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  1. Minds beyond brains and algorithms.Jan M. Zytkow - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):691-692.
  • Is Quantitative Research Ethical? Tools for Ethically Practicing, Evaluating, and Using Quantitative Research.Michael J. Zyphur & Dean C. Pierides - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (1):1-16.
    This editorial offers new ways to ethically practice, evaluate, and use quantitative research. Our central claim is that ready-made formulas for QR, including ‘best practices’ and common notions of ‘validity’ or ‘objectivity,’ are often divorced from the ethical and practical implications of doing, evaluating, and using QR for specific purposes. To focus on these implications, we critique common theoretical foundations for QR and then recommend approaches to QR that are ‘built for purpose,’ by which we mean designed to ethically address (...)
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  • Statistics and Probability Have Always Been Value-Laden: An Historical Ontology of Quantitative Research Methods.Michael J. Zyphur & Dean C. Pierides - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 167 (1):1-18.
    Quantitative researchers often discuss research ethics as if specific ethical problems can be reduced to abstract normative logics (e.g., virtue ethics, utilitarianism, deontology). Such approaches overlook how values are embedded in every aspect of quantitative methods, including ‘observations,’ ‘facts,’ and notions of ‘objectivity.’ We describe how quantitative research practices, concepts, discourses, and their objects/subjects of study have always been value-laden, from the invention of statistics and probability in the 1600s to their subsequent adoption as a logic made to appear as (...)
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  • Children can solve Bayesian problems: the role of representation in mental computation.Liqi Zhu & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2006 - Cognition 98 (3):287-308.
  • Structuralism in Phylogenetic Systematics.Richard H. Zander - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (4):383-394.
    Systematics based solely on structuralist principles is non-science because it is derived from first principles that are inconsistent in dealing with both synchronic and diachronic aspects of evolution, and its evolutionary models involve hidden causes, and unnameable and unobservable entities. Structuralist phylogenetics emulates axiomatic mathematics through emphasis on deduction, and “hypotheses” and “mapped trait changes” that are actually lemmas and theorems. Sister-group-only evolutionary trees have no caulistic element of scientific realism. This results in a degenerate systematics based on patterns of (...)
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  • Computability, consciousness, and algorithms.Robert Wilensky - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):690-691.
  • Natural selection and self-organization.Bruce H. Weber & David J. Depew - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):33-65.
    The Darwinian concept of natural selection was conceived within a set of Newtonian background assumptions about systems dynamics. Mendelian genetics at first did not sit well with the gradualist assumptions of the Darwinian theory. Eventually, however, Mendelism and Darwinism were fused by reformulating natural selection in statistical terms. This reflected a shift to a more probabilistic set of background assumptions based upon Boltzmannian systems dynamics. Recent developments in molecular genetics and paleontology have put pressure on Darwinism once again. Current work (...)
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  • Penrose's grand unified mystery.David Waltz & James Pustejovsky - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):688-690.
  • Gigerenzer's normative critique of Kahneman and Tversky.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2000 - Cognition 76 (3):179-193.
  • Between Turing and quantum mechanics there is body to be found.Francisco J. Varela - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):687-688.
  • Exactly which emperor is Penrose talking about?John K. Tsotsos - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):686-687.
  • Précis of simple heuristics that make us Smart.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we (...)
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  • Ecological rationality and its contents.M. Todd, Laurence Fiddick & Stefan Krauss - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):375 – 384.
    (2000). Ecological rationality and its contents. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 375-384.
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  • The thinker dreams of being an emperor.M. M. Taylor - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):685-686.
  • When Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Is Unsuitable for Research: A Reassessment.Denes Szucs & John P. A. Ioannidis - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  • Meritocratie en de erosie van zelfrespect.Tsjalling Swierstra & Evelien Tonkens - 2006 - Krisis 7 (3):3-23.
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  • Formal versus Bounded Norms in the Psychology of Rationality: Toward a Multilevel Analysis of Their Relationship.Thomas Sturm - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (3):190-209.
    It is often claimed that formal and optimizing norms of the standard conception of rationality and the heuristics of the bounded rationality approach are at odds with one another. This claim, I arg...
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  • The history of applied mathematics and the history of society.Michael Stolz - 2002 - Synthese 133 (1-2):43 - 57.
    Choosing the history of statistics and operations research as a casestudy, several ways of setting the development of 20th century applied mathematics into a social context are discussed. It is shown that there is ample common ground between these contextualizations and several recent research programs in general contemporary history. It is argued that a closer cooperation between general historians and historians of mathematics might further the integration of the internalist and externalist approaches within the historiography of mathematics.
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  • And then a miracle happens….Keith E. Stanovich - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):684-685.
  • The pretender's new clothes.Tim Smithers - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):683-684.
  • Teaching Bayesian reasoning in less than two hours.Peter Sedlmeier & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (3):380.
  • The Art and Science of Surgery: Innovation and Concepts of Medical Practice in Operative Fracture Care, 1960s–1970s.Thomas Schlich - 2007 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 32 (1):65-87.
    In this article, I am using the example of the introduction of osteosynthesis into surgical routine practice to analyze the use of the notions of art and science in medical innovation. The examination of the renegotiations of power and responsibility associated with the introduction of this new technique shows that proponents and critics actively linked their arguments to more fundamental epistemological and social issues. The proponents claimed to manage the uncertainties of innovation through making surgery more scientific, drawing on the (...)
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  • Objectifying uncertainty: History of risk concepts in medicine.Thomas Schlich - 2004 - Topoi 23 (2):211-219.
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  • Seeing truth or just seeming true?Adina Roskies - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):682-683.
  • Systematic, unconscious thought is the place to anchor quantum mechanics in the mind.Thomas Roeper - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):681-682.
  • Complexity, self-organization and selection.Robert C. Richardson - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):653-682.
    Recent work on self organization promises an explanation of complex order which is independent of adaptation. Self-organizing systems are complex systems of simple units, projecting order as a consequence of localized and generally nonlinear interactions between these units. Stuart Kauffman offers one variation on the theme of self-organization, offering what he calls a ``statistical mechanics'' for complex systems. This paper explores the explanatory strategies deployed in this ``statistical mechanics,'' initially focusing on the autonomy of statistical explanation as it applies in (...)
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  • The secularization of chance: Toward understanding the impact of the probability revolution on Christian belief in divine providence.Josh Reeves - 2015 - Zygon 50 (3):604-620.
    This article gives a brief history of chance in the Christian tradition, from casting lots in the Hebrew Bible to the discovery of laws of chance in the modern period. I first discuss the deep-seated skepticism towards chance in Christian thought, as shown in the work of Augustine, Aquinas, and Calvin. The article then describes the revolution in our understanding of chance—when contemporary concepts such as probability and risk emerged—that occurred a century after Calvin. The modern ability to quantify chance (...)
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  • The uses of humanistic history.Theodore M. Porter - 1991 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 21 (2):214-222.
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  • Making Things Quantitative.Theodore M. Porter - 1994 - Science in Context 7 (3):389-407.
    The ArgumentQuantification is not merely a strategy for describing the social and natural worlds, but a means of reconfiguring them. It entails the imposition of new meanings and the disappearance of old ones. Often it is allied to systems of experimental or administrative control, and in fact considerable feats of human organization are generally required even to create stable, reasonably standardized measures. This essay urges that the uses of quantification in science, social science, and bureaucratic social and economic policy are (...)
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  • Corporate Capitalism and the Growing Power of Big Data: Review Essay. [REVIEW]Martha Poon - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (6):1088-1108.
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  • The emperor's old hat.Don Perlis - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):680-681.
  • The nonalgorithmic mind.Roger Penrose - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):692-705.
  • Precis of the emperor's new mind.Roger Penrose - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):643-705.
    The emperor's new mind (hereafter Emperor) is an attempt to put forward a scientific alternative to the viewpoint of according to which mental activity is merely the acting out of some algorithmic procedure. John Searle and other thinkers have likewise argued that mere calculation does not, of itself, evoke conscious mental attributes, such as understanding or intentionality, but they are still prepared to accept the action the brain, like that of any other physical object, could in principle be simulated by (...)
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  • The Emergence of Modern Statistics in Agricultural Science: Analysis of Variance, Experimental Design and the Reshaping of Research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919–1933.Giuditta Parolini - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (2):301-335.
    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician (...)
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  • Deliberative public opinion.Kieran C. O’Doherty - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (4):124-145.
    Generally, public opinion is measured via polls or survey instruments, with a majority of responses in a particular direction taken to indicate the presence of a given ‘public opinion’. However, discursive psychological and related scholarship has shown that the ontological status of both individual opinion and public opinion is highly suspect. In the first part of this article I draw on this body of work to demonstrate that there is currently no meaningful theoretical foundation for the construct of public opinion (...)
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  • The uncertain reasoner: Bayes, logic, and rationality.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):105-120.
    Human cognition requires coping with a complex and uncertain world. This suggests that dealing with uncertainty may be the central challenge for human reasoning. In Bayesian Rationality we argue that probability theory, the calculus of uncertainty, is the right framework in which to understand everyday reasoning. We also argue that probability theory explains behavior, even on experimental tasks that have been designed to probe people's logical reasoning abilities. Most commentators agree on the centrality of uncertainty; some suggest that there is (...)
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  • Steadfast intentions.Keith K. Niall - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):679-680.
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  • The powers of machines and minds.Chris Mortensen - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):678-679.
  • Questions of evidence in evidence-based policy.Eleonora Montuschi - 2009 - Axiomathes 19 (4):425-439.
    Evidence-based approaches to policy-making are growing in popularity. A generally embraced view is that with the appropriate evidence at hand, decision and policy making will be optimal, legitimate and publicly accountable. In practice, however, evidence-based policy making is constrained by a variety of problems of evidence. Some of these problems will be explored in this article, in the context of the debates on evidence from which they originate. It is argued that the source of much disagreement might be a failure (...)
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  • Computation and consciousness.Drew McDermott - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):676-678.
  • Practical versus moral identities in identity management.Noëmi Manders-Huits - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):43-55.
    Over the past decade Identity Management has become a central theme in information technology, policy, and administration in the public and private sectors. In these contexts the term ‘Identity Management’ is used primarily to refer to ways and methods of dealing with registration and authorization issues regarding persons in organizational and service-oriented domains. Especially due to the growing range of choices and options for, and the enhanced autonomy and rights of, employees, citizens, and customers, there is a growing demand for (...)
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  • Gödel redux.Alexis Manaster-Ramer, Walter J. Savitch & Wlodek Zadrozny - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):675-676.
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  • Uncertainty about quantum mechanics.Mark S. Madsen - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):674-675.
  • The discomforts of dualism.Bruce MacLennan - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):673-674.
  • Quantum AI.Rudi Lutz - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):672-673.
  • Emancipation Through Interaction – How Eugenics and Statistics Converged and Diverged.Francisco Louçã - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):649 - 684.
    The paper discusses the scope and influence of eugenics in defining the scientific programme of statistics and the impact of the evolution of biology on social scientists. It argues that eugenics was instrumental in providing a bridge between sciences, and therefore created both the impulse and the institutions necessary for the birth of modern statistics in its applications first to biology and then to the social sciences. Looking at the question from the point of view of the history of statistics (...)
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  • Emancipation Through Interaction – How Eugenics and Statistics Converged and Diverged.Francisco Louçã - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):649-684.
    The paper discusses the scope and influence of eugenics in defining the scientific programme of statistics and the impact of the evolution of biology on social scientists. It argues that eugenics was instrumental in providing a bridge between sciences, and therefore created both the impulse and the institutions necessary for the birth of modern statistics in its applications first to biology and then to the social sciences. Looking at the question from the point of view of the history of statistics (...)
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  • Time-delays in conscious processes.Benjamin Libet - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):672-672.
  • Observation observed: Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck : Histories of scientific observation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, 460pp, $81.00 HB, $27.50 PB.Sachiko Kusukawa - 2013 - Metascience 23 (2):347-352.
    This is an important volume of seventeen essays that historicizes observation as a practice, concept and ideal. It belongs to the historiographical tradition of scrutinizing central aspects of the scientific enterprise such as experiments and objectivity that once appeared too self-evident to be probed. The challenge of historicizing such a significant idea is that it has to be a collective enterprise.The volume starts with three essays that provide a chronological survey of the period from 500 to 1800. Katherine Park, covering (...)
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  • The interpretation of uncertainty in ecological rationality.Anastasia Kozyreva & Ralph Hertwig - 2019 - Synthese 198 (2):1517-1547.
    Despite the ubiquity of uncertainty, scientific attention has focused primarily on probabilistic approaches, which predominantly rely on the assumption that uncertainty can be measured and expressed numerically. At the same time, the increasing amount of research from a range of areas including psychology, economics, and sociology testify that in the real world, people’s understanding of risky and uncertain situations cannot be satisfactorily explained in probabilistic and decision-theoretical terms. In this article, we offer a theoretical overview of an alternative approach to (...)
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