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  1. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships among a Consumer’s Personal Values, Ethical Ideology and Ethical Beliefs.Sarah Steenhaut & Patrick van Kenhove - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (2):137 - 155.
    This study provides an additional partial test of the Hunt-Vitell theory [1986, Journal of Macro-marketing, 8, 5-16; 1993, 'The General Theory of Marketing Ethics: A Retrospective and Revision', in N. C. Smith and J. A. Quelch (eds.), Ethics in Marketing (Irwin Inc., Homewood), pp. 775-784], within the consumer ethics context. Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among an individual's personal values (conceptualized by the typology of Schwartz [1992, 'Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests (...)
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  • An Exploratory Comparison of Ethical Perceptions of Mexican and U.S. Marketers.Janet Marta, Christina M. Heiss & Steven A. De Lurgio - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):539 - 555.
    This is a study of the effects of a number of background variables on ethical perceptions of Mexican and U.S. marketers. This research investigates how a marketer's personal religiousness, relativism, and the ethical values influence in perceptions of the degree of ethical problems in hypothetical marketing scenarios. It also examines differences between Mexican and U.S. marketers on these variables. The results show significant differences in perception between the countries, and we discuss the implications of these differences for cross-cultural business activities.
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  • Does Consumer Unethical Behavior Relate to Birthplace? Evidence from China.BaoChun Zhao & ShanShan Xu - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):475-488.
    This study explores the relationship between individual birthplace [rural birthplace (RB) and urban birthplace (UB)] and consumer unethical behavior (CUB). As a result, CUB is verified to closely relate to individual birthplace, and those new urban residents with RB are found to behave more ethically than the patrimonial urban residents with UB in CUB4 (“no harm/no foul”). This study also finds that the differentiation of CUB between two categories of consumers is correlated with the personal moral ideology or Machiavellianism (MA) (...)
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  • A Social Cognitive Perspective on the Relationships Between Ethics Education, Moral Attentiveness, and PRESOR.Kurt Wurthmann - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):131-153.
    This research examines the relationships between education in business ethics, Reynolds’s (J Appl Psychol 93:1027–1041, 2008) “moral attentiveness” construct, or the extent to which individuals chronically perceive and reflect on morality and moral elements in their experiences, and Singhapakdi et al.’s (J Bus Ethics 15:1131–1140, 1996) measure of perceptions of the role of ethics and social responsibility (PRESOR). Education in business ethics was found to be positively associated with the two identified factors of moral attentiveness, “reflective” and “perceptual” moral attentiveness, (...)
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  • The ethical orientations of Chinese auditors and the effect on the judgements they make.Gordon Woodbine, Ying Han Fan & Glennda Scully - 2012 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):195-216.
    A study of 612 CPAs employed in four separate regions of the People’s Republic of China shows that they exhibit ethical orientations that are not significantly different from one another and that they do not, as a group identify with the Subjectivist description provided in the Forsyth et al. (Journal of Business Ethics 8(83):813–833, 2008) meta-analytic international study involving the Ethical Position Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis did however establish the validity of the instrument as a measure of idealistic and relativistic (...)
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  • Individual Differences in the Acceptability of Unethical Information Technology Practices: The Case of Machiavellianism and Ethical Ideology.Susan J. Winter, Antonis C. Stylianou & Robert A. Giacalone - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (3):275-296.
    While information technologies present organizations with opportunities to become more competitive, unsettled social norms and lagging legislation guiding the use of these technologies present organizations and individuals with ethical dilemmas. This paper presents two studies investigating the relationship between intellectual property and privacy attitudes, Machiavellianism and Ethical Ideology, and working in R&D and computer literacy in the form of programming experience. In Study 1, Machiavellians believed it was more acceptable to ignore the intellectual property and privacy rights of others. Programmers (...)
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  • The effect of cognitive moral development and supverisory influence on subordinates' ethical behavior.James C. Wimbush - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (4):383 - 395.
    The paper examines how supervisory influence and cognitive moral development influence subordinates' ethical decision-making and ethical behavior. The proposed interactive effect these major variables have on subordinates' ethical considerations are examined with respect to: (1) before an ethical dilemma occurs, (2) when faced with an ethical dilemma, (3) during the decision process, and (4) after ethical or unethical behavior has been executed. Propositions are presented and implications for research and practice are discussed.
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  • Contrasts in moral reasoning capacity: The fijians and the singaporeans. [REVIEW]Jayantha S. Wimalasiri - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3):251-272.
    The moral reasoning capacity of managementstudents in Fiji and in Singapore, twoculturally distinct nations, was examinedusing the Defining Issue Test (DIT). Statistical analyses of the data revealed amarked difference in the reasoning capacity of thetwo groups. In the Fiji sample, religion andrace were found to have a moderating effect onmoral judgment. In the Singapore sample, age,race and religion were found to have asignificant correlation with moral judgment. The data were subjected to paired-samplest-tests using p-score as a dependent variable. The results (...)
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  • The relationship amongst ethical position, religiosity and self-identified culture in student nurses.Jane H. White, Anne Griswold Peirce & William Jacobowitz - 2019 - Nursing Ethics 26 (7-8):2398-2412.
    Background/purpose:Research from other disciplines demonstrates that ethical position, idealism, or relativism predicts ethical decision-making. Individuals from diverse cultures ascribe to various religious beliefs and studies have found that religiosity and culture affect ethical decision-making. Moreover, little literature exists regarding undergraduate nursing students’ ethical position; no studies have been conducted in the United States on students’ ethical position, their self-identified culture, and intrinsic religiosity despite an increase in the diversity of nursing students across the United States.Participants and Research Context Objectives:The study’s (...)
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  • The Antecedents of Moral Imagination in the Workplace: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective. [REVIEW]Brian G. Whitaker & Lindsey N. Godwin - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):61-73.
    As corporate scandals proliferate, organizational researchers and practitioners have made calls for research providing guidance for those wishing to influence positive moral decision-making and behavior in the workplace. This study incorporates social cognitive theory and a vignette-based cognitive measure for moral imagination to examine (a) moral attentiveness and employee creativity as important antecedents of moral imagination and (b) creativity as a moderator of the positive relationship between moral attentiveness and moral imagination. Based on the results from supervisor–subordinate dyadic data (N (...)
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  • Applying Metaethical and Normative Claims of Moral Relativism to (Shareholder and Stakeholder) Models of Corporate Governance.Andrew West - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 135 (2):199-215.
    There has, in recent decades, been considerable scholarship regarding the moral aspects of corporate governance, and differences in corporate governance practices around the world have been widely documented and investigated. In such a context, the claims associated with moral relativism are relevant. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed consideration of how the metaethical and normative claims of moral relativism in particular can be applied to corporate governance. This objective is achieved, firstly, by reviewing what is meant (...)
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  • Is Business Ethics Education Effective? An Analysis of Gender, Personal Ethical Perspectives, and Moral Judgment.Liz C. Wang & Lisa Calvano - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):591-602.
    Although ethics instruction has become an accepted part of the business school curriculum at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, some scholars have questioned its effectiveness, and research results have been mixed. However, studies yield interesting results regarding certain factors that influence the ethicality of business students and may impact the effectiveness of business ethics instruction. One of these factors is gender. Using personal and business ethics scenarios, we examine the main and interactive effects of gender and business ethics education (...)
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  • The Dilemma of Postmodern Business Ethics: Employee Reification in a Perspective of Preserving Human Dignity.Jolita Vveinhardt - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Management practices prevailing in business organizations receive considerable criticism for often treating the employee as one of many resources or an instrument to achieve the organization’s goals. As employee reification has so far been largely investigated in the scientific literature from the perspective of neo-Marxist approach, this article seeks to broaden the discussion by showing how social teaching of the Catholic Church can serve to solve the problem of reification. Although there is no doubt that universal norms of business ethics (...)
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  • The Impact of Corporate Ethical Values and Enforcement of Ethical Codes on the Perceived Importance of Ethics in Business: A Comparison of U.S. and Spanish Managers.Scott J. Vitell & Encarnación Ramos Hidalgo - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):31-43.
    This two country study examines the effect of corporate ethical values and enforcement of a code of ethics on perceptions of the role of ethics in the overall success of the firm. Additionally, the impact of organizational commitment and of individual variables such as ethical idealism and relativism was examined. The rationale for examining the perceived importance of the role of ethics in this manner is to determine the extent to which the organization itself can influence employee perceptions regarding ethics (...)
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  • The Role of Ethics Institutionalization in Influencing Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Esprit de Corps.Scott John Vitell & Anusorn Singhapakdi - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):343-353.
    Given increasing ethical problems in business, many organizations have tried to control these problems by institutionalizing ethics such as by creating new ethics positions and formulating and enforcing codes of ethics. In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit forms of institutionalization of ethics on job satisfaction, esprit de corps, and organizational commitment for marketing professionals is investigated. Additionally, the influence of organizational socialization, ethical relativism, and age relative to each of the above organizational climate constructs is examined. Results (...)
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  • The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility in Organizational Success: A Spanish Perspective.Scott John Vitell, Encarnación Ramos & Ceri M. Nishihara - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):467-483.
    Ethics has assumed a dominant position in the current economic debate, and this study focuses on ethics as a legitimate underpinning to good business decision making. Using a self-response survey of marketing managers in Spain, the current theory on ethical decision making is extended. Results support the mediating influence of the PRESOR construct (an individual’s perception of the importance of ethics and social responsibility for the effectiveness of the organization) on relativistic and idealistic moral thinking when one is considering the (...)
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  • A cross‐cultural study of the antecedents of the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility.Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2004 - Business Ethics 13 (2-3):185-199.
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  • The Joint Effect of Ethical Idealism and Trait Skepticism on Auditors’ Fraud Detection.Inez G. F. Verwey & Stephen K. Asare - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 176 (2):381-395.
    Although regulators have identified ethical lapses as a key factor contributing to auditors’ failure to detect their clients’ fraudulent financial reporting, research using ethical theory to examine auditors’ fraud detection remains limited. We provide evidence on the joint effect of ethical idealism and trait skepticism on auditors’ fraud judgments. Ethical idealism reflects an individual’s concern for the welfare of others while trait skepticism reflects an individual’s disposition to validating a proposition. Forsyth theorizes that there is an association between ethical idealism (...)
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  • Luxury Ethical Consumers: Who Are They?Joëlle Vanhamme, Adam Lindgreen & Gülen Sarial-Abi - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 183 (3):805-838.
    Building on a model of the biological, socio-psychological, and structural drivers of luxury consumption, this article explores when and why luxury consumers consider ethics in their luxury consumption practices, to identify differences in their ethical and ethical luxury consumption. The variables proposed to explain these differences derive from biological, socio-psychological, and structural drivers, namely, consumers’ (1) age, (2) ethicality, (3) human values, (4) motivations, and (5) assumptive world. A cluster analysis of a sample of 706 U.S. adult luxury consumers reveals (...)
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  • Generation Y’s Ethical Ideology and Its Potential Workplace Implications.Rebecca A. VanMeter, Douglas B. Grisaffe, Lawrence B. Chonko & James A. Roberts - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (1):93-109.
    Generation Y is a cohort of the population larger than the baby boom generation. Consisting of approximately 80 million people born between 1981 and 2000, Generation Y is the most recent cohort to enter the workforce. Workplaces are being redefined and organizations are being pressed to adapt as this new wave of workers is infused into business environments. One critical aspect of this phenomenon not receiving sufficient research attention is the impact of Gen Y ethical beliefs and ethical conduct in (...)
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  • The Impact of Ethical Ideologies, Moral Intensity, and Social Context on Sales-Based Ethical Reasoning.Sean R. Valentine & Connie R. Bateman - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):155-168.
    Previous research indicates that ethical ideologies, issue-contingencies, and social context can impact ethical reasoning in different business situations. However, the manner in which these constructs work together to shape different steps of the ethical decision-making process is not always clear. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring the influence of idealism and relativism, perceived moral intensity in a decision-making situation, and social context on the recognition of an ethical issue and ethical intention. Utilizing a sales-based (...)
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  • An Exploration of Factors Affecting Work Anomia.Eva E. Tsahuridu - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (2):297 - 305.
    Anomie, a societal and anomia an individual characteristic is employed to understand the behaviour of people and more recently it has been used to explore and understand the moral behaviour of people at work. This article reports on research undertaken to explore the relationship between organisational interest, ethical ideologies, employment, religion and ethnic origin on work and nonwork anomia. An objective of this research was to ascertain whether participants that were not employed had lower levels of work-related anomia than those (...)
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  • Perception of Business Bribery in China: the Impact of Moral Philosophy.Qing Tian - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):437-445.
    This paper examines the impact of Chinese business managers’ moral philosophies on the perception of corrupt payments such as bribery, kickbacks and gift giving. Business managers from Mainland China were selected as target respondents. As hypothesized the survey results generally indicate that moral relativism is a significant predictor of Chinese business managers’ favorable perception of bribery and kickbacks. In examining the attitude toward gift giving, the survey showed that an individual’s attitude toward gift giving was neither affected by their moral (...)
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  • Measuring Professional Ethics in Coaching: Development of the PISC-Q.Melissa Thompson & Kristen Dieffenbach - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (6):507-523.
    Sport is commonly lauded as the ideal place for participants to learn life skills. However, concerns related to the “win-centered” sport culture has spurred research into ethical behaviors in sport. The purpose of the present study was to create a measure of professional ethics in coaching. Students enrolled in a collegiate coaching education course responded to a series of vignettes related to common situations in the coaching profession. Results indicate the Professional Issues in Sport Coaching Questionnaire is an acceptable measure (...)
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  • The Use of Genetic Testing Information in the Insurance Industry: An Ethical and Societal Analysis of Public Policy Options.Paul Thistle, Gene Laczniak & Alexander Nill - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (1):105-121.
    Informed by a search of the literature about the usage of genetic testing information (GTI) by insurance companies, this paper presents a practical ethical analysis of several distinct public policy options that might be used to govern or constrain GTI usage by insurance providers. As medical research advances and the extension to the Human Genome Project (2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/human_genome_project_-_write) moves to its fullness over the next decade, such research efforts will allow the full synthesis of human DNA to be connected to (...)
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  • Ethical business strategy between east and west: an analysis of minimum wage policy in the garment global supply chain industry of Bangladesh.Robayet Ferdous Syed - 2020 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 9 (2):241-255.
    There are two primary purposes of this manuscript: (i) to evaluate the western buyers’ ethical issue in the setting of eastern and western economies, and (ii) to assess the ethical values of the employers and the government in their business dealing in the background of Bangladesh. Analyzing the present minimum wage (MW) policy of the garment global supply chain industry in Bangladesh and the extent to which the policy functions are two of the other purposes of this study. This study (...)
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  • The Mediating Role of Anticipated Guilt in Consumers' Ethical Decision-Making.Sarah Steenhaut & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (3):269 - 288.
    In this paper, we theorize that the anticipation of guilt plays an important role in ethically questionable consumer situations. We propose an ethical decision-making framework incorporating anticipated guilt as partial mediator between consumers' ethical beliefs (anteceded by ethical ideology) and intentions. In the first study, we compared several models using structural equation modeling and found empirical support for our research model. A second experiment was set up to illustrate how these new insights may be applied to prevent consumers from taking (...)
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  • Who Shall Lead Us? How Cultural Values and Ethical Ideologies Guide Young Marketers' Evaluations of the Transformational Manager—Leader.Brent Smith - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (4):633 - 645.
    Today's young marketers transition from schools and into the workforce with a variety of career options in sales, advertising, and general marketing after graduation. Beyond their discipline-specific knowledge of market research, consumer behavior, and marketing communications, these individuals bring along their own set of personal values and ideologies that may influence how they engage the people, personalities, and priorities of the business organization. As new generations of young professionals enter the publicly scrutinized fields of sales and marketing, they are expected (...)
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  • Who Shall Lead Us? How Cultural Values and Ethical Ideologies Guide Young Marketers’ Evaluations of the Transformational Manager–Leader.Brent Smith - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (4):633-645.
    Today’s young marketers transition from schools and into the workforce with a variety of career options in sales, advertising, and general marketing after graduation. Beyond their discipline-specific knowledge of market research, consumer behavior, and marketing communications, these individuals bring along their own set of personal values and ideologies that may influence how they engage the people, personalities, and priorities of the business organization. As new generations of young professionals enter the publicly scrutinized fields of sales and marketing, they are expected (...)
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  • Toward an understanding of religiousness and marketing ethics: An empirical study. [REVIEW]Anusorn Singhapakdi, Janet K. Marta, Kumar C. Rallapalli & C. P. Rao - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (4):305 - 319.
    This study examines the influence of religiousness on different components of marketing professionals' ethical decision making: personal moral philosophies, perceived ethical problem, and ethical intentions. The data are from a national survey of the American Marketing Associations' professional members. The results generally indicate that the religiousness of a marketer can partially explain his or her perception of an ethical problem and behavioral intentions. Results also suggest that the religiousness significantly influences the personal moral philosophies of marketers.
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  • Paradigms Linked: A Normative-Empirical Dialogue about Business Ethics.M. S. Singer - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (3):481-496.
    Abstract:The present paper focuses on the linkage between two academic paradigms in the enquiry into business ethics: normative philosophy and empirical social sciences. The paper first reviews existing research pertaining to a normative-empirical dialogue. Further empirical data on the relationship between various standards of morality are discussed in relation to the normative frameworks of ethics. Lastly, future directions for such a dialogue in business ethics are suggested.
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  • Paradigms Linked: A Normative-Empirical Dialogue about Business Ethics.M. S. Singer - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (3):481-496.
    Abstract:The present paper focuses on the linkage between two academic paradigms in the enquiry into business ethics: normative philosophy and empirical social sciences. The paper first reviews existing research pertaining to a normative-empirical dialogue. Further empirical data on the relationship between various standards of morality are discussed in relation to the normative frameworks of ethics. Lastly, future directions for such a dialogue in business ethics are suggested.
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  • Is cross-cultural similarity an indicator of similar marketing ethics?Anusorn Singhapakdi, Janet K. M. Marta, C. P. Rao & Muris Cicic - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (1):55 - 68.
    This study compares Australian marketers with those in the United States along lines that are particular to the study of ethics. The test measured two different moral philosophies, idealism and relativism, and compared perceptions of ethical problems, ethical intentions, and corporate ethical values. According to Hofstede''s cultural typologies, there should be little difference between American and Australian marketers, but the study did find significant differences. Australians tended to be more idealistic and more relativistic than Americans and the other results were (...)
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  • Ethics gap: Comparing marketers with consumers on important determinants of ethical decision-making. [REVIEW]Anusorn Singhapakdi, Scott J. Vitell, C. P. Rao & David L. Kurtz - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (4):317 - 328.
    Studies in marketing ethics often revealed that ethical gaps do exist between marketers and other groups in society. The existence of these ethical gaps could be extremely counterproductive for marketing management. In order to effectively narrow these gaps, a marketing manager must first have a better understanding of causes of these gaps. To this end, this study compares marketing professionals with consumers on some important determinants of the ethical decision-making process. In particular, the marketers and consumers were compared with respect (...)
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  • Ethical and fair work behaviour: A normative-empirical dialogue concerning ethics and justice. [REVIEW]M. S. Singer - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 28 (3):187 - 209.
    Towards the general goal of generating a normative-empirical dialogue about ethics and justice, the present study explored three issues: (1) the extent to which the normative criteria of ethics and justice prescribed by moral philosophers are indeed reflected in managerial professionals' subjective beliefs of what ethical and just work behaviour ought to be, (2) the relationship between people's ought beliefs and their perceptions of actual ethical and just work behaviour, and (3) the relationship between the notions of ethics and justice. (...)
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  • Antecedents and Consequences of Perceived Importance of Ethics in Marketing Situations: A Study of Thai Businesspeople.Anusorn Singhapakdi, Mahesh Gopinath, Janet K. Marta & Larry L. Carter - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):887-904.
    Building on an existing framework concerning ethical intention, this research explores how Thai business people perceive the importance of ethics in various scenarios. This study investigates the relative influences of personal characteristics and the organizational environment underlying the Thai business people’s ethical perception. Corporate ethical values and idealism are shown to positively influence a Thai manager’s perceptions about the importance of ethics. While their ability to perceive the existence of an ethical problem is negatively influenced by relativism, it is positively (...)
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  • Influence of ethical ideology on job stress.Abhishek Shukla & Rajeev Srivastava - 2017 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):233-254.
    The relationship between ethical ideology and job stress appears to be complex. This study is based on a model presented by Forsyth (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39:175, 1980), showing two dimensions (idealism and relativism) that play an important role in ethical evaluation and behavior. Based on a survey of 561 employees of hotel industry in India, ethical ideologies were found to be negatively associated with job stress. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and multiple regressions. The result (...)
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  • Moral Reactions to Bribery are Fundamentally Different for Managers Witnessing and Managers Committing Such Acts: Tests of Cognitive-Emotional Explanations of Bribery.Ekta Sharma & Richard P. Bagozzi - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 177 (1):95-124.
    We investigate how paying a bribe or refusing a bribe differs between observing others doing this or committing such acts oneself. Study 1 examines how and when observing others paying a bribe or refusing a bribe leads to actions opposing bribery or supporting anti-bribery. The how question is answered by showing that positive and negative emotions mediate such responses; the when question is answered by demonstrating that empathy and the social self-concept constitute personal conditions for regulating such effects. Study 2 (...)
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  • A cross-cultural study of the antecedents of the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility.Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2004 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 13 (2-3):185-199.
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  • The Influence of Consumers’ Cognitive and Psychographic Traits on Perceived Deception: A Comparison Between Online and Offline Retailing Contexts.Isabel P. Riquelme & Sergio Román - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (3):405-422.
    In this article, we examine the role of several consumers’ cognitive and psychographic traits in their perceptions of retailers’ deceptive practices and the different effects on perceived deception associated with online vis-à-vis in-store shopping. Building on theoretical models of persuasion in consumer behavior, we hypothesize that the antecedents of perceived deception in traditional settings are the same as those on the Internet, while the intensity of the impact of these antecedents differs between the online and the offline environment. Results suggest (...)
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  • The relationships among consumers’ ethical ideology, risk aversion and ethically-based distrust of online retailers and the moderating role of consumers’ need for personal interaction.Isabel P. Riquelme & Sergio Román - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (2):135-155.
    Consumer distrust is only recently beginning to be perceived as an important e-commerce issue and, unlike online trust, the nature and role of distrust is much less established. This study examines the influence of two important consumer characteristics on consumer’s ethically-based distrust of online retailers. Also, the moderating role of consumer’s need for personal contact with sales staff is tested. Results from 409 online consumers confirm that both relativist-based ethical ideology and risk aversion are strongly and positively related to consumers’ (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Ethical Beliefs of Turkish and American Consumers.Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Ziad Swaidan & Mine Oyman - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):183-195.
    The ethical climate in Turkey is beset by ethical problems. Bribery, environmental pollution, tax frauds, deceptive advertising, production of unsafe products, and the ethical violations that involved politicians and business professionals are just a few examples. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the ethical beliefs of American and Turkish consumers using the Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) of Forsyth (1980), the Machiavellianism scale, and the Consumer Ethical Practices of Muncy and Vitell questionnaire (MVQ). A sample of 376 (...)
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  • A cross-cultural investigation of the ethical values of consumers: The potential effect of war and civil disruption. [REVIEW]Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Gordon L. Patzer & Scott J. Vitell - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):435 - 448.
    Past research has examined the ethical judgments of consumers in the U.S., but few studies have investigated such attitudes in foreign-market settings. The current study compares ethical attitudes of consumers in two countries (Ireland and Lebanon) which share a cultural similarity of ongoing war and terrorism. The findings reveal that both cultures exhibit low sensitivity to ethical issues. Furthermore, the findings show that the Irish consumers are less sensitive to consumer ethical practices, less idealistic, more relativistic, and more Machiavellian than (...)
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  • Ethical ideologies among senior managers in China.Bala Ramasamy & Matthew C. H. Yeung - 2013 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):129-145.
    The ethical judgment of Chinese business leaders has become increasingly important particularly due to the important role that China plays in the global economy. Previous studies tend to categorize Chinese managers as more relativist and thus more lenient in their ethical judgments. In this study we survey 256 senior managers from mainland China and find that they are in fact less relativist and more idealist than the global average. A significant portion of them are absolutists which imply that these managers (...)
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  • Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min-Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu, María Teresa Garza Carranza, Ping Ping Fu, Vojko V. Potocan, Andre Pekerti, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Erna Szabo, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer, Prem Ramburuth, David M. Brock, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Ilya Grison, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Malika Richards, Philip Hallinger, Francisco B. Castro, Jaime Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Laurie Milton, Mahfooz Ansari, Arunas Starkus, Audra Mockaitis, Tevfik Dalgic, Fidel León-Darder, Hung Vu Thanh, Yong-lin Moon, Mario Molteni, Yongqing Fang, Jose Pla-Barber, Ruth Alas, Isabelle Maignan, Jorge C. Jesuino, Chay-Hoon Lee, Joel D. Nicholson, Ho-Beng Chia, Wade Danis, Ajantha S. Dharmasiri & Mark Weber - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306.
    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to (...)
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  • Varying versions of moral relativism: the philosophy and psychology of normative relativism.Katinka J. P. Quintelier & Daniel M. T. Fessler - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (1):95-113.
    Among naturalist philosophers, both defenders and opponents of moral relativism argue that prescriptive moral theories (or normative theories) should be constrained by empirical findings about human psychology. Empiricists have asked if people are or can be moral relativists, and what effect being a moral relativist can have on an individual’s moral functioning. This research is underutilized in philosophers’ normative theories of relativism; at the same time, the empirical work, while useful, is conceptually disjointed. Our goal is to integrate philosophical and (...)
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  • Attitudes of Business Students' Toward Plagiarism.Chun Hoo Quah, Natalie Stewart & Jason Wai Chow Lee - 2012 - Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (3):185-199.
    This research examines the ethical orientations of students (ethical idealism, ethical relativism and Machiavellianism) towards their attitude to plagiarize. It also examines the moderating effect of religious orientation on the relationship of the independent variables toward students’ attitude towards plagiarism. Data was collected from 160 business diploma and undergraduate students from a local private college and a local public university in Malaysia. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that ethical relativism and Machiavellianism had a positive relationship with students’ attitude (...)
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  • The Relationships Between Ethical Climates, Ethical Ideologies and Organisational Commitment Within Indonesian Higher Education Institutions.Martinus Parnawa Putranta & Russel Philip John Kingshott - 2011 - Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (1):43-60.
    This research aimed to assess the potential of alternatives to extrinsic pecuniary rewards for cultivating employees’ commitment in denominational higher education institutions in Indonesia. Two ethics-related variables, namely ethical climates and ethical ideologies, were chosen as possible predictors. A model delineating the nexus between ethical climates types, ethical ideologies, and various forms of organisational commitment was developed and tested. A two-step structural equation modelling procedure was used as the primary means in testing the hypothesised relationships. The research involved staff of (...)
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  • Consequences of concern: ethics, social responsibility, and well-being.Mark D. Promislo, Robert A. Giacalone & Jeremy Welch - 2012 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 21 (2):209-219.
    Prior research has studied the antecedents of beliefs regarding ethics and social responsibility (ESR). However, few studies have examined how individual well-being may be related to such beliefs. In this exploratory study, we assessed the relationship between perceived importance of ESR – both individually and of one's company – and indicators of physical and psychological well-being. Results demonstrated that perceived importance of ESR was associated with three aspects of well-being: exuberance for life, sleep problems, and job stress. The results are (...)
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  • Consequences of concern: ethics, social responsibility, and well-being.Mark D. Promislo, Robert A. Giacalone & Jeremy Welch - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (2):209-219.
    Prior research has studied the antecedents of beliefs regarding ethics and social responsibility (ESR). However, few studies have examined how individual well‐being may be related to such beliefs. In this exploratory study, we assessed the relationship between perceived importance of ESR – both individually and of one's company – and indicators of physical and psychological well‐being. Results demonstrated that perceived importance of ESR was associated with three aspects of well‐being: exuberance for life, sleep problems, and job stress. The results are (...)
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