical literature on personal identity and DBS and draws on an emerging empirical literature on the experiences of patients who have undergone this therapy to argue that the existing philosophical discussion of DBS and personal identity frames the problem too narrowly. Much of the discussion by neuroethicists (...)
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  • Mapping the Ethical Issues of Brain Organoid Research and Application.Tsutomu Sawai, Yoshiyuki Hayashi, Takuya Niikawa, Joshua Shepherd, Elizabeth Thomas, Tsung-Ling Lee, Alexandre Erler, Momoko Watanabe & Hideya Sakaguchi - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (2):81-94.
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  • Autonomy and the Limits of Cognitive Enhancement.Jonathan Lewis - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (1):15-22.
    In the debates regarding the ethics of human enhancement, proponents have found it difficult to refute the concern, voiced by certain bioconservatives, that cognitive enhancement violates the autonomy of the enhanced. However, G. Owen Schaefer, Guy Kahane and Julian Savulescu have attempted not only to avoid autonomy-based bioconservative objections, but to argue that cognition-enhancing biomedical interventions can actually enhance autonomy. In response, this paper has two aims: firstly, to explore the limits of their argument; secondly, and more importantly, to develop (...)
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  • What’s Special About ‘Not Feeling Like Oneself’? A Deflationary Account of Self(-Illness) Ambiguity.Roy Dings & Leon C. de Bruin - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations:1-21.
    The article provides a conceptualization of self ambiguity and investigates to what extent self ambiguity is ‘special’. First, we draw on empirical findings to argue that self-a...
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  • DBS and Autonomy: Clarifying the Role of Theoretical Neuroethics.Peter Zuk & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):83-93.
    In this article, we sketch how theoretical neuroethics can clarify the concept of autonomy. We hope that this can both serve as a model for the conceptual clarification of other components of PIAAAS and contribute to the development of the empirical measures that Gilbert and colleagues [1] propose.
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  • Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS.Cynthia S. Kubu, Paul J. Ford, Joshua A. Wilt, Amanda R. Merner, Michelle Montpetite, Jaclyn Zeigler & Eric Racine - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):95-105.
    Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...)
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  • DBS and Autonomy: Clarifying the Role of Theoretical Neuroethics.Peter Zuk & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):83-93.
    In this article, we sketch how theoretical neuroethics can clarify the concept of autonomy. We hope that this can both serve as a model for the conceptual clarification of other components of PIAAAS and contribute to the development of the empirical measures that Gilbert and colleagues [1] propose.
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  • Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS.Cynthia S. Kubu, Paul J. Ford, Joshua A. Wilt, Amanda R. Merner, Michelle Montpetite, Jaclyn Zeigler & Eric Racine - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):95-105.
    Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...)
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  • Brain Interventions, Moral Responsibility, and Control Over One’s Mental Life.Gabriel De Marco - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (3):221-229.
    In the theoretical literature on moral responsibility, one sometimes comes across cases of manipulated agents. In cases of this type, the agent is a victim of wholesale manipulation, involving the implantation of various pro-attitudes along with the deletion of competing pro-attitudes. As a result of this manipulation, the agent ends up performing some action unlike any that she would have performed were it not for the manipulation. These sorts of cases are sometimes thought to motivate historical views of responsibility, on (...)
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  • Discussions of DBS in Neuroethics: Can We Deflate the Bubble Without Deflating Ethics?Alexandre Erler - 2019 - Neuroethics 14 (Suppl 1):75-81.
    Gilbert and colleagues are to be commended for drawing our attention to the need for a sounder empirical basis, and for more careful reasoning, in the context of the neuroethics debate on Deep Brain Stimulation and its potential impact on the dimensions of personality, identity, agency, authenticity, autonomy and self. While acknowledging this, this extended commentary critically examines their claim that the real-world relevance of the conclusions drawn in the neuroethics literature is threatened by the fact that the concepts at (...)
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  • Pattern Theory of Self and Situating Moral Aspects: The Need to Include Authenticity, Autonomy and Responsibility in Understanding the Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation.Przemysław Zawadzki - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-24.
    The aims of this paper are to: identify the best framework for comprehending multidimensional impact of deep brain stimulation on the self; identify weaknesses of this framework; propose refinements to it; in pursuing, show why and how this framework should be extended with additional moral aspects and demonstrate their interrelations; define how moral aspects relate to the framework; show the potential consequences of including moral aspects on evaluating DBS’s impact on patients’ selves. Regarding, I argue that the pattern theory of (...)
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  • Clarifying the Normative Significance of ‘Personality Changes’ Following Deep Brain Stimulation.Jonathan Pugh - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1655-1680.
    There is evidence to suggest that some patients who undergo Deep Brain Stimulation can experience changes to dispositional, emotional and behavioural states that play a central role in conceptions of personality, identity, autonomy, authenticity, agency and/or self. For example, some patients undergoing DBS for Parkinson’s Disease have developed hypersexuality, and some have reported increased apathy. Moreover, experimental psychiatric applications of DBS may intentionally seek to elicit changes to the patient’s dispositional, emotional and behavioural states, in so far as dysfunctions in (...)
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  • An Instrument to Capture the Phenomenology of Implantable Brain Device Use.Frederic Gilbert, Brown, Dasgupta, Martens, Klein & Goering - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (S3):333-340.
    One important concern regarding implantable Brain Computer Interfaces is the fear that the intervention will negatively change a patient’s sense of identity or agency. In particular, there is concern that the user will be psychologically worse-off following treatment despite postoperative functional improvements. Clinical observations from similar implantable brain technologies, such as deep brain stimulation, show a small but significant proportion of patients report feelings of strangeness or difficulty adjusting to a new concept of themselves characterized by a maladaptive je ne (...)
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  • An Instrument to Capture the Phenomenology of Implantable Brain Device Use.Frederic Gilbert, Brown, Dasgupta, Martens, Klein & Goering - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (3):333-340.
    One important concern regarding implantable Brain Computer Interfaces is the fear that the intervention will negatively change a patient’s sense of identity or agency. In particular, there is concern that the user will be psychologically worse-off following treatment despite postoperative functional improvements. Clinical observations from similar implantable brain technologies, such as deep brain stimulation, show a small but significant proportion of patients report feelings of strangeness or difficulty adjusting to a new concept of themselves characterized by a maladaptive je ne (...)
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  • Neuroessentialism, our Technological Future, and DBS Bubbles.Maxence Gaillard - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):39-45.
    Having reviewed a considerable body of scholarly work in neuroethics related to DBS, Gilbert, Viaña, and Ineichen identify a major flaw in the debate—a “bubble” in the literature—and propose new directions for research. This comment addresses the authors’ diagnosis: What exactly is the nature of this bubble? Here, I argue that there are at least two different orientations in the “DBS causes personality changes” bubble. According to a first narrative, DBS is a special technology because its direct, causal action on (...)
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  • Evidence-Based Neuroethics, Deep Brain Stimulation and Personality - Deflating, but Not Bursting, the Bubble.Jonathan Pugh, Laurie Pycroft, Hannah Maslen, Tipu Aziz & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Neuroethics 14 (Suppl 1):27-38.
    Gilbert et al. have raised important questions about the empirical grounding of neuroethical analyses of the apparent phenomenon of Deep Brain Stimulation ‘causing’ personality changes. In this paper, we consider how to make neuroethical claims appropriately calibrated to existing evidence, and the role that philosophical neuroethics has to play in this enterprise of ‘evidence-based neuroethics’. In the first half of the paper, we begin by highlighting the challenges we face in investigating changes to PIAAAS following DBS, explaining how different trial (...)
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  • It’s Not Just Counting that Counts: a Reply to Gilbert, Viaña, and Ineichen.Robyn Bluhm & Laura Y. Cabrera - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):23-26.
    Gilbert et al. argue that discussions of self-related changes in patients undergoing DBS are overblown. They show that there is little evidence that these changes occur frequently and make recommendations for further research. We point out that their framing of the issue, their methodology, and their recommendations do not attend to other important questions about these changes.
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  • Changes in Personality Associated with Deep Brain Stimulation: A Qualitative Evaluation of Clinician Perspectives.Cassandra J. Thomson, Rebecca A. Segrave & Adrian Carter - 2019 - Neuroethics 14 (Suppl 1):109-124.
    Gilbert et al. argue that the neuroethics literature discussing the putative effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on personality largely ignores the scientific evidence and presents distorted claims that personality change is induced by the DBS stimulation. This study contributes to the first-hand primary research on the topic exploring DBS clinicians’ views on post-DBS personality change among their patients and its underlying cause. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen clinicians from various disciplines working in Australian DBS practice for movement disorders and/or (...)
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  • Changes in Personality Associated with Deep Brain Stimulation: a Qualitative Evaluation of Clinician Perspectives.Cassandra J. Thomson, Rebecca A. Segrave & Adrian Carter - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):109-124.
    Gilbert et al. argue that the neuroethics literature discussing the putative effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on personality largely ignores the scientific evidence and presents distorted claims that personality change is induced by the DBS stimulation. This study contributes to the first-hand primary research on the topic exploring DBS clinicians’ views on post-DBS personality change among their patients and its underlying cause. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen clinicians from various disciplines working in Australian DBS practice for movement disorders and/or (...)
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  • Deflating the Deep Brain Stimulation Causes Personality Changes Bubble: The Authors Reply.Frederic Gilbert, John Noel M. Viana & C. Ineichen - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (Suppl 1):125-136.
    To conclude that there is enough or not enough evidence demonstrating that deep brain stimulation causes unintended postoperative personality changes is an epistemic problem that should be answered on the basis of established, replicable, and valid data. If prospective DBS recipients delay or refuse to be implanted because they are afraid of suffering from personality changes following DBS, and their fears are based on unsubstantiated claims made in the neuroethics literature, then researchers making these claims bear great responsibility for prospective (...)
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  • Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS.Cynthia S. Kubu, Paul J. Ford, Joshua A. Wilt, Amanda R. Merner, Michelle Montpetite, Jaclyn Zeigler & Eric Racine - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):95-105.
    Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...)
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  • On the Significance of the Identity Debate in DBS and the Need of an Inclusive Research Agenda. A Reply to Gilbert, Viana and Ineichen.Anke Snoek, Sanneke de Haan, Maartje Schermer & Dorothee Horstkötter - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):65-74.
    Gilbert et al. argue that the concerns about the influence of Deep Brain Stimulation on – as they lump together – personality, identity, agency, autonomy, authenticity and the self are due to an ethics hype. They argue that there is only a small empirical base for an extended ethics debate. We will critically examine their claims and argue that Gilbert and colleagues do not show that the identity debate in DBS is a bubble, they in fact give very little evidence (...)
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  • ‘Woe Betides Anybody Who Tries to Turn me Down.’ A Qualitative Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease.Philip E. Mosley, Katherine Robinson, Terry Coyne, Peter Silburn, Michael Breakspear & Adrian Carter - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (1):47-63.
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease can lead to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These can include harmful changes in mood and behaviour that alienate family members and raise ethical questions about personal responsibility for actions committed under stimulation-dependent mental states. Qualitative interviews were conducted with twenty participants following subthalamic DBS at a movement disorders centre, in order to explore the meaning and significance of stimulation-related neuropsychiatric symptoms amongst a purposive sample of persons (...)
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  • Ethical Implications of Closed Loop Brain Device: 10-Year Review.Swati Aggarwal & Nupur Chugh - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):145-170.
    Closed Loop medical devices such as Closed Loop Deep Brain Stimulation and Brain Computer Interface are some of the emerging neurotechnologies. New generations of implantable brain–computer interfaces have recently gained success in human clinical trials. These implants detect specific neuronal patterns and provide the subject with information to respond to these patterns. Further, Closed Loop brain devices give control to the subject so that he can respond and decide on a therapeutic goal. Although the implants have improved subjects’ quality of (...)
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  • Operationalizing Agency in Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Research.Kristin Kostick, Peter Zuk & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):203-205.
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  • Mapping the Dimensions of Agency.Andreas Schönau, Ishan Dasgupta, Timothy Brown, Erika Versalovic, Eran Klein & Sara Goering - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):172-186.
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  • Challenges and Opportunities of Creating Conceptual Maps.Laura Y. Cabrera & Robyn Bluhm - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):187-189.
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  • Researcher Perspectives on Ethical Considerations in Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation Trials.Katrina A. Muñoz, Kristin Kostick, Clarissa Sanchez, Lavina Kalwani, Laura Torgerson, Rebecca Hsu, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Jill O. Robinson, Simon Outram, Barbara A. Koenig, Stacey Pereira, Amy McGuire, Peter Zuk & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  • Pediatric Deep Brain Stimulation for Dystonia: Current State and Ethical Considerations.Katrina A. Muñoz, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Eric A. Storch, Laura Torgerson & Gabriel Lázaro-muñoz - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (4):557-573.
    Dystonia is a movement disorder that can have a debilitating impact on motor functions and quality of life. There are 250,000 cases in the United States, most with childhood onset. Due to the limited effectiveness and side effects of available treatments, pediatric deep brain stimulation has emerged as an intervention for refractory dystonia. However, there is limited clinical and neuroethics research in this area of clinical practice. This paper examines whether it is ethically justified to offer pDBS to children with (...)
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  • Neuroethics in the Shadow of a Pandemic.Adina L. Roskies & Ashley Walton - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):W1-W4.
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  • Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Neurophysiology, Adaptive DBS, Virtual Reality, Neuroethics and Technology.Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, James Giordano, Aysegul Gunduz, Jose Alcantara, Jackson N. Cagle, Stephanie Cernera, Parker Difuntorum, Robert S. Eisinger, Julieth Gomez, Sarah Long, Brandon Parks, Joshua K. Wong, Shannon Chiu, Bhavana Patel, Warren M. Grill, Harrison C. Walker, Simon J. Little, Ro’ee Gilron, Gerd Tinkhauser, Wesley Thevathasan, Nicholas C. Sinclair, Andres M. Lozano, Thomas Foltynie, Alfonso Fasano, Sameer A. Sheth, Katherine Scangos, Terence D. Sanger, Jonathan Miller, Audrey C. Brumback, Priya Rajasethupathy, Cameron McIntyre, Leslie Schlachter, Nanthia Suthana, Cynthia Kubu, Lauren R. Sankary, Karen Herrera-Ferrá, Steven Goetz, Binith Cheeran, G. Karl Steinke, Christopher Hess, Leonardo Almeida, Wissam Deeb, Kelly D. Foote & Okun Michael S. - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  • Do We Need Neuroethics?Eric Racine & Matthew Sample - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):101-103.
    Do we need neuroethics? This provocative question, posed almost 20 years after a series of landmark neuroethics conferences in North America (Marcus 2002; Canadian Institutes of Health Research 2002), can’t be answered briefly. We can, however, consider some of the most important arguments in favor of neuroethics. First, neuroethics may appear to be needed because neuroscience offers a new lens on human morality. This is an argument made by neuroscientists Michael Gazzaniga (Gazzaniga 2005) and (to some extent) Jean-Pierre Changeux (Changeux (...)
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  • Alienation, Quality of Life, and DBS for Depression.Peter Zuk, Amy L. McGuire & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (4):223-225.
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