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  1. Theory of signs and statistical approach to big data in assessing the relevance of clinical biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.Pietro Ghezzi, Kevin Davies, Aidan Delaney & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (10):2473-2477.
    Biomarkers are widely used not only as prognostic or diagnostic indicators, or as surrogate markers of disease in clinical trials, but also to formulate theories of pathogenesis. We identify two problems in the use of biomarkers in mechanistic studies. The first problem arises in the case of multifactorial diseases, where different combinations of multiple causes result in patient heterogeneity. The second problem arises when a pathogenic mediator is difficult to measure. This is the case of the oxidative stress (OS) theory (...)
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  • Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by environmental and psychological stressors: a biomarker perspective.Pietro Ghezzi, Luciano Floridi, Diana Boraschi, Antonio Cuadrado, Gina Manda, Snezana Levic, Fulvio D'Acquisito, Alice Hamilton, Toby J. Athersuch & Liza Selley - 2018 - Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 28 (9):852-872.
    The environment can elicit biological responses such as oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation as a consequence of chemical, physical, or psychological changes. As population studies are essential for establishing these environment-organism interactions, biomarkers of OS or inflammation are critical in formulating mechanistic hypotheses. By using examples of stress induced by various mechanisms, we focus on the biomarkers that have been used to assess OS and inflammation in these conditions. We discuss the difference between biomarkers that are the result of a (...)
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