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  1. Tough Enough? Robust Satisficing as a Decision Norm for Long-Term Policy Analysis.Andreas L. Mogensen & David Thorstad - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-26.
    This paper aims to open a dialogue between philosophers working in decision theory and operations researchers and engineers working on decision-making under deep uncertainty. Specifically, we assess the recommendation to follow a norm of robust satisficing when making decisions under deep uncertainty in the context of decision analyses that rely on the tools of Robust Decision-Making developed by Robert Lempert and colleagues at RAND. We discuss two challenges for robust satisficing: whether the norm might derive its plausibility from an implicit (...)
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  • Instilling Moral Value Alignment by Means of Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning.Juan Antonio Rodriguez-Aguilar, Maite Lopez-Sanchez, Marc Serramia & Manel Rodriguez-Soto - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1).
    AI research is being challenged with ensuring that autonomous agents learn to behave ethically, namely in alignment with moral values. Here, we propose a novel way of tackling the value alignment problem as a two-step process. The first step consists on formalising moral values and value aligned behaviour based on philosophical foundations. Our formalisation is compatible with the framework of Reinforcement Learning, to ease the handling of an agent’s individual and ethical objectives. The second step consists in designing an environment (...)
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  • Lying, Misleading, and the Argument From Cultural Slopes.Lisa Herzog - 2021 - Res Publica 27 (1):77-93.
    This paper discusses a novel kind of argument for assessing the moral significance of acts of lying and misleading. It is based on considerations about valuable social norms that might be eroded by these actions, because these actions function as signals. Given that social norms can play an important role in supporting morality, individuals have a responsibility to preserve such norms and to prevent ‘cultural slopes’ that erode them. Depending on whether there are norms against lying, misleading, or both, and (...)
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  • What’s Cruel About Cruelty Free: An Exploration of Consumers, Moral Heuristics, and Public Policy.Kim Bartel Sheehan & Joonghwa Lee - 2014 - Journal of Animal Ethics 4 (2):1-15.
    In his book Reveille for Radicals, Saul Alinsky writes, "Most people are eagerly groping for... some way in which they can bridge the gap between their morals and their practices". Today, many consumers try to bridge that gap by participating in what has been termed ethical consumption: the intentional purchase of products and services that the customer considers to be ethically produced. But what happens if consumer perceptions do not match reality? This study investigates one aspect of ethical consumption by (...)
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  • The 2008 Wall Street Crash: A Failed Organizational Response to Complexity.Richard H. Herbert - 2017 - Business and Society Review 122 (4):507-529.
    In the period since the 2008 Wall Street crash, little consensus has emerged on its causes or actions to prevent a recurrence. Our capability for rational decision making was overwhelmed. Viewing the entire financial system as a huge, richly interconnected organization suggests that its structure and associated management practices are suited for a far simpler environment. An organization that is large relative to its environment and sufficiently complex to require the coordination of specialized expertise cannot function by enabling decision makers (...)
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  • How to Explain Behavior?Gerd Gigerenzer - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1363-1381.
    Unlike behaviorism, cognitive psychology relies on mental concepts to explain behavior. Yet mental processes are not directly observable and multiple explanations are possible, which poses a challenge for finding a useful framework. In this article, I distinguish three new frameworks for explanations that emerged after the cognitive revolution. The first is called tools‐to‐theories: Psychologists' new tools for data analysis, such as computers and statistics, are turned into theories of mind. The second proposes as‐if theories: Expected utility theory and Bayesian statistics (...)
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  • Citizens' Autonomy and Corporate Cultural Power.Lisa Herzog - 2020 - Journal of Social Philosophy 51 (2):205-230.
  • For an Integrative Theory of Social Behaviour: Theorising with and Beyond Rational Choice Theory.Tibor Rutar - 2019 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 49 (3):298-311.
    Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, EarlyView.
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  • Rationality Assumptions and Their Limits.Robert Feleppa - 2021 - Sage Publications Inc: Philosophy of the Social Sciences 51 (6):574-599.
    Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Volume 51, Issue 6, Page 574-599, December 2021. In “Different Cultures, Different Rationalities” Stephen Lukes weighs in on the controversies concerning the killing of Captain Cook by Hawaiians and what it says about the role of rationality assumptions in translation. While at first seeming to adopt a Davidsonian anti-relativist position concerning the enabling role of assumptions of common rationality in interpretation, Lukes rejects Davidson’s view, and opts instead for a “totalizing” strategy inspired by Mauss. Here (...)
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  • From Bounded Morality to Consumer Social Responsibility: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Socially Responsible Consumption and Its Obstacles.Michael P. Schlaile, Katharina Klein & Wolfgang Böck - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (3):561-588.
    Corporate social responsibility has been intensively discussed in business ethics literature, whereas the social responsibility of private consumers appears to be less researched. However, there is also a growing interest from business ethicists and other scholars in the field of consumer social responsibility. Nevertheless, previous discussions of ConSR reveal the need for a viable conceptual basis for understanding the social responsibility of consumers in an increasingly globalized market economy. Moreover, evolutionary aspects of human morality seem to have been neglected despite (...)
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  • Clark Glymour’s Responses to the Contributions to the Synthese Special Issue “Causation, Probability, and Truth: The Philosophy of Clark Glymour”.Clark Glymour - 2016 - Synthese 193 (4):1251-1285.
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  • Coding Ethical Decision-Making in Research.David J. Hartmann, Thomas Van Valey & Wayne Fuqua - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):121-146.
    This paper presents methods and challenges attendant on the use of protocol analysis to develop a model of heuristic processing applied to research ethics. Participants are exposed to ethically complex scenarios and asked to verbalize their thoughts as they formulate a requested decision. The model identifies functional parts of the decision-making task: interpretation, retrieval, judgment and editing and seeks to reliably code participant verbalizations to those tasks as well as to a set of cognitive tools generally useful in such work. (...)
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  • Robot Minds and Human Ethics: The Need for a Comprehensive Model of Moral Decision Making. [REVIEW]Wendell Wallach - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):243-250.
    Building artificial moral agents (AMAs) underscores the fragmentary character of presently available models of human ethical behavior. It is a distinctly different enterprise from either the attempt by moral philosophers to illuminate the “ought” of ethics or the research by cognitive scientists directed at revealing the mechanisms that influence moral psychology, and yet it draws on both. Philosophers and cognitive scientists have tended to stress the importance of particular cognitive mechanisms, e.g., reasoning, moral sentiments, heuristics, intuitions, or a moral grammar, (...)
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  • Ethical Blindness.Guido Palazzo, Franciska Krings & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (3):323-338.
    Many models of (un)ethical decision making assume that people decide rationally and are in principle able to evaluate their decisions from a moral point of view. However, people might behave unethically without being aware of it. They are ethically blind. Adopting a sensemaking approach, we argue that ethical blindness results from a complex interplay between individual sensemaking activities and context factors.
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  • The Science of Morality and its Normative Implications.Tommaso Bruni, Matteo Mameli & Regina A. Rini - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):159-172.
    Neuromoral theorists are those who claim that a scientific understanding of moral judgment through the methods of psychology, neuroscience and related disciplines can have normative implications and can be used to improve the human ability to make moral judgments. We consider three neuromoral theories: one suggested by Gazzaniga, one put forward by Gigerenzer, and one developed by Greene. By contrasting these theories we reveal some of the fundamental issues that neuromoral theories in general have to address. One important issue concerns (...)
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  • Optimality and Optimal Satisficing in Risky Decision Experiments.Daniela Di Cagno, Arianna Galliera, Werner Güth, Francesca Marzo & Noemi Pace - 2017 - Theory and Decision 83 (2):195-243.
    We implement a risky choice experiment based on one-dimensional choice variables and risk neutrality induced via binary lottery incentives. Each participant confronts many parameter constellations with varying optimal payoffs. We assess optimality, as well as optimal satisficing by eliciting aspirations in addition to choices. Treatments differ in the probability that a binary random event, which are payoff—but not optimal choice—relevant is experimentally induced and whether participants choose portfolios directly or via satisficing, i.e., by forming aspirations and checking for satisficing before (...)
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  • Virtue in Business: Morally Better, Praiseworthy, Trustworthy, and More Satisfying.E. T. Cokely & A. Feltz - forthcoming - Journal of Organizational Moral Psychology.
    In four experiments, we offer evidence that virtues are often judged as uniquely important for some business practices (e.g., hospital management and medical error investigation). Overall, actions done only from virtue (either by organizations or individuals) were judged to feel better, to be more praiseworthy, to be more morally right, and to be associated with more trustworthy leadership and greater personal life satisfaction compared to actions done only to produce the best consequences or to follow the correct moral rule. These (...)
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  • Social Norms and Unthinkable Options.Ulf Hlobil - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8):2519–2537.
    We sometimes violate social norms in order to express our views and to trigger public debates. Many extant accounts of social norms don’t give us any insight into this phenomenon. Drawing on Cristina Bicchieri’s work, I am putting forward an empirical hypothesis that helps us to understand such norm violations. The hypothesis says, roughly, that we often adhere to norms because we are systematically blind to norm-violating options. I argue that this hypothesis is independently plausible and has interesting consequences. It (...)
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  • Agente crítico, democracia deliberativa y el acto de dar razones.Cristián Santibáñez - 2020 - Co-herencia 17 (32):37-65.
    El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un concepto de agente crítico que dialogue con una práctica democrática deliberativa, considerando qué significa el acto de dar razones. Para tal efecto, en este trabajo se discute, primero, qué significaría ser crítico o tender hacia la criticidad tanto autorreferente como hacia terceros. Esta sección está apoyada principalmente con ideas provenientes de la teoría de la argumentación y de la lógica informal. En segundo término, se aborda el concepto de democracia deliberativa a la (...)
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  • Beyond Prejudice: Are Negative Evaluations the Problem and is Getting Us to Like One Another More the Solution?John Dixon, Mark Levine, Steve Reicher, Kevin Durrheim, Dominic Abrams, Mark Alicke, Michal Bilewicz, Rupert Brown, Eric P. Charles & John Drury - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (6):411.
    For most of the history of prejudice research, negativity has been treated as its emotional and cognitive signature, a conception that continues to dominate work on the topic. By this definition, prejudice occurs when we dislike or derogate members of other groups. Recent research, however, has highlighted the need for a more nuanced and (Eagly 2004) perspective on the role of intergroup emotions and beliefs in sustaining discrimination. On the one hand, several independent lines of research have shown that unequal (...)
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  • Famine, Affluence and Intuitions: Evolutionary Debunking Proves Too Much.Geoffrey S. Holtzman - 2018 - Disputatio 10 (48):57-70.
    Moral theorists like Singer and Greene argue that we should discount intuitions about ‘up-close-and-personal’ moral dilemmas because they are more likely than intuitions about ‘impersonal’ dilemmas to be artifacts of evolution. But by that reasoning, it seems we should ignore the evolved, ‘up-close-and-personal’ intuition to save a drowning child in light of the too-new-to-be-evolved, ‘impersonal’ intuition that we need not donate to international famine relief. This conclusion seems mistaken and horrifying, yet it cannot be the case both that ‘up-close-and-personal’ intuitions (...)
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  • Ethical Consequences of Bounded Rationality in the Internet of Things.Sandrina Dimitrijevic - 2014 - International Review of Information Ethics 22:74-82.
    One of the main challenges that the arriving paradigm of Internet of Things brings to society is providing and securing individual privacy. There are lots of obstacles which prevents us from successfully confronting such a challenge. In this paper we are going to deal with one such obstacle, and that is the bounded rationality of humans as participants in the environment of Internet of Things. We argue that the ethical approach to the vision of the Internet of Things has to (...)
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  • Heuristics, Concepts, and Cognitive Architecture: Toward Understanding How The Mind Works.Sheldon J. Chow - unknown
    Heuristics are often invoked in the philosophical, psychological, and cognitive science literatures to describe or explain methodological techniques or "shortcut" mental operations that help in inference, decision-making, and problem-solving. Yet there has been surprisingly little philosophical work done on the nature of heuristics and heuristic reasoning, and a close inspection of the way in which "heuristic" is used throughout the literature reveals a vagueness and uncertainty with respect to what heuristics are and their role in cognition. This dissertation seeks to (...)
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  • Programming Away Human Rights and Responsibilities? “The Moral Machine Experiment” and the Need for a More “Humane” AV Future.Mrinalini Kochupillai, Christoph Lütge & Franziska Poszler - 2020 - NanoEthics 14 (3):285-299.
    Dilemma situations involving the choice of which human life to save in the case of unavoidable accidents are expected to arise only rarely in the context of autonomous vehicles. Nonetheless, the scientific community has devoted significant attention to finding appropriate and acceptable automated decisions in the event that AVs or drivers of AVs were indeed to face such situations. Awad and colleagues, in their now famous paper “The Moral Machine Experiment”, used a “multilingual online ‘serious game’ for collecting large-scale data (...)
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  • ‘Zero-Error’ Versus ‘Good-Enough’: Towards a ‘Frugality’ Narrative for Defence Procurement Policy.Saradindu Bhaduri & Kapil Patil - 2020 - Mind and Society 19 (1):43-59.
    The procurement decision-making process for complex military product systems has significant implications for military end-users, suppliers, and exchequers. This study examines the usefulness of adopting a fast and frugal decision-making approach for the acquisition of military CoPS. Defence procurement environment is complex. On the one hand, there are uncertainties and severe resource constraints due to regularly changing threat perceptions, limited flow of information about new technologies, and the growing demand to reduce defence related expenses. On the other hand, several stakeholders (...)
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  • A Fallacious Jar? The Peculiar Relation Between Descriptive Premises and Normative Conclusions in Neuroethics.Nils-Frederic Wagner & Georg Northoff - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (3):215-235.
    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific (...)
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  • Using the Dizi Gui to Break Away From a Deteriorated Business Environment—a Case Study.Hugo Winckler - 2014 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 3 (2):111-125.
    The three main Chinese teachings can all be used to develop a framework for corporate governance in China. Recently, the Confucian classic the Dizi gui has emerged as a matter of academic and social interest in Mainland China. Some entrepreneurs have decided to revert to the moral rules set out in this book to decide on complex moral dilemma. Our research aims to explore an actual case in which a business leader from Beijing succeeded in transforming his moral aspiration into (...)
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  • Normative Moral Neuroscience: The Third Tradition of Neuroethics.Geoffrey S. Holtzman - 2018 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 4 (3):411-431.
    Neuroethics is typically conceived of as consisting of two traditions: the ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of moral judgment. However, recent work has sought to draw philosophical and ethical implications from the neuroscience of moral judgment. Such work, which concernsnormative moral neuroscience, is sufficiently distinct and complex to deserve recognition as a third tradition of neuroethics. Recognizing it as such can reduce confusion among researchers, eliminating conflations among both critics and proponents of NMN.This article identifies and unpacks some of (...)
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  • Statistical Learning and Prejudice.Guy Madison, Fredrik Ullén & John Dixon - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (6):440.
    Human behavior is guided by evolutionarily shaped brain mechanisms that make statistical predictions based on limited information. Such mechanisms are important for facilitating interpersonal relationships, avoiding dangers, and seizing opportunities in social interaction. We thus suggest that it is essential for analyses of prejudice and prejudice reduction to take the predictive accuracy and adaptivity of the studied prejudices into account.
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  • Moral Character: An Empirical Theory. [REVIEW]Adam Feltz - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (7):1079-1082.
  • The ADC of Moral Judgment: Opening the Black Box of Moral Intuitions With Heuristics About Agents, Deeds, and Consequences.Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (4):3-20.
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  • Breakdown of Moral Judgment.Eric Campbell - 2014 - Ethics 124 (3):447-480.
    I argue that moral judgments function as commitment strategies that rely on a deflection of attention from our motivations and values. Revealing the hidden workings of these strategies allows me to illustrate and explain some of the widely unrecognized practical downsides of moral discourse. I recommend a departure from moral discourse in favor of paying more and better attention to our actual concerns. Important strengths of my approach over contemporary forms of moral abolitionism lie in my ability to sidestep moral (...)
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