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  1. Quantum gravity, timelessness, and the folk concept of time.Andrew J. Latham & Kristie Miller - 2020 - Synthese 198 (10):9453-9478.
    What it would take to vindicate folk temporal error theory? This question is significant against a backdrop of new views in quantum gravity—so-called timeless physical theories—that claim to eliminate time by eliminating a one-dimensional substructure of ordered temporal instants. Ought we to conclude that if these views are correct, nothing satisfies the folk concept of time and hence that folk temporal error theory is true? In light of evidence we gathered, we argue that physical theories that entirely eliminate an ordered (...)
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  • Is our naïve theory of time dynamical?Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - 2021 - Synthese 198 (5):4251-4271.
    We investigated, experimentally, the contention that the folk view, or naïve theory, of time, amongst the population we investigated is dynamical. We found that amongst that population, ~ 70% have an extant theory of time that is more similar to a dynamical than a non-dynamical theory, and ~ 70% of those who deploy a naïve theory of time deploy a naïve theory that is more similar to a dynamical than a non-dynamical theory. Interestingly, while we found stable results across our (...)
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  • Metonymic event-based time interval concepts in Mandarin Chinese—Evidence from time interval words.Lingli Zhong & Zhengguang Liu - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Starting from the overwhelming view that time is metaphorically conceptualized in terms of space, this study will, on the one hand, take the time interval words into minute analysis to confirm our view of event conceptualization of time at a more basic level along with space–time metaphoric conceptualization of time at a relational level. In alignment with the epistemology of the time–space conflation of the Chinese ancestors, our view is supported by the systematic examination of evidence related to the cultural (...)
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  • Mental Representations of Time in English Monolinguals, Mandarin Monolinguals, and Mandarin–English Bilinguals.Wenxing Yang, Yiting Gu, Ying Fang & Ying Sun - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    This study recruited English monolinguals, Mandarin monolinguals, and Mandarin–English bilinguals to examine whether native English and native Mandarin speakers think about time differently and whether the acquisition of L2 English could reshape native Mandarin speakers’ mental representations of temporal sequence. Across two experiments, we used the temporal congruency categorization paradigm which involved two-alternative forced-choice reaction time tasks to contrast experimental conditions that were assumed to be either compatible or incompatible with the internal spatiotemporal associations. Results add to previous studies by (...)
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  • Both Earlier Times and the Future Are “Front”: The Distinction Between Time- and Ego-Reference-Points in Mandarin Speakers’ Temporal Representation.Chengli Xiao, Mengya Zhao & Lei Chen - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1026-1040.
    Mandarin speakers, like most other language speakers around the world, use spatial terms to talk about time. However, the direction of their mental temporal representation along the front-back axis remains controversial because they use the spatial term “front” to refer to both earlier times and the future. Although the linguistic distinction between time- and ego-reference-point spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin suggests a promising clarification of the above controversy, there is little empirical evidence verifying this distinction. In this study, Mandarin speakers’ time- (...)
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  • Placing Abstract Concepts in Space: Quantity, Time and Emotional Valence.Greg Woodin & Bodo Winter - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Continuity of Metaphor: Evidence From Temporal Gestures.Esther Walker & Kensy Cooperrider - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):481-495.
    Reasoning about bedrock abstract concepts such as time, number, and valence relies on spatial metaphor and often on multiple spatial metaphors for a single concept. Previous research has documented, for instance, both future-in-front and future-to-right metaphors for time in English speakers. It is often assumed that these metaphors, which appear to have distinct experiential bases, remain distinct in online temporal reasoning. In two studies we demonstrate that, contra this assumption, people systematically combine these metaphors. Evidence for this combination was found (...)
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  • The Space–Time Congruency Effect: A Meta‐Analysis.Linda von Sobbe, Edith Scheifele, Claudia Maienborn & Rolf Ulrich - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (1):e12709.
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  • Accessing Semantic Information from Above: Parafoveal Processing during the Reading of Vertically Presented Sentences in Traditional Chinese.Jinger Pan, Ming Yan & Su-Ling Yeh - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (2):e13104.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2022.
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  • Experimental philosophy on time.James Norton - 2021 - Philosophy Compass (11).
    Appeals to the ‘common sense’, or ‘naïve’, or ‘folk’ concept of time, and the purported phenomenology as of time passing, play a substantial role in philosophical theorising about time. When making these appeals, philosophers have been content to draw upon their own assumptions about how non-philosophers think about time. This paper reviews a series of recent experiments bringing these assumptions into question. The results suggest that the way non-philosophers think about time is far less metaphysically demanding than philosophers have assumed.
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  • How We Think about Temporal Words: A Gestural Priming Study in English and Chinese.Melvin M. R. Ng, Winston D. Goh, Melvin J. Yap, Chi-Shing Tse & Wing-Chee So - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  • The tangle of space and time in human cognition.Rafael Núñez & Kensy Cooperrider - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (5):220-229.
  • Temporal phenomenology: phenomenological illusion versus cognitive error.Kristie Miller, Alex Holcombe & Andrew J. Latham - 2020 - Synthese 197 (2):751-771.
    Temporal non-dynamists hold that there is no temporal passage, but concede that many of us judge that it seems as though time passes. Phenomenal Illusionists suppose that things do seem this way, even though things are not this way. They attempt to explain how it is that we are subject to a pervasive phenomenal illusion. More recently, Cognitive Error Theorists have argued that our experiences do not seem that way; rather, we are subject to an error that leads us mistakenly (...)
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  • One Label or Two? Linguistic Influences on the Similarity Judgment of Objects between English and Japanese Speakers.Takahiko Masuda, Keiko Ishii, Koji Miwa, Marghalara Rashid, Hajin Lee & Rania Mahdi - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Time will tell: Temporal landmarks influence metaphorical associations between space and time.Heng Li & Yu Cao - 2018 - Cognitive Linguistics 29 (4):677-701.
    Journal Name: Cognitive Linguistics Issue: Ahead of print.
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  • Time in a one‐instant world.Andrew J. Latham & Kristie Miller - 2020 - Ratio 33 (3):145-154.
    Many philosophers hold that ‘one-instant worlds’—worlds that contain a single instant—fail to contain time. We experimentally investigate whether these worlds satisfy the folk concept of time. We found that ~50% of participants hold that there is time in such worlds. We argue that this suggests one of two possibilities. First, the population disagree about whether at least one of the A-, B-, or C-series is necessary for time, with there being a substantial sub-population for whom the presence of neither an (...)
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  • Are the Folk Functionalists About Time?Andrew J. Latham & Kristie Miller - 2022 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (2):221-248.
    This paper empirically investigates the contention that the folk concept of time is a functional concept: a concept according to which time is whatever plays a certain functional role or roles. This hypothesis could explain why, in previous research, surprisingly large percentages of participants judge that there is time at worlds that contain no one-dimensional substructure of ordered instants. If it seems to participants that even in those worlds the relevant functional role is played, then this could explain why they (...)
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  • An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Direction in our Concept of Time.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & James Norton - 2021 - Acta Analytica 36 (1):25-47.
    This paper empirically investigates one aspect of the folk concept of time by testing how the presence or absence of directedness impacts judgements about whether there is time in a world. Experiment 1 found that dynamists, showed significantly higher levels of agreement that there is time in dynamically directed worlds than in non-dynamical non-directed worlds. Comparing our results to those we describe in Latham et al., we report that while ~ 70% of dynamists say there is time in B-theory worlds, (...)
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  • New Space–Time Metaphors Foster New Nonlinguistic Representations.Rose K. Hendricks & Lera Boroditsky - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):800-818.
    What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like “breakfast is above dinner” or “breakfast is below dinner”. In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left–right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a (...)
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  • Do Metaphors Move From Mind to Mouth? Evidence From a New System of Linguistic Metaphors for Time.Rose K. Hendricks, Benjamin K. Bergen & Tyler Marghetis - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2950-2975.
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  • Which Is in Front of Chinese People, Past or Future? The Effect of Language and Culture on Temporal Gestures and Spatial Conceptions of Time.Yan Gu, Yeqiu Zheng & Marc Swerts - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (12).
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  • Natural and artefactual languages.Kate Distin - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (1):21-34.
    Natural language provides a mechanism for cultural evolution by ensuring the persistent heredity of variations in both cultural information and information about its own construction. In the process, it not only facilitates but also limits our thinking to the ways its vocabulary and structures make possible. But the human capacity for metarepresentation frees cultural information from the restrictions of any one medium or language, and has also propelled the evolution of artefactual languages, which provide evolutionary mechanisms for specialist areas of (...)
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  • The Effect of Immediate and Lifetime Experience of Reading Horizontal and Vertical Texts on Chinese Speakers’ Temporal Orientation.Jenn-Yeu Chen, Michael Friedrich & Hua Shu - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 15 (1-2):1-12.
    The present study examined participants’ performance on a temporal judgment task while holding language constant but varying their lifetime and immediate reading experience of horizontal and vertical texts. Chinese participants from Taiwan and China were randomly assigned to a reading task involving horizontally or vertically arranged texts. A temporal judgment task followed the reading task, asking the participants to judge if the event depicted in a second picture occurred earlier or later than that in a first picture. Responses were faster (...)
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  • Time Points: A Gestural Study of the Development of Space–Time Mappings.Patrick Burns, Teresa McCormack, Agnieszka J. Jaroslawska, Patrick A. O'Connor & Eugene M. Caruso - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (12).
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  • Variability in the Alignment of Number and Space Across Languages and Tasks.Andrea Bender, Annelie Rothe-Wulf & Sieghard Beller - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Mapping spatial frames of reference onto time: A review of theoretical accounts and empirical findings. [REVIEW]Andrea Bender & Sieghard Beller - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):342-382.
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  • Being In Front Is Good—But Where Is In Front? Preferences for Spatial Referencing Affect Evaluation.Andrea Bender, Sarah Teige‐Mocigemba, Annelie Rothe‐Wulf, Miriam Seel & Sieghard Beller - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (6).
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  • Relational Passage of Time.Matias Slavov - 2022 - New York: Routledge.
    This book defends a relational theory of the passage of time. The realist view of passage developed in this book differs from the robust, substantivalist position. According to relationism, passage is nothing over and above the succession of events, one thing coming after another. Causally related events are temporally arranged as they happen one after another along observers’ worldlines. There is no unique global passage but a multiplicity of local passages of time. After setting out this positive argument for relationism, (...)
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  • Cultural and Individual Differences in Metaphorical Representations of Time.Li Heng - 2018 - Dissertation, Northumbria University
    concepts cannot be directly perceived through senses. How do people represent abstract concepts in their minds? According to the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, people tend to rely on concrete experiences to understand abstract concepts. For instance, cognitive science has shown that time is a metaphorically constituted conception, understood relative to concepts like space. Across many languages, the “past” is associated with the “back” and the “future” is associated with the “front”. However, space-time mappings in people’s spoken metaphors are not always consistent (...)
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